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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461039/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#1
David E Nichols
LSD is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 g) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental illness, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
February 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407543/natural-speech-algorithm-applied-to-baseline-interview-data-can-predict-which-patients-will-respond-to-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#2
Facundo Carrillo, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak, Philip Ashton, Lily Fitzgerald, Jack Stroud, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
BACKGROUND: Natural speech analytics has seen some improvements over recent years, and this has opened a window for objective and quantitative diagnosis in psychiatry. Here, we used a machine learning algorithm applied to natural speech to ask whether language properties measured before psilocybin for treatment-resistant can predict for which patients it will be effective and for which it will not. METHODS: A baseline autobiographical memory interview was conducted and transcribed...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396616/the-hidden-therapist-evidence-for-a-central-role-of-music-in-psychedelic-therapy
#3
Mendel Kaelen, Bruna Giribaldi, Jordan Raine, Lisa Evans, Christopher Timmerman, Natalie Rodriguez, Leor Roseman, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
RATIONALE: Recent studies have supported the safety and efficacy of psychedelic therapy for mood disorders and addiction. Music is considered an important component in the treatment model, but little empirical research has been done to examine the magnitude and nature of its therapeutic role. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the influence of music on the acute experience and clinical outcomes of psychedelic therapy. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews inquired about the different ways in which music influenced the experience of 19 patients undergoing psychedelic therapy with psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression...
February 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356590/taking-psychedelics-seriously
#4
Ira Byock
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric research in the 1950s and 1960s showed potential for psychedelic medications to markedly alleviate depression and suffering associated with terminal illness. More recent published studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of psilocybin, MDMA, and ketamine when administered in a medically supervised and monitored approach. A single or brief series of sessions often results in substantial and sustained improvement among people with treatment-resistant depression and anxiety, including those with serious medical conditions...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338538/increased-nature-relatedness-and-decreased-authoritarian-political-views-after-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#5
Taylor Lyons, Robin L Carhart-Harris
RATIONALE: Previous research suggests that classical psychedelic compounds can induce lasting changes in personality traits, attitudes and beliefs in both healthy subjects and patient populations. AIM: Here we sought to investigate the effects of psilocybin on nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: This open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design studied the effects of psilocybin on measures of nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with moderate to severe TRD ( n=7) versus age-matched non-treated healthy control subjects ( n=7)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302713/psilocybin-disrupts-sensory-and-higher-order-cognitive-processing-but-not-pre-attentive-cognitive-processing-study-on-p300-and-mismatch-negativity-in-healthy-volunteers
#6
Anna Bravermanová, Michaela Viktorinová, Filip Tylš, Tomáš Novák, Renáta Androvičová, Jakub Korčák, Jiří Horáček, Marie Balíková, Inga Griškova-Bulanova, Dominika Danielová, Přemysl Vlček, Pavel Mohr, Martin Brunovský, Vlastimil Koudelka, Tomáš Páleníček
RATIONALE: Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in information processing is less clear. OBJECTIVES: We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288686/increased-amygdala-responses-to-emotional-faces-after-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#7
Leor Roseman, Lysia Demetriou, Matthew B Wall, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent evidence indicates that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for treating depression. Some studies have found that patients with depression show heightened amygdala responses to fearful faces and there is reliable evidence that treatment with SSRIs attenuates amygdala responses (Ma, 2015). We hypothesised that amygdala responses to emotional faces would be altered post-treatment with psilocybin. In this open-label study, 20 individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant depression, underwent two separate dosing sessions with psilocybin...
December 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#8
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#10
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119217/psilocybin-with-psychological-support-for-treatment-resistant-depression-six-month-follow-up
#11
R L Carhart-Harris, M Bolstridge, C M J Day, J Rucker, R Watts, D E Erritzoe, M Kaelen, B Giribaldi, M Bloomfield, S Pilling, J A Rickard, B Forbes, A Feilding, D Taylor, H V Curran, D J Nutt
RATIONALE: Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116367/double-blind-comparison-of-the-two-hallucinogens-psilocybin-and-dextromethorphan-similarities-and-differences-in-subjective-experiences
#12
Theresa M Carbonaro, Matthew W Johnson, Ethan Hurwitz, Roland R Griffiths
RATIONALE: Although psilocybin and dextromethorphan (DXM) are hallucinogens, they have different receptor mechanisms of action and have not been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: This study compared subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of psilocybin and dextromethorphan under conditions that minimized expectancy effects. METHODS: Single, acute oral doses of psilocybin (10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg), DXM (400 mg/70 kg), and placebo were administered under double-blind conditions to 20 healthy participants with histories of hallucinogen use...
November 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039233/the-relationships-of-classic-psychedelic-use-with-criminal-behavior-in-the-united-states-adult-population
#13
Peter S Hendricks, Michael Scott Crawford, Karen L Cropsey, Heith Copes, N Wiles Sweat, Zach Walsh, Gregory Pavela
Criminal behavior exacts a large toll on society and is resistant to intervention. Some evidence suggests classic psychedelics may inhibit criminal behavior, but the extent of these effects has not been comprehensively explored. In this study, we tested the relationships of classic psychedelic use and psilocybin use per se with criminal behavior among over 480,000 United States adult respondents pooled from the last 13 available years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002 through 2014) while controlling for numerous covariates...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030624/psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression-fmri-measured-brain-mechanisms
#14
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Mark Bolstridge, Lysia Demetriou, J Nienke Pannekoek, Matthew B Wall, Mark Tanner, Mendel Kaelen, John McGonigle, Kevin Murphy, Robert Leech, H Valerie Curran, David J Nutt
Psilocybin with psychological support is showing promise as a treatment model in psychiatry but its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after treatment with psilocybin (serotonin agonist) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Quality pre and post treatment fMRI data were collected from 16 of 19 patients. Decreased depressive symptoms were observed in all 19 patients at 1-week post-treatment and 47% met criteria for response at 5 weeks...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020861/psilocybin-occasioned-mystical-type-experience-in-combination-with-meditation-and-other-spiritual-practices-produces-enduring-positive-changes-in-psychological-functioning-and-in-trait-measures-of-prosocial-attitudes-and-behaviors
#15
Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A MacLean, Frederick S Barrett, Mary P Cosimano, Maggie A Klinedinst
Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#17
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947181/serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-suffering-from-a-life-threatening-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Simon Reiche, Leo Hermle, Stefan Gutwinski, Henrik Jungaberle, Peter Gasser, Tomislav Majić
Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#19
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
November 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918722/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression-implications-for-euthanasia
#20
Nigel Strauss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
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