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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616178/population-differences-in-host-plant-preference-and-the-importance-of-yeast-and-plant-substrate-to-volatile-composition
#1
Priya Date, Amber Crowley-Gall, Aaron F Diefendorf, Stephanie M Rollmann
Divergent selection between environments can result in changes to the behavior of an organism. In many insects, volatile compounds are a primary means by which host plants are recognized and shifts in plant availability can result in changes to host preference. Both the plant substrate and microorganisms can influence this behavior, and host plant choice can have an impact on the performance of the organism. In Drosophila mojavensis, four geographically isolated populations each use different cacti as feeding and oviposition substrates and identify those cacti by the composition of the volatile odorants emitted...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571022/therapeutic-use-exemptions
#2
David Gerrard, Andrew Pipe
The introduction, in 2004, of the World Anti-Doping Code and a standardized "prohibited list" of substances and methods proscribed in sport represented a consistent, international response to the escalating challenge of drug misuse in contemporary sport. Simultaneously, it was recognized that athletes experiencing illness or injury might legitimately require the use of "prohibited" medications or procedures, and the concept of the "therapeutic use exemption" (TUE) was introduced. The mechanisms of the TUE process are carefully defined and described in a specific WADA "international standard" (IS)...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513143/interactive-effects-of-corrosion-copper-and-chloramines-on-legionella-and-mycobacteria-in-hot-water-plumbing
#3
William J Rhoads, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards
Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components that undermine engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1100 times more hydrogen (H2) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502052/variation-of-microbial-communities-and-functional-genes-during-the-biofilm-formation-in-raw-water-distribution-systems-and-associated-effects-on-the-transformation-of-nitrogen-pollutants
#4
Wei Chen, Yanmei Gu, Hang Xu, Zhigang Liu, Chunhui Lu, Chenshuo Lin
This study aimed to investigate the variation of microbial communities and functional genes during the biofilm formation in raw water distribution systems without prechlorination and associated effects on the transformation of nitrogen pollutants by using a designed model pipe system. The results showed the transformation of nitrogen pollutants was obvious during the biofilm formation. The richness and diversity of the microbial communities changed significantly. The higher abundance of Nitrospirae in biofilm samples significantly contributed to biological nitrification...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498127/accelerated-anaerobic-release-of-k-mg-and-p-from-surplus-activated-sludge-for-element-recovery-and-struvite-formation-inhibition
#5
A Ito, H Kawakami, N Ishikawa, M Ito, T Oikawa, A Sato, T Umita
Accelerated release of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) from surplus activated sludge (SAS) was investigated to develop a new system for the recovery of the elements. Anaerobic cultivation of SAS during 24 h released 78% of K and about 50% of Mg and P from SAS more effectively compared to aerobic cultivation (K: 40%, Mg: 15%, P: 15%). Furthermore, the addition of sodium acetate as an organic carbon source remarkably accelerated the release of K, Mg and P from SAS under anaerobic condition. However, no increase in the maximum release efficiencies was observed...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459563/how-much-will-it-cost-to-monitor-microbial-drinking-water-quality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Caroline Delaire, Rachel Peletz, Emily Kumpel, Joyce Kisiangani, Robert Bain, Ranjiv Khush
Microbial water quality monitoring is crucial for managing water resources and protecting public health. However, institutional testing activities in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited. Because the economics of water quality testing are poorly understood, the extent to which cost may be a barrier to monitoring in different settings is unclear. This study used cost data from 18 African monitoring institutions (piped water suppliers and health surveillance agencies in six countries) and estimates of water supply type coverage from 15 countries to assess the annual financial requirements for microbial water testing at both national and regional levels, using World Health Organization recommendations for sampling frequency...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449828/hypertension-canada-s-2017-guidelines-for-diagnosis-risk-assessment-prevention-and-treatment-of-hypertension-in-adults
#7
Alexander A Leung, Stella S Daskalopoulou, Kaberi Dasgupta, Kerry McBrien, Sonia Butalia, Kelly B Zarnke, Kara Nerenberg, Kevin C Harris, Meranda Nakhla, Lyne Cloutier, Mark Gelfer, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Alain Milot, Peter Bolli, Guy Tremblay, Donna McLean, Sheldon W Tobe, Marcel Ruzicka, Kevin D Burns, Michel Vallée, G V Ramesh Prasad, Steven E Gryn, Ross D Feldman, Peter Selby, Andrew Pipe, Ernesto L Schiffrin, Philip A McFarlane, Paul Oh, Robert A Hegele, Milan Khara, Thomas W Wilson, S Brian Penner, Ellen Burgess, Praveena Sivapalan, Robert J Herman, Simon L Bacon, Simon W Rabkin, Richard E Gilbert, Tavis S Campbell, Steven Grover, George Honos, Patrice Lindsay, Michael D Hill, Shelagh B Coutts, Gord Gubitz, Norman R C Campbell, Gordon W Moe, Jonathan G Howlett, Jean-Martin Boulanger, Ally Prebtani, Gregory Kline, Lawrence A Leiter, Charlotte Jones, Anne-Marie Côté, Vincent Woo, Janusz Kaczorowski, Luc Trudeau, Ross T Tsuyuki, Swapnil Hiremath, Denis Drouin, Kim L Lavoie, Pavel Hamet, Jean C Grégoire, Richard Lewanczuk, George K Dresser, Mukul Sharma, Debra Reid, Scott A Lear, Gregory Moullec, Milan Gupta, Laura A Magee, Alexander G Logan, Janis Dionne, Anne Fournier, Geneviève Benoit, Janusz Feber, Luc Poirier, Raj S Padwal, Doreen M Rabi
Hypertension Canada provides annually updated, evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we introduce 10 new guidelines. Three previous guidelines have been revised and 5 have been removed. Previous age and frailty distinctions have been removed as considerations for when to initiate antihypertensive therapy. In the presence of macrovascular target organ damage, or in those with independent cardiovascular risk factors, antihypertensive therapy should be considered for all individuals with elevated average systolic nonautomated office blood pressure (non-AOBP) readings ≥ 140 mm Hg...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440394/g-protein-coupled-receptor-30-mediates-the-effects-of-estrogen-on-endothelial-cell-tube-formation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Liyuan Zhou, Hong Chen, Xun Mao, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker, Hua Zhang
The placenta is the exchange organ between the mother and the fetus. The inadequate function of this organ is associated with a number of pregnancy disorders. Hypoxia and oxidative stress during placental development may induce endothelial dysfunction, resulting in the reduction in the perfusion of the placenta. During pregnancy, the levels of estrogen are increased. Decreased estrogen levels have been reported in women with preeclampsia. However, whether estrogen is involved in placental angiogenesis remains unclear...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382479/tuned-in-plant-roots-use-sound-to-locate-water
#9
Monica Gagliano, Mavra Grimonprez, Martial Depczynski, Michael Renton
Because water is essential to life, organisms have evolved a wide range of strategies to cope with water limitations, including actively searching for their preferred moisture levels to avoid dehydration. Plants use moisture gradients to direct their roots through the soil once a water source is detected, but how they first detect the source is unknown. We used the model plant Pisum sativum to investigate the mechanism by which roots sense and locate water. We found that roots were able to locate a water source by sensing the vibrations generated by water moving inside pipes, even in the absence of substrate moisture...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371351/identification-of-pyrolysis-products-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-2-amino-1-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-ethanone-hydrochloride-bk-2c-b-and-its-iodo-analog-bk-2c-i
#10
Kelly B Texter, Rachel Waymach, Pierce V Kavanagh, John E O'Brien, Brian Talbot, Simon D Brandt, Elizabeth A Gardner
2-Amino-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone hydrochloride (bk-2C-B) has recently emerged as a new psychoactive substance (NPS). It is most commonly consumed orally although there are indications that it might also be ingested by inhalation or 'smoking'. Information about the stability of bk-2C-B when exposed to heat is unavailable and the potential for pyrolytic degradation and formation of unknown substances available for inhalation prompted an investigation using a simulated 'meth pipe' scenario. Twelve products following pyrolysis of bk-2C-B were detected and verified by organic synthesis of the corresponding standards...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363920/design-and-rationale-of-a-matched-cohort-study-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-a-combined-household-level-piped-water-and-sanitation-intervention-in-rural-odisha-india
#11
Heather Reese, Parimita Routray, Belen Torondel, Gloria Sclar, Maryann G Delea, Sheela S Sinharoy, Laura Zambrano, Bethany Caruso, Samir R Mishra, Howard H Chang, Thomas Clasen
INTRODUCTION: Government efforts to address massive shortfalls in rural water and sanitation in India have centred on construction of community water sources and toilets for selected households. However, deficiencies with water quality and quantity at the household level and community coverage and actual use of toilets have led Gram Vikas, a local non-governmental organization in Odisha, India, to develop an approach that provides household-level piped water connections contingent on full community-level toilet coverage...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353111/the-search-for-an-alternative-to-piped-water-and-sewer-systems-in-the-alaskan-arctic
#12
Korie A Hickel, Aaron Dotson, Timothy K Thomas, Mia Heavener, Jack Hébert, John A Warren
Forty-two communities in rural Alaska are considered unserved or underserved with water and sewer infrastructure. Many challenges exist to provide centralized piped water and sewer infrastructure to the homes, and they are exacerbated by decreasing capital funding. Unserved communities in rural Alaska experience higher rates of disease, supporting the recommendation that sanitation infrastructure should be provided. Organizations are pursuing alternative solutions to conventional piped water and sewer in order to maximize water use and reuse for public health...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336609/transition-from-turbulent-to-coherent-flows-in-confined-three-dimensional-active-fluids
#13
Kun-Ta Wu, Jean Bernard Hishamunda, Daniel T N Chen, Stephen J DeCamp, Ya-Wen Chang, Alberto Fernández-Nieves, Seth Fraden, Zvonimir Dogic
Transport of fluid through a pipe is essential for the operation of macroscale machines and microfluidic devices. Conventional fluids only flow in response to external pressure. We demonstrate that an active isotropic fluid, composed of microtubules and molecular motors, autonomously flows through meter-long three-dimensional channels. We establish control over the magnitude, velocity profile, and direction of the self-organized flows and correlate these to the structure of the extensile microtubule bundles...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298331/expression-of-leptin-receptor-in-the-oviduct-of-chinese-brown-frog-rana-dybowskii
#14
Liqin Xi, Yuning Liu, Zeqi Tang, Xia Sheng, Haolin Zhang, Qiang Weng, Meiyu Xu
The oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) expands specifically during pre-hibernation instead of in the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the expression of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in Rana dybowskii oviduct during the breeding period and pre-hibernation. Histologically, the oviduct of Rana dybowskii consists of glandular cells, tubule lumen and epithelial cells. The oviductal weight and pipe diameter also revealed significant differences, which were higher in pre-hibernation than that of the breeding period...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248977/evolution-of-protein-protein-interaction-networks-in-yeast
#15
Andrew Schoenrock, Daniel Burnside, Houman Moteshareie, Sylvain Pitre, Mohsen Hooshyar, James R Green, Ashkan Golshani, Frank Dehne, Alex Wong
Interest in the evolution of protein-protein and genetic interaction networks has been rising in recent years, but the lack of large-scale high quality comparative datasets has acted as a barrier. Here, we carried out a comparative analysis of computationally predicted protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks from five closely related yeast species. We used the Protein-protein Interaction Prediction Engine (PIPE), which uses a database of known interactions to make sequence-based PPI predictions, to generate high quality predicted interactomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242223/evaluation-on-the-decomposability-of-tropical-forest-peat-soils-after-conversion-to-an-oil-palm-plantation
#16
Faustina E Sangok, Nagamitsu Maie, Lulie Melling, Akira Watanabe
To understand the variations in the decomposability of tropical peat soil following deforestation for an oil palm plantation, a field incubation experiment was conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia. Peat soils collected from three types of primary forest, namely Mixed Peat Swamp (MPS; Gonystylus-Dactylocladus-Neoscrotechinia association), Alan Batu (ABt; Shorea albida-Gonstylus-Strenonurus association), and Alan Bunga (ABg; Shorea albida association), were packed in polyvinyl chloride pipes and installed in an oil palm plantation...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238364/design-and-performance-of-subgrade-biogeochemical-reactors
#17
Jeff Gamlin, Doug Downey, Brad Shearer, Paul Favara
Subgrade biogeochemical reactors (SBGRs), also commonly referred to as in situ bioreactors, are a unique technology for treatment of contaminant source areas and groundwater plume hot spots. SBGRs have most commonly been configured for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) applications for chlorinated solvent treatment. However, they have also been designed for other contaminant classes using alternative treatment media. The SBGR technology typically consists of removal of contaminated soil via excavation or large-diameter augers, and backfill of the soil void with gravel and treatment amendments tailored to the target contaminant(s)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235877/spread-from-the-sink-to-the-patient-in-situ-study-using-green-fluorescent-protein-gfp-expressing-escherichia-coli-to-model-bacterial-dispersion-from-hand-washing-sink-trap-reservoirs
#18
Shireen Kotay, Weidong Chai, William Guilford, Katie Barry, Amy J Mathers
There have been an increasing number of reports implicating Gammaproteobacteria as often carrying genes of drug resistance from colonized sink traps to vulnerable hospitalized patients. However, the mechanism of transmission from the wastewater of the sink P-trap to patients remains poorly understood. Herein we report the use of a designated hand-washing sink lab gallery to model dispersion of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli from sink wastewater to the surrounding environment. We found no dispersion of GFP-expressing E...
April 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228457/impact-of-workplace-physical-activity-interventions-on-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-health-among-working-age-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jennifer L Reed, Stephanie A Prince, Cara G Elliott, Kerri-Anne Mullen, Heather E Tulloch, Swapnil Hiremath, Lisa M Cotie, Andrew L Pipe, Robert D Reid
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Physical activity is protective for cardiovascular disease. The realities of modern life require working-age women to address work-related, family, and social demands. Few working-age women meet current moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Given that working-age women spend a substantial proportion of their waking hours at work, places of employment may be an opportune and a controlled setting to implement programs, improving MVPA levels and enhancing cardiometabolic health...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153294/attenuated-total-reflectance-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-for-determination-of-long-chain-free-fatty-acid-concentration-in-oily-wastewater-using-the-double-wavenumber-extrapolation-technique
#20
Zisu Hao, Divya Malyala, Lisa Dean, Joel Ducoste
Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DWET) was developed to simultaneously measure LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. This method is based on the analysis of the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectrum, in which the absorbance of carboxyl bond (1710cm(-1)) and triglyceride bond (1745cm(-1)) were selected as the characteristic wavenumbers for total LCFFAs and FOG, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
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