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Disorder diminished motivation

Cassie Kimble, Christopher M Burba
Ionic liquids are a fertile and active area of research, in part, due to the unique properties these solvents offer over traditional molecular solvents. Because these properties are rooted in the fundamental ion-ion interactions that govern their liquid structure, there is a strong motivation to characterize the liquid structure of ionic liquids. Infrared spectroscopy is a standard analytical tool for assessing liquid structures, for the intramolecular vibrational modes of the ions composing the materials are often quite sensitive to their local potential energy environment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
N P Moschopoulos, S Kaprinis, J Nimatoudis
The term "Cotard's syndrome" is used to describe a number of clinical features, mostly hypochondriac and nihilistic delusions, the most characteristic of which are the ideas "I am dead" and "my internal organs do not exist". Besides, anxious and depressed mood, delusions of damnation, possession and immortality, suicidal and self-mutilating behavior are included. The first description of the syndrome was made in 1880 by Cotard, who presented the case of a female patient in a lecture. He originally named it "hypochondriac delusion", and some years later "delusion of negations", while it was named "Cotard delusion" after his death...
October 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Chiara Pavan, Massimo Marini, Eleonora De Antoni, Carlotta Scarpa, Tito Brambullo, Franco Bassetto, Annapina Mazzotta, Vincenzo Vindigni
BACKGROUNDS: Obese patients, mainly females, feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with their physical appearance; they have a wrong perception of their image and consequently diminish their self-esteem, sometimes showing difficulties in functional areas such as work, relationship, social activity. Beside health concerns, improving their appearance and body image are often common motives for weight loss in obese individuals and after weight loss about 30% of bariatric surgery patients undergo plastic surgical correction of excessive skin...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
W C Chang, V W Y Kwong, C L M Hui, S K W Chan, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). METHOD: Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie, reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examined the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-that is, rodent homolog of Brodmann area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb) in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
E David Klonsky, Tianyou Qiu, Boaz Y Saffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes findings from recent studies (published since 2015) examining differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence suggests that the capability to attempt suicide (e.g., acquired capability, painful and provocative experiences, high tolerance for pain and distress) is higher in suicide attempters than suicide ideators. Other psychosocial and biological differences have also been identified but require replication...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alejandro Tsai Cabal, Horea-Ioan Ioanas, Erich Seifritz, Bechara J Saab
Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Isabelle Boileau, Doris Payer, Pablo M Rusjan, Sylvain Houle, Junchao Tong, Tina McCluskey, Alan A Wilson, Stephen J Kish
Neuroimaging studies in stimulant use (eg, cocaine, methamphetamine) disorders show that diminished dopamine release by dopamine-elevating drugs is a potential marker of relapse and suggest that increasing dopamine at the D2/3 receptors may be therapeutically beneficial. In contrast, recent investigations indicate heightened D3 receptor levels in stimulant users prompting the view that D3 antagonism may help prevent relapse. Here we tested whether a 'blunted' response to amphetamine in methamphetamine (MA) users extends to D3-rich brain areas...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John R E Fox, Anna Whittlesea
Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN...
June 17, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Aida Farreny, Ángel Del Rey-Mejías, Gemma Escartin, Judith Usall, Núria Tous, Josep Maria Haro, Susana Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia involves marked motivational and learning deficits that may reflect abnormalities in reward processing. The purpose of this study was to examine positive and negative feedback sensitivity in schizophrenia using computational modeling derived from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We also aimed to explore feedback sensitivity in a sample with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Eighty-three individuals with schizophrenia and 27 with bipolar disorder were included...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Erika Wauthia, Mandy Rossignol
Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Nathaniel D Daw, Matthew Botvinick, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to use reward history to adaptively guide behavior. However, tasks traditionally used to assess such deficits often rely on multiple cognitive and neural processes, leaving etiology unresolved. In the current study, we adopted recent computational formalisms of reinforcement learning to distinguish between model-based and model-free decision-making in hopes of specifying mechanisms associated with reinforcement-learning dysfunction in schizophrenia. Under this framework, decision-making is model-free to the extent that it relies solely on prior reward history, and model-based if it relies on prospective information such as motivational state, future consequences, and the likelihood of obtaining various outcomes...
2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Dan P Covey, Hannah M Dantrassy, Natalie E Zlebnik, Iness Gildish, Joseph F Cheer
UNLABELLED: Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG (glutamine) repeats in the HTT gene. A prodromal stage characterized by psychiatric disturbances normally precedes primary motor symptoms and suppressed motivation represents one of the earliest and most common psychiatric symptoms. Although dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) critically regulates motivation and altered dopamine signaling is implicated in HD, the nature of dopaminergic deficits and contribution to symptoms in HD is poorly understood...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Timothy R Campellone, Ori Elis, Jasmine Mote, Amy H Sanchez, Ann M Kring
People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Eric A Woodcock, Sunali Wadehra, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Dan Loton, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: For most people, playing video games is a passionate leisure pursuit: a source of relaxation, fun, socialisation and culture. Moderate play has been associated with greater wellbeing and cognitive abilities in some studies. Yet, for a small subgroup, gaming can become excessive and problematic. OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of the world of video games and the recently proposed internet gaming disorder (IGD), as well as advice regarding relevant treatment approaches within primary care...
January 2016: Australian Family Physician
Antonia Kaltsatou, Christina Karatzaferi, Georgia I Mitrou, Konstantina P Poulianiti, Giorgos K Sakkas
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a silent epidemic with a continuously growing prevalence around the world. Due to uremia many functional and morphological abnormalities occur in almost all systems. Mostly affected, the cardiovascular system, leads to diminished cardiac function that affects patients' functional capacity and physical activity levels, reducing survival and increasing all-cause mortality. Systematic exercise training ameliorates uremia induced body deficits and significantly improves the survival of CKD patients...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Rachel Hershenberg, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Aylin Daldal, Natalie Katchmar, Tyler M Moore, Joseph W Kable, Daniel H Wolf
BACKGROUND: Amotivation, or decisional anhedonia, is a prominent and disabling feature of depression. However, this aspect of depression remains understudied, and no prior work has applied objective laboratory tests of motivation in both unipolar and bipolar depression. METHODS: We assessed motivation deficits using a Progressive Ratio Task (PRT) that indexes willingness to exert effort for monetary reward. The PRT was administered to 96 adults ages 18-60 including 25 participants with a current episode of unipolar depression, 28 with bipolar disorder (current episode depressed), and 43 controls without any Axis I psychiatric disorders...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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