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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164867/is-traffic-still-an-important-emitter-of-mono-aromatic-organic-compounds-in-european-urban-areas
#1
Agnès Borbon, Anne Boynard, Therese Salameh, Alexia Baudic, Valerie Gros, Julie Gauduin, Olivier Perrussel, Cyril Pallares
Trends of long-term observations and emission inventories suggest that traffic emissions will no longer dominate the concentrations of mono-aromatic compounds (i.e. TEX - Toluene, Xylenes and Ethylbenzene) in European urban areas. But the split limit between traffic and other emission sector contributions such as solvent use remains tenuous. Here long-term observations of an extensive set of hydrocarbons, including TEX, at traffic and urban background sites in London, Paris and Strasbourg were combined to estimate the relative importance of traffic emissions on TEX in every city...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111337/the-vocal-tract-organ-a-new-musical-instrument-using-3-d-printed-vocal-tracts
#2
David M Howard
The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104562/partitioning-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-fecal-indicators-varies-intra-and-inter-storm-during-combined-sewer-overflows
#3
Alessia Eramo, Hannah Delos Reyes, Nicole L Fahrenfeld
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality through the release of microbial contaminants in CSO effluent. Improved understanding of the partitioning of microbial contaminants onto settleable particles can provide insight into their fate in end-of-pipe treatment systems or following release during CSO events. Sampling was performed across the hydrograph for three storm events as well as during baseflow and wet weather in three surface waters impacted by CSO. qPCR was performed for select antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and a marker gene for human fecal indicator organisms (BacHum) in samples processed the partitioning of microbial contaminants on settleable particles versus suspended in the aqueous phase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047063/life-cycle-impacts-of-shower-water-waste-heat-recovery-case-study-of-an-installation-at-a-university-sport-facility-in-the-uk
#4
Kenneth Ip, Kaiming She, Kemi Adeyeye
Recovering heat from waste water discharged from showers to preheat the incoming cold water has been promoted as a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and low-carbon design option which has been included in the UK's Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for demonstrating compliance with the Building Regulation for dwellings. Incentivized by its carbon cost-effectiveness, waste water heat exchangers (WWHX) have been selected and incorporated in a newly constructed Sports Pavilion at the University of Brighton in the UK...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978350/interactive-effects-of-temperature-organic-carbon-and-pipe-material-on-microbiota-composition-and-legionella-pneumophila-in-hot-water-plumbing-systems
#5
Caitlin R Proctor, Dongjuan Dai, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
BACKGROUND: Several biotic and abiotic factors have been reported to influence the proliferation of microbes, including Legionella pneumophila, in hot water premise plumbing systems, but their combined effects have not been systematically evaluated. Here, we utilize simulated household water heaters to examine the effects of stepwise increases in temperature (32-53 °C), pipe material (copper vs. cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)), and influent assimilable organic carbon (0-700 μg/L) on opportunistic pathogen gene copy numbers and the microbiota composition, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974829/the-influence-of-smoking-on-the-variations-in-carboxyhemoglobin-and-methemoglobin-during-urologic-surgery
#6
Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Andrijan Kartalov, Maja Mojsova-Mijovska, Marija Jovanovski-Srceva, Gordana Taleska, Nikola Brzanov, Risto Simeonov, Maja Slaninka Miceska
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is supposed to modulate the production of carbon monoxide by the reduction of heme oxygenase activity or transcriptional regulation of inducible heme oxygenase. On the other hand, the inhalation of tobacco smoke can substantially raise the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Furthermore, methemoglobin is maintained at a constant level. However, excessive production of methemoglobin relative to total methemoglobin reductase activity results in methemoglobin increase...
June 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974043/multi-elements-in-source-water-drinking-and-surface-water-within-five-cities-from-the-semi-arid-and-arid-region-nw-china-occurrence-spatial-distribution-and-risk-assessment
#7
Ting Wu, Xiaoping Li, Tao Yang, Xuemeng Sun, Howard W Mielke, Yue Cai, Yuwei Ai, Yanan Zhao, Dongying Liu, Xu Zhang, Xiaoyun Li, Lijun Wang, Hongtao Yu
The purpose of this study was to identify the concentration of multi-elements (MEs) in source water (surface and drinking water) and assess their quality for sustainability. A total of 161 water samples including 88 tap drinking waters (DW) and 73 surface waters (SW) were collected from five cities in Xi'an, Yan'an, Xining, Lanzhou, and Urumqi in northwestern China. Eighteen parameters including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC) total nitrogen (TN), chemical compositions of anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO₃(-),HCO₃(-), SO₄(2-)), cations (NH₄⁺, K⁺, Na⁺, Ca(2+),Mg(2+)), and metals (lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu)) were analyzed in the first time at the five cities ...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961439/chemical-characterization-and-safety-assessment-of-dokha-an-emerging-alternative-tobacco-product
#8
Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Maissam El Kouche
Dokha is known to be one of the most rapidly spreading alternative tobacco products (ATPs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It is smoked using a pipe known as Midwakh. There is no scientific research published on the chemical composition of dokha and only very little was done to investigate its impact on human health. Three different types of dokha were included in this study. The trace metals content in the dokha samples were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning electron microscope...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929027/the-role-of-polycarbonate-monomer-bisphenol-a-in-insulin-resistance
#9
Milos Pjanic
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks) and food storages (plastics wraps and containers), to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869912/well-organized-migration-of-electrons-for-enhanced-hydrogen-evolution-integration-of-2d-mos2-nanosheets-with-plasmonic-photocatalyst-by-a-facile-ultrasonic-chemical-method
#10
Wenwen Liu, Bo Liang, Yongjin Ma, Yi Liu, Anquan Zhu, Pengfei Tan, Xiang Xiong, Jun Pan
The construction of a plasmonic photocatalyst is an efficient way to suppress detrimental electrons-holes recombination and extend the spectral range of light absorption in semiconductors. However, the facilitation effect in the aspect of electrons-holes separation is great limited as the lack of a driving force compelled the electrons or holes migration to surface catalytic sites makes them flow randomly in semiconductors. In this work, we confirm that the integration of MoS2 nanosheets formed two dimensional (2D) layered heterojunction with C3N4 with Au-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst can further enhance electrons-holes separation through the formation of Au-C3N4-MoS2 nanostructure by a facile ultrasonic chemical method...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841184/experimental-investigation-on-surface-quality-processed-by-self-excited-oscillation-pulsed-waterjet-peening
#11
Xiaolong Ding, Yong Kang, Deng Li, Xiaochuan Wang, Dongping Zeng
High-speed waterjet peening technology has attracted a lot of interest and is now being widely studied due to its great ability to strengthen metal surfaces. In order to further improve the mechanical properties of metals, self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjets (SOPWs) were used for surface peening with an experimental investigation focused on the surface topography and properties. By impinging the aluminum alloy (5052) specimens with SOPWs issuing from an organ-pipe oscillation nozzle, the hardness and roughness at various inlet pressures and stand-off distances were measured and analyzed, as well as the residual stress...
August 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771996/microbial-biotechnology-approaches-to-mitigating-the-deterioration-of-construction-and-heritage-materials
#12
Pilar Junier, Edith Joseph
Microorganisms are the main engines of elemental cycling in this planet and therefore have a profound impact on both organic and mineral substrates. As such, past and present human-made structures and cultural heritage can be negatively affected by microbial activity. Processes such as bioweathering (rocks and minerals), biodeterioration (organic substrates) or biocorrosion (metals) participate to the degradation or structural damage of construction and heritage materials. This structural damage can cause major economic losses (e...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758736/vapor-liquid-sol-gel-approach-to-fabricating-highly-durable-and-robust-superhydrophobic-polydimethylsiloxane-silica-surface-on-polyester-textile-for-oil-water-separation
#13
Xiaojing Su, Hongqiang Li, Xuejun Lai, Lin Zhang, Jing Wang, Xiaofeng Liao, Xingrong Zeng
Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH))...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758735/electrochemical-approach-for-effective-antifouling-and-antimicrobial-surfaces
#14
Sheng Long Gaw, Sujoy Sarkar, Sivan Nir, Yafit Schnell, Daniel Mandler, Zhichuan J Xu, Pooi See Lee, Meital Reches
Biofouling, the adsorption of organisms to a surface, is a major problem today in many areas of our lives. This includes: (i) health, as biofouling on medical device leads to hospital-acquired infections, (ii) water, since the accumulation of organisms on membranes and pipes in desalination systems harms the function of the system, and (iii) energy, due to the heavy load of the organic layer that accumulates on marine vessels and causes a larger consumption of fuel. This paper presents an effective electrochemical approach for generating antifouling and antimicrobial surfaces...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746531/effective-tobacco-control-measures-agreement-among-medical-students
#15
Stella Regina Martins, Renato Batista Paceli, Marco Antônio Bussacos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mário Terra-Filho, Ubiratan Paula Santos
Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules...
May 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743326/a-review-of-surfactant-role-in-soil-clogging-processes-at-wastewater-exfiltration-locations-in-sewers
#16
REVIEW
Mitra Nikpay, Peter Krebs, Bryan Ellis
  Wastewater contains significant sources of pollutants and contaminants. often the failure of a pipe, inadequate sealing or corrupt pipe-connections cause the loss of raw sewage, which percolates into the nearby soil. As a consequence, a colmation layer in conjunction with soil clogging is developing, which regulates the exfiltration rate. Recently, literature has emerged that offers findings about the effects of wastewater surfactants on the change of physical properties of the soil. A survey of published literature in this field provides information highlighting the influential mechanisms of surfactants in soil clogging through physical, chemical and biological processes...
August 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708616/monitoring-accumulation-sediment-characteristics-in-full-scale-sewer-physical-model-with-urban-wastewater
#17
Manuel Regueiro-Picallo, Juan Naves, Jose Anta, Joaquín Suárez, Jerónimo Puertas
A series of experiments were carried out with real wastewater in a pilot flume located at A Coruña wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Spain). A full scale model was developed to test a circular (300 mm inner diameter) and an equivalent area egg-shaped plastic pipe under controlled experimental conditions (pipe slope 2-5‰, averaged discharge Q = 4 L/s). Velocity profiles and sediment accumulation in the pipe invert was daily measured. Within the 7-11 days, the average sediment accumulation rate found in the circular pipe was between 1...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668756/crude-oil-contamination-of-plastic-and-copper-drinking-water-pipes
#18
Xiangning Huang, Stephane Andry, Jessica Yaputri, Devin Kelly, David A Ladner, Andrew J Whelton
This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of plastic (i.e., PEX, HDPE and CPVC) and copper pipes to short-term contamination by crude oil. Pipes were exposed to highly and slightly contaminated drinking water for the typical duration of Do Not Use drinking water orders. PEX pipes sorbed and desorbed the greatest amount of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), whereas copper pipes were less susceptible to contamination. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) quantified in water, only benzene exceeded its health based maximum contaminant level (MCL)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659529/combined-ultrafiltration-electrodeionization-technique-for-production-of-high-purity-water
#19
Anita Kusuma Wardani, Ahmad Nurul Hakim, Khoiruddin, I Gede Wenten
Electrodeionization (EDI) is the most common method to produce high purity water used for boiler feed water, microelectronic, and pharmaceutical industries. Commonly, EDI is combined with reverse osmosis (RO) to meet the requirement of EDI feed water, with hardness less than 1 ppm. However, RO requires a relatively high operating pressure and ultrafiltration (UF) as pretreatment which results in high energy consumption and high complexity in piping and instrumentation. In this work, UF was used as the sole pretreatment of EDI to produce high purity water...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616178/population-differences-in-host-plant-preference-and-the-importance-of-yeast-and-plant-substrate-to-volatile-composition
#20
Priya Date, Amber Crowley-Gall, Aaron F Diefendorf, Stephanie M Rollmann
Divergent selection between environments can result in changes to the behavior of an organism. In many insects, volatile compounds are a primary means by which host plants are recognized and shifts in plant availability can result in changes to host preference. Both the plant substrate and microorganisms can influence this behavior, and host plant choice can have an impact on the performance of the organism. In Drosophila mojavensis, four geographically isolated populations each use different cacti as feeding and oviposition substrates and identify those cacti by the composition of the volatile odorants emitted...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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