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Psilocybin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443617/the-therapeutic-potential-of-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-and-future
#1
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Guy M Goodwin
Plant-based psychedelics such as psilocybin have an ancient history of medicinal use. After the first English-language report on LSD in 1950, psychedelics enjoyed a short-lived relationship with psychology and psychiatry. Used most notably as aides to psychotherapy for the treatment of mood disorders and alcohol dependence, drugs such as LSD showed initial therapeutic promise before prohibitive legislature in the mid-1960s effectively ended all major psychedelic research programmes. Since the early 1990s, there has been a steady revival of human psychedelic research: last year saw reports on the first modern brain imaging study with LSD and 3 separate clinical trials of psilocybin for depressive symptoms...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422113/increased-spontaneous-meg-signal-diversity-for-psychoactive-doses-of-ketamine-lsd-and-psilocybin
#2
Michael M Schartner, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#3
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353056/pharmacokinetics-of-escalating-doses-of-oral-psilocybin-in-healthy-adults
#4
Randall T Brown, Christopher R Nicholas, Nicholas V Cozzi, Michele C Gassman, Karen M Cooper, Daniel Muller, Chantelle D Thomas, Scott J Hetzel, Kelsey M Henriquez, Alexandra S Ribaudo, Paul R Hutson
INTRODUCTION: Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. METHODS: Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#5
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101325/role-of-psilocybin-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#6
Ananya Mahapatra, Rishi Gupta
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring alkaloid, pharmacologically similar to the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although primarily used as a recreational drug or an entheogen in particular cultural settings, recent population based studies have shown that it does not lead to serious physical or mental health problems or dependent use. In view of recent work demonstrating psilocybin's potential to increase subjective sense of wellbeing and because of its novel mechanism of 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonism, it is being explored for possible therapeutic utility in mood and anxiety disorders...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095732/an-online-survey-of-tobacco-smoking-cessation-associated-with-naturalistic-psychedelic-use
#7
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Patrick S Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence. This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074670/metabolism-of-psilocybin-and-psilocin-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-relevance
#8
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites...
February 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#9
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019026/psychedelics-as-medicines-an-emerging-new-paradigm
#10
D E Nichols, M W Johnson, C D Nichols
Scientific interest in serotonergic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD; 5-HT2A receptor agonists) has dramatically increased within the last decade. Clinical studies administering psychedelics with psychotherapy have shown preliminary evidence of robust efficacy in treating anxiety and depression, as well as addiction to tobacco and alcohol. Moreover, recent research has suggested that these compounds have potential efficacy against inflammatory diseases through novel mechanisms, with potential advantages over existing antiinflammatory agents...
February 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931907/return-of-the-psychedelics-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#11
REVIEW
Suravi Patra
Psilocybin, the clinically most researched classic psychedelic has recently been tested for its safety and efficacy in a clinical population of treatment resistant depression. The efficacy of psilocybin in clinical depression previously demonstrated in the elecrophysiologic and neuroimaging findings as also in neuropsychological assessments is further validated by the findings of this rigorously conducted randomized trial. Mechanism of action of psilocybin and efficacy in treatment resistant depression are discussed in this paper...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909175/psilocybin-promising-results-in-double-blind-trials-require-confirmation-by-real-world-evidence
#12
Alasdair Breckenridge, Diederick E Grobbee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909174/psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy-for-dying-cancer-patients-aiding-the-final-trip
#13
David Spiegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909173/the-role-of-psychedelics-in-palliative-care-reconsidered-a-case-for-psilocybin
#14
Benjamin Kelmendi, Philip Corlett, Mohini Ranganathan, Cyril D'Souza, John H Krystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909171/psilocybin-for-depression-and-anxiety-associated-with-life-threatening-illnesses
#15
John D McCorvy, Reid Hj Olsen, Bryan L Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909170/psilocybin-and-palliative-end-of-life-care
#16
Richard C Shelton, Peter S Hendricks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909168/psilocybin-in-end-of-life-care-implications-for-further-research
#17
Paul Summergrad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909167/psilocybin-psychotherapy-or-drug
#18
Guy M Goodwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909165/psilocybin-produces-substantial-and-sustained-decreases-in-depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-life-threatening-cancer-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#19
Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, Michael A Carducci, Annie Umbricht, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Mary P Cosimano, Margaret A Klinedinst
Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909164/rapid-and-sustained-symptom-reduction-following-psilocybin-treatment-for-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-life-threatening-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Stephen Ross, Anthony Bossis, Jeffrey Guss, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Tara Malone, Barry Cohen, Sarah E Mennenga, Alexander Belser, Krystallia Kalliontzi, James Babb, Zhe Su, Patricia Corby, Brian L Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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