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Disorder diminished motivation

Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alejandro Tsai Cabal, Horea-Ioan Ioanas, Erich Seifritz, Bechara J Saab
Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Isabelle Boileau, Doris Payer, Pablo M Rusjan, Sylvain Houle, Junchao Tong, Tina McCluskey, Alan A Wilson, Stephen J Kish
Neuroimaging studies in stimulant use (eg, cocaine, methamphetamine) disorders show that diminished dopamine release by dopamine elevating drugs is a potential marker of relapse and suggest that increasing dopamine at the D2/3 receptors may be therapeutically beneficial. In contrast, recent investigations indicate heightened D3 receptor levels in stimulant users prompting the view that D3 antagonism may help prevent relapse. Here we tested whether a 'blunted' response to amphetamine in methamphetamine (MA) users extends to D3-rich brain areas...
June 29, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John R E Fox, Anna Whittlesea
: Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN...
June 17, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Aida Farreny, Ángel Del Rey-Mejías, Gemma Escartin, Judith Usall, Núria Tous, Josep Maria Haro, Susana Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia involves marked motivational and learning deficits that may reflect abnormalities in reward processing. The purpose of this study was to examine positive and negative feedback sensitivity in schizophrenia using computational modeling derived from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We also aimed to explore feedback sensitivity in a sample with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Eighty-three individuals with schizophrenia and 27 with bipolar disorder were included...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Erika Wauthia, Mandy Rossignol
Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Nathaniel D Daw, Matthew Botvinick, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to use reward history to adaptively guide behavior. However, tasks traditionally used to assess such deficits often rely on multiple cognitive and neural processes, leaving etiology unresolved. In the current study, we adopted recent computational formalisms of reinforcement learning to distinguish between model-based and model-free decision-making in hopes of specifying mechanisms associated with reinforcement-learning dysfunction in schizophrenia. Under this framework, decision-making is model-free to the extent that it relies solely on prior reward history, and model-based if it relies on prospective information such as motivational state, future consequences, and the likelihood of obtaining various outcomes...
August 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Dan P Covey, Hannah M Dantrassy, Natalie E Zlebnik, Iness Gildish, Joseph F Cheer
UNLABELLED: Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG (glutamine) repeats in the HTT gene. A prodromal stage characterized by psychiatric disturbances normally precedes primary motor symptoms and suppressed motivation represents one of the earliest and most common psychiatric symptoms. Although dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) critically regulates motivation and altered dopamine signaling is implicated in HD, the nature of dopaminergic deficits and contribution to symptoms in HD is poorly understood...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Timothy R Campellone, Ori Elis, Jasmine Mote, Amy H Sanchez, Ann M Kring
People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Eric A Woodcock, Sunali Wadehra, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Dan Loton, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: For most people, playing video games is a passionate leisure pursuit: a source of relaxation, fun, socialisation and culture. Moderate play has been associated with greater wellbeing and cognitive abilities in some studies. Yet, for a small subgroup, gaming can become excessive and problematic. OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of the world of video games and the recently proposed internet gaming disorder (IGD), as well as advice regarding relevant treatment approaches within primary care...
January 2016: Australian Family Physician
Antonia Kaltsatou, Christina Karatzaferi, Georgia I Mitrou, Konstantina P Poulianiti, Giorgos K Sakkas
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a silent epidemic with a continuously growing prevalence around the world. Due to uremia many functional and morphological abnormalities occur in almost all systems. Mostly affected, the cardiovascular system, leads to diminished cardiac function that affects patients' functional capacity and physical activity levels, reducing survival and increasing all-cause mortality. Systematic exercise training ameliorates uremia induced body deficits and significantly improves the survival of CKD patients...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Rachel Hershenberg, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Aylin Daldal, Natalie Katchmar, Tyler M Moore, Joseph W Kable, Daniel H Wolf
BACKGROUND: Amotivation, or decisional anhedonia, is a prominent and disabling feature of depression. However, this aspect of depression remains understudied, and no prior work has applied objective laboratory tests of motivation in both unipolar and bipolar depression. METHODS: We assessed motivation deficits using a Progressive Ratio Task (PRT) that indexes willingness to exert effort for monetary reward. The PRT was administered to 96 adults ages 18-60 including 25 participants with a current episode of unipolar depression, 28 with bipolar disorder (current episode depressed), and 43 controls without any Axis I psychiatric disorders...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Annette Conzelmann, Eva Woidich, Ronald F Mucha, Peter Weyers, Mathias Müller, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Christian P Jacob, Paul Pauli
In line with the assumption that emotional-motivational deficits are one core dysfunction in ADHD, in one of our previous studies we observed a reduced reactivity towards pleasant pictures in adult ADHD patients as compared to controls. This was indicated by a lack of attenuation of the startle reflex specifically during pleasant pictures in ADHD patients. The first choice medical agents in ADHD, methylphenidate (MPH), is discussed to normalize these dysfunctions. However, experimental evidence in the sense of double-blind placebo-controlled study designs is lacking...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Yu V Ovchinnikov, M V Palchenkova, O V Kalachev
Burnout syndrome is a socio-psychological phenomenon of emotional, motivational, and physical exhaustion as a result of chronic occupational stress. It is manifested as long-term emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal and professional achievements. Burnout syndrome is common among health care workers, 'due to their high dedication, empathy for suffering patients, and decision-making related to life and health of patients. Personal, role and organizational factors influence on development of burnout...
July 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Caitlin M Groeber Travis, Daniel E Altman, Raymond F Genovese
While not well understood, the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonist ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has been reported to be efficacious in depression and related psychological disorders. Conditioned fear is a normal emotional conditioning process that is known to become dysfunctional in individuals suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and related stress disorders. We examined the effects of ketamine to determine the potential modulation of the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned fear using a conditioned suppression procedure...
December 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Sophie R DelDonno, Anne L Weldon, Natania A Crane, Alessandra M Passarotti, Patrick J Pruitt, Laura B Gabriel, Wendy Yau, Kortni K Meyers, David T Hsu, Stephen F Taylor, Mary M Heitzeg, Ellen Herbener, Stewart A Shankman, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
Anhedonia, the diminished anticipation and pursuit of reward, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Trait behavioral activation (BA), as a proxy for anhedonia, and behavioral inhibition (BI) may moderate the relationship between MDD and reward-seeking. The present studies probed for reward learning deficits, potentially due to aberrant BA and/or BI, in active or remitted MDD individuals compared to healthy controls (HC). Active MDD (Study 1) and remitted MDD (Study 2) participants completed the modified monetary incentive delay task (mMIDT), a behavioral reward-seeking task whose response window parameters were individually titrated to theoretically elicit equivalent accuracy between groups...
November 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
L C van Boekel, E P M Brouwers, J van Weeghel, H F L Garretsen
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals are crucial in the identification and accessibility to treatment for people with substance use disorders. AIM: Objective of this literature review is to assess health professionals' attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders and to examine the consequences of these attitudes on healthcare delivery for these patients. METHOD: PubMed, Psycinfo and Embase were systematically searched for articles published between 2000-2011...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Coralie Chevallier, Julia Parish-Morris, Alana McVey, Keiran M Rump, Noah J Sasson, John D Herrington, Robert T Schultz
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments that have been related to deficits in social attention, including diminished gaze to faces. Eye-tracking studies are commonly used to examine social attention and social motivation in ASD, but they vary in sensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that the ecological nature of the social stimuli would affect participants' social attention, with gaze behavior during more naturalistic scenes being most predictive of ASD vs. typical development...
October 2015: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Douglas S Mennin, David M Fresco, Michael Ritter, Richard G Heimberg
BACKGROUND: Although CBT is efficacious for a wide variety of psychiatric conditions, relatively fewer GAD patients achieve high endstate functioning as compared to patients receiving CBTs for other disorders. Moreover, GAD trials that utilized patient samples without prominent depression have tended to report that effect sizes for depressive outcomes were small or diminished to pretreatment levels in the follow-up period. Emotion regulation therapy (ERT) integrates principles from traditional and contemporary cognitive behavioral treatments with basic and translational findings from affect science to offer a blueprint for improving intervention by focusing on motivational, regulatory, and contextual learning mechanisms...
August 2015: Depression and Anxiety
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