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Mona Aarenstrup Karlsen, Carsten Fagö-Olsen, Estrid Høgdall, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Ib Jarle Christensen, Lotte Nedergaard, Lene Lundvall, Magnus Christian Lydolph, Svend Aage Engelholm, Claus Høgdall
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel index for preoperative, non-invasive prediction of complete primary cytoreduction in patients with FIGO stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Prospectively collected clinical data was registered in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. Blood samples were collected within 14 days of surgery and stored by the Danish CancerBiobank. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125), age, performance status, and presence/absence of ascites at ultrasonography were evaluated individually and combined to predict complete tumor removal...
July 20, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Natalie A Phillips
This review article considers some of the age-related changes in cognition that are likely to interact with hearing, listening effort, and cognitive energy. The focus of the review is on normative age-related changes in cognition; however, consideration is also given to older adults who experience clinically significant deficits in cognition, such as persons with Alzheimer's disease or who may be in a preclinical stage of dementia (mild cognitive impairment). The article distinguishes between the assessment of cognitive function for clinical versus research purposes...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
Alessandro Salice, Alba Montes Sánchez
Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Charlotte E Hartwright, Robert M Hardwick, Ian A Apperly, Peter C Hansen
When required to represent a perspective that conflicts with one's own, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rvlPFC) supports the inhibition of that conflicting self-perspective. The present task dissociated inhibition of self-perspective from other executive control processes by contrasting belief reasoning-a cognitive state where the presence of conflicting perspectives was manipulated-with a conative desire state wherein no systematic conflict existed...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
S Omelchuk, L Lymar
The article describes the results of the psychological readiness for performing professional duties study performed in 2010-2015 among the O.Bogomolets' National medical university students; contains analysis of the gender and professional factors of the readiness. The authors have described the results obtained in motivation, cognitive, conative, emotional and communicative components of the psychological readiness by using the classic and author authentic methods. It has been estimated that the female respondents are characterized by a higher level of psychological readiness than the male ones, which may be explained due to higher female conformity resulting from higher demands for profession...
February 2016: Georgian Medical News
Rubén Miranda, Flora Nagapin, Bruno Bozon, Serge Laroche, Thierry Aubin, Cyrille Vaillend
BACKGROUND: The Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) show significant comorbid diagnosis for autism, and the genomic sequences encoding the proteins responsible for these diseases, the dystrophin and associated proteins, have been proposed as new candidate risk loci for autism. Dystrophin is expressed not only in muscles but also in central inhibitory synapses in the cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex, where it contributes to the organization of autism-associated trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin complexes and to the clustering of synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors...
2015: Molecular Autism
P Johansson, Ö Dahlström, U Dahlström, U Alehagen
BACKGROUND: The impact of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on health-care usage and health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in community-dwelling elderly people has, to our knowledge, not previously been investigated. AIM: To investigate the effect of 48 months supplementation with CoQ10 and selenium on community-dwelling elderly as regards: (I) the number of days out of hospital, and (II) the effect on Hr-QoL. METHODS: A 48-month double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out...
November 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi
This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions...
February 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Konstantinos Tsirigotis, Wojciech Gruszczyński, Marta Tsirigotis-Maniecka
Behaviours causing harm to the individual are generally called self-destructive behaviours. For some time now, direct/acute self-destructiveness has been distinguished from indirect/chronic self-destructiveness. Indirectly self-destructive behaviours occur not only in healthy people (examined in most of the studies) but also in mentally ill individuals, which has not been researched. The aim of this study has been to explore psychopathological (clinical) predictors of indirect self-destructiveness in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Hugues Duffau
Despite advances in the new science of connectomics, which aims to comprehensively map neural connections at both structural and functional levels, techniques to directly study the function of white matter tracts in vivo in humans have proved elusive. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) mapping of the subcortical fibres offers a unique opportunity to investigate the functional connectivity of the brain. This original method permits real-time anatomo-functional correlations, especially with regard to neural pathways, in awake patients undergoing brain surgery...
May 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Aleksandar Momirović, Helena Gjurić, Martina Goluban
BACKGROUND: The series of personality questionnaires constructed using a computer was created on the basis of cybernetic theories of personality, which presupposes the existence of six conative control systems: a system for the regulation of defense responses, a system for the regulation of attack responses, a system for controlling physiological functions, a system for coordination of regulatory functions, system for integration of regulatory functions and system for regulation of activity...
December 2014: Psychiatria Danubina
Olivier Dieu, Thomas Blondeau, Jérémy Vanhelst, Paul S Fardy, Gilles Bui-Xuân, Jacques Mikulovic
Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics)...
October 2014: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Peter A Hall, Geoffrey T Fong, Lynette J Epp, Lorin J Elias
Dominant theories of health behavior posit that social-cognitive and conative variables are sufficient to explain health behavior tendencies. The current studies challenge this assumption in two ways: (1) by demonstrating that unique variance in health protective behavior is predictable by knowing about individual differences in executive functioning, and (2) by demonstrating that executive function moderates the association between intention and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, participants completed a computer-based task of executive function (Go/NoGo task) and articulated 1-week behavioral intentions for physical activity (Study 1) and dietary behavior (Study 2)...
2008: Psychology & Health
Leonardo C de Souza, Henrique C Guimarães, Antônio L Teixeira, Paulo Caramelli, Richard Levy, Bruno Dubois, Emmanuelle Volle
Concepts from cognitive neuroscience strongly suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in the cognitive functions necessary for creative thinking. Functional imaging studies have repeatedly demonstrated the involvement of PFC in creativity tasks. Patient studies have demonstrated that frontal damage due to focal lesions or neurodegenerative diseases are associated with impairments in various creativity tasks. However, against all odds, a series of clinical observations has reported the facilitation of artistic production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting PFC, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristen E Robinson, Stephanie Fountain-Zaragoza, Maureen Dennis, H Gerry Taylor, Erin D Bigler, Kenneth Rubin, Kathryn Vannatta, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Terry Stancin, Keith Owen Yeates
This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Neurotrauma
Guendalina Graffigna, Serena Barello, Chiara Libreri, Claudio A Bosio
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement (PE) is increasingly regarded as a key factor in the improvement of health behaviors and outcomes in the management of chronic disease, such as type 2 diabetes. This article explores (1) the reasons for disengagement of diabetic patients and their unique subjective attitudes from their experience and (2) the elements that may hinder PE in health management. METHODS: 29 Type-2 uncontrolled diabetes patients were asked to keep a one-week diary related to their experience of disease management, according to the narrative inquiry qualitative approach...
2014: BMC Public Health
K Richard Ridderinkhof
The present analysis aims at a theoretical integration of, and a systems-neuroscience perspective on, a variety of historical and contemporary views on perception-action coordination (PAC). We set out to determine the common principles or lawful linkages between sensory and motor systems that explain how perception is action-oriented and how action is perceptually guided. To this end, we analyze the key ingredients to such an integrated framework, examine the architecture of dual-system conjectures of PAC, and endeavor in an historical analysis of the key characteristics, mechanisms, and phenomena of PACs...
October 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Eric L Garland, Amelia Roberts-Lewis, Karen Kelley, Christine Tronnier, Adam Hanley
The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -...
April 2014: Substance Use & Misuse
Thomas Douglas
It is plausible that we have moral reasons to become better at conforming to our moral reasons. However, it is not always clear what means to greater moral conformity we should adopt. John Harris has recently argued that we have reason to adopt traditional, deliberative means in preference to means that alter our affective or conative states directly-that is, without engaging our deliberative faculties. One of Harris' concerns about direct means is that they would produce only a superficial kind of moral improvement...
2014: Neuroethics
Milan Mirkovic, Petar Vrgovic, Dubravko Culibrk, Darko Stefanovic, Andras Anderla
Video quality as perceived by human observers is the ground truth when Video Quality Assessment (VQA) is in question. It is dependent on many variables, one of them being the content of the video that is being evaluated. Despite the evidence that content has an impact on the quality score the sequence receives from human evaluators, currently available VQA databases mostly comprise of sequences which fail to take this into account. In this paper, we aim to identify and analyze differences between human cognitive, affective, and conative responses to a set of videos commonly used for VQA and a set of videos specifically chosen to include video content which might affect the judgment of evaluators when perceived video quality is in question...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
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