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Psilocybin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020861/psilocybin-occasioned-mystical-type-experience-in-combination-with-meditation-and-other-spiritual-practices-produces-enduring-positive-changes-in-psychological-functioning-and-in-trait-measures-of-prosocial-attitudes-and-behaviors
#1
Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A MacLean, Frederick S Barrett, Mary P Cosimano, Maggie A Klinedinst
Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#3
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947181/serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-suffering-from-a-life-threatening-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Simon Reiche, Leo Hermle, Stefan Gutwinski, Henrik Jungaberle, Peter Gasser, Tomislav Majić
Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time...
September 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#5
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
September 22, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918722/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-for-anxiety-and-depression-implications-for-euthanasia
#6
Nigel Strauss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870224/psychoactive-substances-as-a-last-resort-a-qualitative-study-of-self-treatment-of-migraine-and-cluster-headaches
#7
Martin Andersson, Mari Persson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines. METHODS: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users' own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/ , http://bluelight...
September 5, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836272/psychedelic-drugs-as-therapeutics-no-illusions-about-the-challenges
#8
Edward M Sellers, Deborah B Leiderman
Interest in the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic agents has recently increased. In addition to psilocybin, a wide variety of agents with psychedelic properties have been proposed and partially tested. However, the challenges of obtaining approval to market a restricted psychotomimetic agent are formidable.
August 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790944/qualitative-and-quantitative-features-of-music-reported-to-support-peak-mystical-experiences-during-psychedelic-therapy-sessions
#9
Frederick S Barrett, Hollis Robbins, David Smooke, Jenine L Brown, Roland R Griffiths
Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic) hallucinogen ("psychedelic" drug) that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity) during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768346/-psychotherapy-with-adjuvant-use-of-serotonergic-psychoactive-substances-possibilities-and-challenges
#10
Tomislav Majić, Henrik Jungaberle, Timo T Schmidt, Andrea Zeuch, Leo Hermle, Jürgen Gallinat
Background Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000...
July 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763571/enzymatic-synthesis-of-psilocybin
#11
Janis Fricke, Felix Blei, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin is the psychotropic tryptamine-derived natural product of Psilocybe carpophores, the so-called "magic mushrooms". Although its structure has been known for 60 years, the enzymatic basis of its biosynthesis has remained obscure. We characterized four psilocybin biosynthesis enzymes, namely i) PsiD, which represents a new class of fungal l-tryptophan decarboxylases, ii) PsiK, which catalyzes the phosphotransfer step, iii) the methyltransferase PsiM, catalyzing iterative N-methyl transfer as the terminal biosynthetic step, and iv) PsiH, a monooxygenase...
August 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#12
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Staempfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678583/lsd-treatment-in-scandinavia-emphasizing-indications-and-short-term-treatment-outcomes-of-151-patients-in-denmark
#13
Jens Knud Larsen
BACKGROUND: New research has suggested the clinical use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin in selected patient populations. However, concerns about the clinical use of LSD were advanced in a large Danish follow-up study that assessed 151 LSD-treated psychiatric patients approximately 25 years after their treatment in the 1960s. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to give a retrospective account of the short-term outcome of LSD treatment in these 151 Danish psychiatric patients...
October 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#14
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677095/the-effects-of-hallucinogens-on-gene-expression
#15
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#16
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behavior. Although the serotonin system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behavior, the relative contribution of the various serotonin receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#17
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
Rainer Kraehenmann
BACKGROUND: A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,Ndimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams, and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585222/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-psilocybin
#19
REVIEW
Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research...
July 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548221/psilocybin-good-trip-or-bad-trip
#20
E M Sellers
Much of the history of pharmacology and therapeutics involves finding new uses for old drugs. The latest rediscovery is that of psychedelic drugs. Since they can cause profound distortions of perception and were once used as part of religious ceremonies, such research may seem unusual at this time.
October 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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