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Pipe organ

Maya Benami, Osnat Gillor, Amit Gross
Millions of decentralized graywater-reuse systems are operating worldwide. This water is directly accessible to household inhabitants, raising environmental and public health concerns. Graywater may contain a variety of harmful organisms, the types and numbers of which vary with source-type, storage time, and background levels of infection in the community source. In this review, we find that most studies indicate high amounts of microbial pathogens in raw graywater and therefore treatment and disinfection are recommended to lower possible health risks...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
Amy J Pickering, Benjamin F Arnold, Holly N Dentz, John M Colford, Clair Null
BACKGROUND: The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development, and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. OBJECTIVES: We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
James B Winterbourn, Katie Clements, James A Lowther, Shelagh K Malham, James E McDonald, Davey L Jones
Bivalve shellfish have the capacity to accumulate norovirus (NoV) from waters contaminated with human sewage. Consequently, shellfish represent a major vector for NoV entry into the human food chain, leading to gastrointestinal illness. Identification of areas suitable for the safe cultivation of shellfish requires an understanding of NoV behaviour upon discharge of municipal-derived sewage into coastal waters. This study exploited the potential of edible mussels (Mytilus edulis) to accumulate NoV and employed the ISO method for quantification of NoV within mussel digestive tissues...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Chisa Yamada, Steven W Pipe, Lili Zhao, Alan B Leichtman, Milagros Samaniego, Randall S Sung, Robertson D Davenport
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used for treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after solid organ transplants. There is concern that TPE may increase risk of bleeding, although data are limited. After TPE, clot-based coagulation tests may not accurately represent the levels of coagulation factors due to the effect of citrate. We investigated protein levels of fibrinogen using antigen detection method (FibAg) and correlated results with a clot-based fibrinogen activity test (Fib)...
September 7, 2016: Transfusion
Ahmed A Abokifa, Y Jeffrey Yang, Cynthia S Lo, Pratim Biswas
Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
Sanly Liu, Cindy Gunawan, Nicolas Barraud, Scott A Rice, Elizabeth J Harry, Rose Amal
In drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth, with the presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protecting the biomass from environmental and shear stresses. Biofilm formation poses a significant problem to the drinking water industry as a potential source of bacterial contamination, including pathogens, and, in many cases, also affecting the taste and odor of drinking water and promoting the corrosion of pipes. This article critically reviews important research findings on biofilm growth in DWDS, examining the factors affecting their formation and characteristics as well as the various technologies to characterize and monitor and, ultimately, to control their growth...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Miles A Kirby, Corey L Nagel, Ghislaine Rosa, Laurien Iyakaremye, Laura Divens Zambrano, Thomas F Clasen
Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Johanna Rajasärkkä, Marek Pernica, Jan Kuta, Jonáš Lašňák, Zdenĕk Šimek, Luděk Bláha
Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Junjun Chang, Luyao Ma, Yuanyang Zhou, Shenghua Zhang, Weilu Wang
Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Grace E Terrell
The April 2015 passage of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act is accelerating the move of the US health care industry from traditional fee-for-service provider payments to alternative payment methods that are focused on value rather than volume of services. Medicaid, private employers, and consumer groups are also developing similar payment models. Learning from the experience of the 27 early accountable care organizations in North Carolina, such as Cornerstone Health Care, will help to accelerate the transformation that will be necessary across the health care delivery ecosystem in our state...
July 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Cathy L Abberton, Ludmila Bereschenko, Paul W J J van der Wielen, Cindy J Smith
UNLABELLED: Escherichia coli is the most commonly used indicator for fecal contamination in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). The assumption is that E. coli bacteria are of enteric origin and cannot persist for long outside their host and therefore act as indicators of recent contamination events. This study investigates the fate of E. coli in drinking water, specifically addressing survival, biofilm formation under shear stress, and regrowth in a series of laboratory-controlled experiments...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A C Fanatico, J A Mench, G S Archer, Y Liang, V B Brewer Gunsaulis, C M Owens, A M Donoghue
Chickens provided with outdoor access often do not fully use the range area. Natural cover, such as trees, can provide shelter and increase range use, but may not be practical for use in all free-range operations. A study was conducted to determine whether constructed enrichments that simulate natural structures increase range use and impact behavior of meat chickens. Slow-growing Delaware chickens were raised in floor pens (17 birds/pen) in a naturally ventilated house, with a pophole in each pen that allowed daily access to a vegetation-covered outdoor area...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Simge Varol, Aysen Davraz
Isparta city center is selected as a work area in this study because the public believes that the tap water is dirty and harmful. In this study, the city's drinking water in the distribution system and other spring waters which are used as drinking water in this region were investigated from the point of water quality and health risk assessment. Water samples were collected from major drinking water springs, tap waters, treatment plants and dam pond in the Isparta province center. Ca-Mg-HCO3, Mg-Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 are dominant water types...
June 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Jingqing Liu, Huanyu Chen, Lingdan Yao, Zongyuan Wei, Liping Lou, Yonggui Shan, Sahle-Demessie Endalkachew, Nadagouda Mallikarjuna, Baolan Hu, Xiaoyan Zhou
In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
I Douterelo, S Husband, V Loza, J Boxall
UNLABELLED: The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here...
July 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Richard O Johnson, Jennifer R Cope, Marvin Moskowitz, Amy Kahler, Vincent Hill, Kaleigh Behrendt, Louis Molina, Kathleen E Fullerton, Michael J Beach
On June 17, 2015, a previously healthy woman aged 21 years went to an emergency department after onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting during the preceding 24 hours. Upon evaluation, she was vomiting profusely and had photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was consistent with meningitis.* She was empirically treated for bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis. Her condition continued to decline, and she was transferred to a higher level of care in another facility on June 19, but died shortly thereafter...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jun Hu, Zhimin Qiang, Huiyu Dong, Jiuhui Qu
Copper corrosion products (CCPs) in water distribution pipes may catalyze the reactions among disinfectant, natural organic matter (NOM), and bromide (Br(-)). This study investigated the simultaneous formation of bromate (BrO3(-)) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) during chlorination of Br(-)-containing waters in the presence of three CCPs (i.e., CuO, Cu2O, and Cu(2+)). In a synthetic water, both oxidant decay and BrO3(-) formation were enhanced by CCPs, whereas the presence of humic acid (HA) significantly inhibited BrO3(-) formation due to its competition for HOBr to form Br-DBPs...
July 1, 2016: Water Research
Sandra Huber, Mikael Remberger, Lennart Kaj, Martin Schlabach, Hrönn Ó Jörundsdóttir, Jette Vester, Mímir Arnórsson, Inge Mortensen, Richard Schwartson, Maria Dam
A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sheldon Masters, Gregory J Welter, Marc Edwards
The influence of temperature on the solubility of representative lead solids present in drinking-water systems and the lead release to potable water was examined. Temperature had surprisingly little effect on the dissolution of cerrusite, hydrocerussite, chloropyromorphite, lead orthophosphate, and lead oxide solids; however, in the presence of natural organic matter, lead oxide dissolution was 36 times greater (36 versus 1277 ppb) at 20 °C compared to 4 °C due to accelerated reductive dissolution. The solubility of plumbonacrite was three times higher at 20 °C compared to 4 °C (260 versus 92 ppb)...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ramesh Ahmadi, Mehdi Ahmadifar, Elham Safarpour, Nazila Vahidi-Eyrisofla, Mehraneh Darab, Ali Mohammad Eini, AliReza Alizadeh
Levofloxacin is one of the Fluroquinoline antibiotic groups, which affect on controlling infections, especially in reproductive organs. It has therapeutic use in numerous countries, but little information exists on the effects of Levofloxacin on spermatogenesis when it is used for infectious treatment. The current study was designed to determine whether Levofloxacin influences testis tissue and spermatogenesis in rats. In this survey 50 male Wistar rats 6-8 weeks (250 ± 10 g) were used: normal salin as sham and control groups and 3 treatment groups (0...
2016: Cell Journal
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