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Disorder diminished motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888175/solitary-drinking-is-associated-with-specific-alcohol-problems-in-emerging-adults
#1
Matthew T Keough, Roisin M O'Connor, Sherry H Stewart
Hazardous drinking in emerging adulthood is associated with multiple domains of alcohol problems, which range in type and severity. Alcohol problems at the severe end of the spectrum (e.g., impaired control) may be early warning signs of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among emerging adults. However, given the emphasis in the literature on predictors of overall problem risk, we still know very little about predictors of these specific (and severe) domains of alcohol problems in emerging adults. Many emerging adults drink at social events (e...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#2
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630479/attention-cognitive-control-and-motivation-in-adhd-linking-event-related-brain-potentials-and-dna-methylation-patterns-in-boys-at-early-school-age
#3
Hartmut Heinrich, Juliane Grunitz, Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Simone Wahl, Björn Albrecht, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Peter A Fasching, Gunther H Moll, Anna Eichler
In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555883/depression-symptom-dimensions-and-asymmetrical-frontal-cortical-activity-while-anticipating-reward
#4
Brady D Nelson, Ellen M Kessel, Daniel N Klein, Stewart A Shankman
Unipolar depression has been characterized as involving diminished approach motivation and reward sensitivity. A psychophysiological indicator of approach motivation involves an asymmetry in frontal EEG activity, such that greater left relative to right frontal cortical activity indicates increased approach motivation. Consistent with the perspective of reduced approach motivation tendencies, depression has been associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. To date, supporting research has primarily relied on categorical diagnoses or composite symptom counts...
May 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514402/-psychoemotional-and-autonomic-states-in-patients-with-cholelithiasis
#5
Ya M Vakhrushev, N A Khokhlacheva, N N Sergeeva
AIM: To investigate the psychoemotional and autonomic states of patients with biliary system diseases and to determine their significance in the development of cholelithiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 396 patients with stage 1 cholelithiasis were examined. The results of hepatobiliary ultrasonography, multifractional duodenal probing, followed by macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical examinations of bile (the total concentration of bile acids and cholesterol, by subsequently calculating the cholate-cholesterol ratio) were used to verify the diagnosis...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456569/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-gambling-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#6
REVIEW
Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Franco De Crescenzo, Luisa De Risio, Luigi di Nuzzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Angelo Bifone, Luigi Janiri, Marco Di Nicola
Decreased cognitive control over the urge to be involved in gambling activities is a core feature of Gambling Disorder (GD). Cognitive control can be differentiated into several cognitive sub-processes pivotal in GD clinical phenomenology, such as response inhibition, conflict monitoring, decision-making, and cognitive flexibility. This article aims to systematically review fMRI studies, which investigated the neural mechanisms underlying diminished cognitive control in GD. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and collected neuropsychological and neuroimaging data investigating cognitive control in GD...
July 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444963/the-influence-of-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-on-the-processing-of-approach-and-withdrawal-related-stimuli-a-multichannel-psychophysiology-study
#7
Dirk Adolph, Michael von Glischinski, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
The approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric activation suggests that left frontal cortical areas mediate approach, while right frontal cortical areas mediate withdrawal motivation. Within this framework, the present study investigates the association of frontal cortical asymmetry with attentional and emotional responses toward approach- and withdrawal-related emotional stimuli. Resting frontal asymmetry was measured from 43 students before they passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive emotional pictures...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306258/liquid-structure-of-bis-trifluoromethylsulfonyl-imide-based-ionic-liquids-assessed-by-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#8
Cassie Kimble, Christopher M Burba
Ionic liquids are a fertile and active area of research, in part, due to the unique properties these solvents offer over traditional molecular solvents. Because these properties are rooted in the fundamental ion-ion interactions that govern their liquid structure, there is a strong motivation to characterize the liquid structure of ionic liquids. Infrared spectroscopy is a standard analytical tool for assessing liquid structures, for the intramolecular vibrational modes of the ions composing the materials are often quite sensitive to their local potential energy environment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114093/-cotard-s-syndrome-case-report-and-a-brief-review-of-literature
#9
REVIEW
N P Moschopoulos, S Kaprinis, J Nimatoudis
The term "Cotard's syndrome" is used to describe a number of clinical features, mostly hypochondriac and nihilistic delusions, the most characteristic of which are the ideas "I am dead" and "my internal organs do not exist". Besides, anxious and depressed mood, delusions of damnation, possession and immortality, suicidal and self-mutilating behavior are included. The first description of the syndrome was made in 1880 by Cotard, who presented the case of a female patient in a lecture. He originally named it "hypochondriac delusion", and some years later "delusion of negations", while it was named "Cotard delusion" after his death...
October 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032161/psychological-and-psychiatric-traits-in-post-bariatric-patients-asking-for-body-contouring-surgery
#10
Chiara Pavan, Massimo Marini, Eleonora De Antoni, Carlotta Scarpa, Tito Brambullo, Franco Bassetto, Annapina Mazzotta, Vincenzo Vindigni
BACKGROUNDS: Obese patients, mainly females, feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with their physical appearance; they have a wrong perception of their image and consequently diminish their self-esteem, sometimes showing difficulties in functional areas such as work, relationship, social activity. Beside health concerns, improving their appearance and body image are often common motives for weight loss in obese individuals and after weight loss about 30% of bariatric surgery patients undergo plastic surgical correction of excessive skin...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#11
REVIEW
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869058/relationship-of-amotivation-to-neurocognition-self-efficacy-and-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#12
W C Chang, V W Y Kwong, C L M Hui, S K W Chan, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). METHOD: Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813530/involvement-of-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-lateral-habenula-in-dopamine-attenuation-after-chronic-mild-stress
#13
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie, reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examined the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-that is, rodent homolog of Brodmann area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb) in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798483/recent-advances-in-differentiating-suicide-attempters-from-suicide-ideators
#14
REVIEW
E David Klonsky, Tianyou Qiu, Boaz Y Saffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes findings from recent studies (published since 2015) examining differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence suggests that the capability to attempt suicide (e.g., acquired capability, painful and provocative experiences, high tolerance for pain and distress) is higher in suicide attempters than suicide ideators. Other psychosocial and biological differences have also been identified but require replication...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732031/attentional-processing-of-emotional-faces-in-schizophrenia-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#15
Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693850/selective-amotivation-deficits-following-chronic-psychosocial-stress-in-mice
#16
Alejandro Tsai Cabal, Horea-Ioan Ioanas, Erich Seifritz, Bechara J Saab
Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353309/heightened-dopaminergic-response-to-amphetamine-at-the-d3-dopamine-receptor-in-methamphetamine-users
#17
Isabelle Boileau, Doris Payer, Pablo M Rusjan, Sylvain Houle, Junchao Tong, Tina McCluskey, Alan A Wilson, Stephen J Kish
Neuroimaging studies in stimulant use (eg, cocaine, methamphetamine) disorders show that diminished dopamine release by dopamine-elevating drugs is a potential marker of relapse and suggest that increasing dopamine at the D2/3 receptors may be therapeutically beneficial. In contrast, recent investigations indicate heightened D3 receptor levels in stimulant users prompting the view that D3 antagonism may help prevent relapse. Here we tested whether a 'blunted' response to amphetamine in methamphetamine (MA) users extends to D3-rich brain areas...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312350/accommodation-of-symptoms-in-anorexia-nervosa-a-qualitative-study
#18
John R E Fox, Anna Whittlesea
Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN...
June 17, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234192/study-of-positive-and-negative-feedback-sensitivity-in-psychosis-using-the-wisconsin-card-sorting-test
#19
Aida Farreny, Ángel Del Rey-Mejías, Gemma Escartin, Judith Usall, Núria Tous, Josep Maria Haro, Susana Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia involves marked motivational and learning deficits that may reflect abnormalities in reward processing. The purpose of this study was to examine positive and negative feedback sensitivity in schizophrenia using computational modeling derived from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We also aimed to explore feedback sensitivity in a sample with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Eighty-three individuals with schizophrenia and 27 with bipolar disorder were included...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199802/emotional-processing-and-attention-control-impairments-in-children-with-anxiety-an-integrative-review-of-event-related-potentials-findings
#20
REVIEW
Erika Wauthia, Mandy Rossignol
Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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