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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863323/psychedelics-and-personality
#1
Marc Aixalà, Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak, José Carlos Bouso
In the past decade, an increasing number of clinical trials are reporting evidence that psychedelics or serotonergic hallucinogens (such as lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and ayahuasca/dimethyltryptamine) could be effective in the treatment of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood but seem to involve changes in bran dynamics in areas rich in serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors and in personality. In the present text, we present a brief and critical overview of the current research in this field, pointing out both promises and limitations of these studies...
June 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844496/psilocybin-and-mdma-reduce-costly-punishment-in-the-ultimatum-game
#2
Anthony S Gabay, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Ndaba Mazibuko, Matthew J Kempton, Paul D Morrison, David J Nutt, Mitul A Mehta
Disruptions in social decision-making are becoming evident in many psychiatric conditions. These are studied using paradigms investigating the psychological mechanisms underlying interpersonal interactions, such as the Ultimatum Game (UG). Rejection behaviour in the UG represents altruistic punishment - the costly punishment of norm violators - but the mechanisms underlying it require clarification. To investigate the psychopharmacology of UG behaviour, we carried out two studies with healthy participants, employing serotonergic agonists: psilocybin (open-label, within-participant design, N = 19) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design, N = 20)...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842926/facile-assembly-and-fluorescence-based-screening-method-for-heterologous-expression-of-biosynthetic-pathways-in-fungi
#3
Sandra Hoefgen, Jun Lin, Janis Fricke, Maria C Stroe, Derek J Mattern, Johann E Kufs, Peter Hortschansky, Axel A Brakhage, Dirk Hoffmeister, Vito Valiante
Heterologous expression of multi-gene biosynthetic pathways in eukaryotic hosts is limited by highly regulated individual monocistrons. Dissimilar to prokaryotes, each eukaryotic gene is strictly controlled by its own regulatory elements, such as promoter and terminator. Consequently, parallel transcription can occur only when a group of genes is synchronously activated. A strategy to circumvent this limitation is the concerted expression of multiple genes as a polycistron. By exploiting the "stop-carry on" mechanism of picornaviruses, we have designed a sophisticated, yet easy-to-assemble vector system to heterologously express multiple genes under the control of a single promoter...
May 26, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807492/psychedelic-use-and-intimate-partner-violence-the-role-of-emotion-regulation
#4
Michelle S Thiessen, Zach Walsh, Brian M Bird, Adele Lafrance
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that psychedelic use predicts reduced perpetration of intimate partner violence among men involved in the criminal justice system. However, the extent to which this association generalizes to community samples has not been examined, and potential mechanisms underlying this association have not been directly explored. AIMS: The present study examined the association between lifetime psychedelic use and intimate partner violence among a community sample of men and women...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764303/relief-from-intractable-phantom-pain-by-combining-psilocybin-and-mirror-visual-feedback-mvf
#5
Vilayanur Ramachandran, Chaipat Chunharas, Zeve Marcus, Timothy Furnish, Albert Lin
AL's leg was amputated resulting in phantom-limb pain (PLP). (1) When a volunteer placed her foot on or near the phantom - touching it evoked organized sensations in corresponding locations on AL's phantom. (2) Mirror-visual-feedback (MVF) relieved PLP, as did, "phantom massage". (3) Psilocybin-MVF pairing produced synergistic effects, complete elimination of PLP, and reduction in paroxysmal episodes. (4) Touching the volunteer's leg where AL previously had external fixators, evoked sensation of nails boring through the leg...
April 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753748/the-abuse-potential-of-medical-psilocybin-according-to-the-8-factors-of-the-controlled-substances-act
#6
REVIEW
Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths, Peter S Hendricks, Jack E Henningfield
This review assesses the abuse potential of medically-administered psilocybin, following the structure of the 8 factors of the US Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Research suggests the potential safety and efficacy of psilocybin in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress and substance use disorders, setting the occasion for this review. A more extensive assessment of abuse potential according to an 8 factor analysis would eventually be required to guide appropriate schedule placement. Psilocybin, like other 5-HT2A agonist classic psychedelics, has limited reinforcing effects, supporting marginal, transient non-human self-administration...
May 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750381/biocatalytic-production-of-psilocybin-and-derivatives-in-tryptophan-synthase-enhanced-reactions
#7
Felix Blei, Florian Baldeweg, Janis Fricke, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722608/lysergic-acid-diethylamide-and-psilocybin-for-the-management-of-patients-with-persistent-pain-a-potential-role
#8
Andy Whelan, Mark I Johnson
Recently, there has been interest in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin for depression, anxiety and fear of death in terminal illness. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential use of LSD and psilocybin for patients with persistent pain. LSD and psilocybin are 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists and may interact with nociceptive and antinociceptive processing. Tentative evidence from a systematic review suggests that LSD (7 studies, 323 participants) and psilocybin (3 studies, 92 participants) may be beneficial for depression and anxiety associated with distress in life-threatening diseases...
May 3, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703645/psilocybin-modulates-functional-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-during-emotional-face-discrimination
#9
O Grimm, R Kraehenmann, K H Preller, E Seifritz, F X Vollenweider
Recent studies suggest that the antidepressant effects of the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist psilocybin are mediated through its modulatory properties on prefrontal and limbic brain regions including the amygdala. To further investigate the effects of psilocybin on emotion processing networks, we studied for the first-time psilocybin's acute effects on amygdala seed-to-voxel connectivity in an event-related face discrimination task in 18 healthy volunteers who received psilocybin and placebo in a double-blind balanced cross-over design...
April 24, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685188/out-of-the-box-a-psychedelic-model-to-study-the-creative-mind
#10
K P C Kuypers
Our creativity is challenged daily when facing new situations asking for novel solutions. Creativity, a multicomponent construct includes flexible divergent and rigid convergent thinking. Psychedelic drugs like psilocybin can enhance creativity and affect state of mind (mood, empathy, openness). Of note, flexible thinking is disturbed in psychopathological conditions like anxiety disorders and depression and preliminary findings have shown psychedelics to be efficacious in the treatment of those conditions...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682608/-hallucinations-following-acute-cannabis-dosing-a-case-report-and-comparison-to-other-hallucinogenic-drugs
#11
Frederick S Barrett, Nicolas J Schlienz, Natalie Lembeck, Muhammad Waqas, Ryan Vandrey
Introduction: Cannabis has been historically classified as a hallucinogen. However, subjective cannabis effects do not typically include hallucinogen-like effects. Empirical reports of hallucinogen-like effects produced by cannabis in controlled settings, particularly among healthy research volunteers, are rare and have mostly occurred after administration of purified Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) rather than whole plant cannabis. Methods: The case of a healthy 30-year-old male who experienced auditory and visual hallucinations in a controlled laboratory study after inhaling vaporized cannabis that contained 25 mg THC (case dose) is presented...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666578/individual-experiences-in-four-cancer-patients-following-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy
#12
Tara C Malone, Sarah E Mennenga, Jeffrey Guss, Samantha K Podrebarac, Lindsey T Owens, Anthony P Bossis, Alexander B Belser, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
A growing body of evidence shows that existential and spiritual well-being in cancer patients is associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and serves as a buffer against depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in treating cancer-related anxiety and depression. A double-blind controlled trial was performed, where 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned to treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532180/serotonergic-psychedelics-experimental-approaches-for-assessing-mechanisms-of-action
#13
Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515449/the-psychedelic-debriefing-in-alcohol-dependence-treatment-illustrating-key-change-phenomena-through-qualitative-content-analysis-of-clinical-sessions
#14
Elizabeth M Nielson, Darrick G May, Alyssa A Forcehimes, Michael P Bogenschutz
Research on the clinical applications of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy has demonstrated promising early results for treatment of alcohol dependence. Detailed description of the content and methods of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy, as it is conducted in clinical settings, is scarce. Methods: An open-label pilot (proof-of-concept) study of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol dependence (NCT01534494) was conducted to generate data for a phase 2 RCT (NCT02061293) of a similar treatment in a larger population...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515439/clinical-interpretations-of-patient-experience-in-a-trial-of-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#15
Michael P Bogenschutz, Samantha K Podrebarac, Jessie H Duane, Sean S Amegadzie, Tara C Malone, Lindsey T Owens, Stephen Ross, Sarah E Mennenga
After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461039/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#16
David E Nichols
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 μg) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental disorders, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
March 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407543/natural-speech-algorithm-applied-to-baseline-interview-data-can-predict-which-patients-will-respond-to-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#17
Facundo Carrillo, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak, Philip Ashton, Lily Fitzgerald, Jack Stroud, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
BACKGROUND: Natural speech analytics has seen some improvements over recent years, and this has opened a window for objective and quantitative diagnosis in psychiatry. Here, we used a machine learning algorithm applied to natural speech to ask whether language properties measured before psilocybin for treatment-resistant can predict for which patients it will be effective and for which it will not. METHODS: A baseline autobiographical memory interview was conducted and transcribed...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396616/the-hidden-therapist-evidence-for-a-central-role-of-music-in-psychedelic-therapy
#18
Mendel Kaelen, Bruna Giribaldi, Jordan Raine, Lisa Evans, Christopher Timmerman, Natalie Rodriguez, Leor Roseman, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
RATIONALE: Recent studies have supported the safety and efficacy of psychedelic therapy for mood disorders and addiction. Music is considered an important component in the treatment model, but little empirical research has been done to examine the magnitude and nature of its therapeutic role. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the influence of music on the acute experience and clinical outcomes of psychedelic therapy. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews inquired about the different ways in which music influenced the experience of 19 patients undergoing psychedelic therapy with psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression...
February 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356590/taking-psychedelics-seriously
#19
Ira Byock
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric research in the 1950s and 1960s showed potential for psychedelic medications to markedly alleviate depression and suffering associated with terminal illness. More recent published studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of psilocybin, MDMA, and ketamine when administered in a medically supervised and monitored approach. A single or brief series of sessions often results in substantial and sustained improvement among people with treatment-resistant depression and anxiety, including those with serious medical conditions...
April 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338538/increased-nature-relatedness-and-decreased-authoritarian-political-views-after-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#20
Taylor Lyons, Robin L Carhart-Harris
RATIONALE: Previous research suggests that classical psychedelic compounds can induce lasting changes in personality traits, attitudes and beliefs in both healthy subjects and patient populations. AIM: Here we sought to investigate the effects of psilocybin on nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: This open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design studied the effects of psilocybin on measures of nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with moderate to severe TRD ( n=7) versus age-matched non-treated healthy control subjects ( n=7)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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