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Psilocybin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#1
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#2
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#3
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585222/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-psilocybin
#4
REVIEW
Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research...
June 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548221/psilocybin-good-trip-or-bad-trip
#5
E M Sellers
Much of the history of pharmacology and therapeutics involves finding new uses for old drugs. The latest rediscovery is that of psychedelic drugs. Since they can cause profound distortions of perception and were once used as part of religious ceremonies, such research may seem unusual at this time.
May 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540034/ayahuasca-dimethyltryptamine-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies
#6
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso, Jaime E C Hallak
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogen brew traditionally used for ritual and therapeutic purposes in Northwestern Amazon. It is rich in the tryptamine hallucinogens dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A agonist. This mechanism of action is similar to other compounds such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. The controlled use of LSD and psilocybin in experimental settings is associated with a low incidence of psychotic episodes, and population studies corroborate these findings. Both the controlled use of DMT in experimental settings and the use of ayahuasca in experimental and ritual settings are not usually associated with psychotic episodes, but little is known regarding ayahuasca or DMT use outside these controlled contexts...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512684/therapeutic-applications-of-classic-hallucinogens
#7
Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders...
May 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481178/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-a-review-of-a-novel-treatment-for-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Kelan Thomas, Benjamin Malcolm, Dan Lastra
Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443617/the-therapeutic-potential-of-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-and-future
#9
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Guy M Goodwin
Plant-based psychedelics such as psilocybin have an ancient history of medicinal use. After the first English-language report on LSD in 1950, psychedelics enjoyed a short-lived relationship with psychology and psychiatry. Used most notably as aides to psychotherapy for the treatment of mood disorders and alcohol dependence, drugs such as LSD showed initial therapeutic promise before prohibitive legislature in the mid-1960s effectively ended all major psychedelic research programmes. Since the early 1990s, there has been a steady revival of human psychedelic research: last year saw reports on the first modern brain imaging study with LSD and 3 separate clinical trials of psilocybin for depressive symptoms...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422113/increased-spontaneous-meg-signal-diversity-for-psychoactive-doses-of-ketamine-lsd-and-psilocybin
#10
Michael M Schartner, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#11
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353056/pharmacokinetics-of-escalating-doses-of-oral-psilocybin-in-healthy-adults
#12
Randall T Brown, Christopher R Nicholas, Nicholas V Cozzi, Michele C Gassman, Karen M Cooper, Daniel Muller, Chantelle D Thomas, Scott J Hetzel, Kelsey M Henriquez, Alexandra S Ribaudo, Paul R Hutson
INTRODUCTION: Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. METHODS: Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#13
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101325/role-of-psilocybin-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#14
Ananya Mahapatra, Rishi Gupta
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring alkaloid, pharmacologically similar to the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although primarily used as a recreational drug or an entheogen in particular cultural settings, recent population based studies have shown that it does not lead to serious physical or mental health problems or dependent use. In view of recent work demonstrating psilocybin's potential to increase subjective sense of wellbeing and because of its novel mechanism of 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonism, it is being explored for possible therapeutic utility in mood and anxiety disorders...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095732/an-online-survey-of-tobacco-smoking-cessation-associated-with-naturalistic-psychedelic-use
#15
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Patrick S Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence. This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074670/metabolism-of-psilocybin-and-psilocin-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-relevance
#16
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites...
February 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#17
REVIEW
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019026/psychedelics-as-medicines-an-emerging-new-paradigm
#18
REVIEW
D E Nichols, M W Johnson, C D Nichols
Scientific interest in serotonergic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD; 5-HT2A receptor agonists) has dramatically increased within the last decade. Clinical studies administering psychedelics with psychotherapy have shown preliminary evidence of robust efficacy in treating anxiety and depression, as well as addiction to tobacco and alcohol. Moreover, recent research has suggested that these compounds have potential efficacy against inflammatory diseases through novel mechanisms, with potential advantages over existing antiinflammatory agents...
February 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931907/return-of-the-psychedelics-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#19
REVIEW
Suravi Patra
Psilocybin, the clinically most researched classic psychedelic has recently been tested for its safety and efficacy in a clinical population of treatment resistant depression. The efficacy of psilocybin in clinical depression previously demonstrated in the elecrophysiologic and neuroimaging findings as also in neuropsychological assessments is further validated by the findings of this rigorously conducted randomized trial. Mechanism of action of psilocybin and efficacy in treatment resistant depression are discussed in this paper...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909175/psilocybin-promising-results-in-double-blind-trials-require-confirmation-by-real-world-evidence
#20
Alasdair Breckenridge, Diederick E Grobbee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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