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G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Bas T H de Veen, Arnt F A Schellekens, Michel M M Verheij, Judith R Homberg
INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin...
August 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Theresa M Carbonaro, Matthew P Bradstreet, Frederick S Barrett, Katherine A MacLean, Robert Jesse, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Acute and enduring adverse effects of psilocybin have been reported anecdotally, but have not been well characterized. For this study, 1993 individuals (mean age 30 yrs; 78% male) completed an online survey about their single most psychologically difficult or challenging experience (worst "bad trip") after consuming psilocybin mushrooms. Thirty-nine percent rated it among the top five most challenging experiences of his/her lifetime. Eleven percent put self or others at risk of physical harm; factors increasing the likelihood of risk included estimated dose, duration and difficulty of the experience, and absence of physical comfort and social support...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Michael P Bogenschutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
L F Tófoli, D B de Araujo
Despite reports of apparent benefits, social and political pressure beginning in the late 1960s effectively banned scientific inquiry into psychedelic substances. Covert examination of psychedelics persisted through the 1990s; the turn of the century and especially the past 10 years, however, has seen a resurgent interest in psychedelic substances (eg, LSD, ayahuasca, psilocybin). This chapter outlines relevant EEG and brain imaging studies evaluating the effects of psychedelics on the brain. This chapter also reviews evidence of the use of psychedelics as adjunct therapy for a number of psychiatric and addictive disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Roland R Griffiths
BACKGROUND: A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration...
July 21, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Robert H Howland
Antidepressant, atypical antipsychotic, and hallucinogen drugs mediate their actions in part by interactions with the serotonin-2A (5HT2A) receptor. Serotonergic hallucinogen drugs, such as psilocybin, bind most potently as agonists at the 5HT2A receptor, producing profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. Some of these drugs have been or are currently being investigated in small Phase 2 studies for depression, alcoholism, smoking cessation, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, unlike the synergistic effects of combining antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic drugs, the potential therapeutic effects of hallucinogen drugs may be attenuated by the concurrent use of these medications because antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic drugs desensitize and/or down-regulate 5HT2A receptors...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jordi Riba, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak
To date, pharmacological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and for drug dependence show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients suffering severe and persistent symptoms. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of clinical trials published from 1990 until 2015, assessing these therapeutic properties. Electronic searches were performed using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
J Pietsch, K Scheffel, D Acquarone, I Koch, M Deters, M Hermanns-Clausen
Aim of the study: Based on an abundance of information on the internet, psychotropic plants and mushrooms are of increasing relevance as legal and cheap alternatives to other illicit drugs. Due to the lack of a German database, the abuse of selected biogenic drugs using reported exposures to 3 German Poison Information Centres (PICs) was examined. Methods: Information on abuse of biogenic drugs was collected from the German PICs in Berlin, Erfurt and Fribourg (2007-2013). Results: 602 drug abuses were reported to the selected PICs...
June 14, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Keiko Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
Katarina L Shebloski, James M Broadway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Phil Cowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Mark Bolstridge, James Rucker, Camilla M J Day, David Erritzoe, Mendel Kaelen, Michael Bloomfield, James A Rickard, Ben Forbes, Amanda Feilding, David Taylor, Steve Pilling, Valerie H Curran, David J Nutt
BACKGROUND: Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting...
July 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Nigel Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Andreas Hock, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Milan Scheidegger, Franz X Vollenweider
Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear...
May 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael C Mithoefer, Charles S Grob, Timothy D Brewerton
4-phosphorloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (psilocybin) and methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA), best known for their illegal use as psychedelic drugs, are showing promise as therapeutics in a resurgence of clinical research during the past 10 years. Psilocybin is being tested for alcoholism, smoking cessation, and in patients with advanced cancer with anxiety. MDMA is showing encouraging results as a treatment for refractory post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety in autistic adults, and anxiety associated with a life-threatening illness...
May 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Veniero Gambaro, Gabriella Roda, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Eleonora Casagni, Lucia Dell'Acqua, Fiorenza Farè, Eleonora Paladino, Chiara Rusconi, Stefania Arioli, Diego Mora
The taxonomic identification of the biological material contained in the hallucinogenic mushrooms culture media, was carried out using a DNA-based approach, thus highlighting the usefulness of this approach in the forensic identification of illegal samples also when they are present as basidiospores mixed in culture media and spore-bearing fruiting body are not present. This approach is very useful as it allows the unequivocal identification of potentially illicit material before the cultivation and it enables to stop the material to the Customs and to destroy it due to its dangerousness without cultivating the "grow-kits" and without instructing a criminal case...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Evan J Kyzar, Allan V Kalueff
After decades of sociopolitical obstacles, the field of psychiatry is experiencing a revived interest in the use of hallucinogenic agents to treat brain disorders. Along with the use of ketamine for depression, recent pilot studies have highlighted the efficacy of classic serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, in treating addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. However, many basic pharmacological and toxicological questions remain unanswered with regard to these compounds...
October 2016: Zebrafish
Rainer Kraehenmann, André Schmidt, Karl Friston, Katrin H Preller, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing. We therefore analyzed our previous fMRI data using dynamic causal modeling and used Bayesian model selection to infer how psilocybin modulated effective connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network during threat processing...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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