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Executive dysfunction

Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Sonya Kim, Joseph F Rath, Vance Zemon, Marie M Cavallo, Rollin McCraty, Ana Sostre, Frederick W Foley
OBJECTIVE: To examine how positive affect influences ability to benefit from heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment for individuals with severe brain injury. METHOD: Secondary data analysis of a nonrandomized experimental study that assessed the efficacy of biofeedback treatment for executive dysfunction in 13 individuals with chronic severe brain injury. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations between the predictors (levels of HRV and positive affect) and the outcome (change in Category Test errors) showed large effect sizes for higher levels of HRV coherence (r = -...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Katharina Förster, Silke Jörgens, Tracy M Air, Christian Bürger, Verena Enneking, Ronny Redlich, Dario Zaremba, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Susanne Meinert, Elisabeth J Leehr, Joscha Böhnlein, Jonathan Repple, Nils Opel, Erhan Kavakbasi, Volker Arolt, Pienie Zwitserlood, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune
To understand how cognitive dysfunction contributes to social cognitive deficits in depression, we investigated the relationship between executive function and social cognitive performance in adolescents and young adults during current and remitted depression, compared to healthy controls. Social cognition and executive function were measured in 179 students (61 healthy controls and 118 patients with depression; Mage = 20.60 years; SDage = 3.82 years). Hierarchical regression models were employed within each group (healthy controls, remitted depression, current depression) to examine the nature of associations between cognitive measures...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
J M G van Bergen, X Li, F C Quevenco, A F Gietl, V Treyer, R Meyer, A Buck, P A Kaufmann, R M Nitsch, P C M van Zijl, C Hock, P G Unschuld
The accumulation of β-amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and recently published data suggest that increased brain iron burden may reflect pathologies that synergistically contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. While preclinical disease stages are considered most promising for therapeutic intervention, the link between emerging AD-pathology and earliest clinical symptoms remains largely unclear. In the current study we therefore investigated local correlations between iron and β-amyloid plaques, and their possible association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Daniela Neves, Maria S Pinho
Certain clinical populations exhibit an Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory (OAM), characterized by difficulty remembering specific events. One study has observed OAM for positive events in a group of offenders. This study analyzed the stability of the valence effect in the OAM of offenders, the executive control impairments facilitating OAM in offenders, and the relationship of self-esteem and social desirability with AM specificity. The specificity (Autobiographical Memory Test) and emotional properties of the AMs of 59 prisoners (30 men, 29 women) and a control group (29 men, 30 women) were compared...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Laura B Tucker, Alexander G Velosky, Joseph T McCabe
Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
M Sehmbi, C D Rowley, L Minuzzi, F Kapczinski, M Steiner, R B Sassi, N A Bock, B N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive dysfunction persists through affective and euthymic states in bipolar disorder (BD), its neurobiological correlates remain undetermined. We explore whole-cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and cognition in BD-I and controls. METHODS: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. MRI signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth. Cognitive performance was measured via standardized computerized battery and paper-and-pencil Trails B...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Gilad Sorek, Sharon Shaklai, Shirley Meyer, Michal Katz-Leurer
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) present a range of physical and cognitive as well as cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) dysfunctions. AIM: To examine the CACS response to an executive task, a physical task and a combined physical and executive task, in adolescents with ABI and typically developed (TD) controls. METHODS: Included were two groups: The first group consisted of 17 adolescents (11-18 years) with ABI, during the in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation period...
March 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Antonino Ditto, Giorgio Bogani, Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Fabio Martinelli, Valentina Chiappa, Carlos Lopez, Stefania Perotto, Domenica Lorusso, Francesco Raspagliesi
OBJECTIVE: Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) was introduced with the aim to reduce pelvic dysfunctions related to conventional radical hysterectomy (RH). Here, we sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of NSRH in a relatively large number of the patients of cervical cancer (CC) patients undergoing either primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by surgery. METHODS: Outcomes of consecutive patients undergoing NSRH and of a historical cohort of patients undergoing conventional RH were retrospectively reviewed...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Yu-Lin Wu, Chun-Jen Huang, Su-Chen Fang, Ling-Hsin Ko, Pei-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017...
March 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
B Gulpers, A Lugtenburg, M Zuidersma, F R J Verhey, R C Oude Voshaar
BACKGROUND: Anxiety possibly interferes with executive functioning, although most studies rely on anxiety symptoms or lack control for comorbid depression. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between executive functioning and (individual) anxiety disorders with ak,ld without controlling for depression. METHOD: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, as well as depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in 82,360 community-dwelling people participating in the Lifelines cohort...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Ana Paula de Pereira, Maria Lucia Alves Pedroso, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Bin Tang, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Rowan G Saloner, Maria Geny Ribas Batista, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner
Although cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, research on neurocognitive effects is limited in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection. The aims of this study were to explore the interplay between HIV and HCV infections in the expression of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and to examine the differences in test performance between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV or HCV mono-infected patients. A total of 128 participants from Southern Brazil underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) battery comprising 18 tests...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Yasutaka Kobayashi
A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized for rehabilitation from the after effects of a traumatic brain injury. In addition to memory impairment, attention disorder, and executive dysfunction, she experienced musical hallucinations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral contusion in the bilateral temporal lobes and the left frontal lobe. Case reports of musical hallucinations caused by traumatic brain injury are extremely rare.
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Mélanie Brion, Valérie Dormal, Séverine Lannoy, Serge Mertens, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executive processes and to alcohol-related bias. However, most previous research has focused on a separate exploration of these systems among ALC, and the direct measure of their interactions remains to be conducted...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Yuncheng Zhu, Xixi Jiang, Weidong Ji
The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shanshan Li, Xinjiang Zhang, Qi Fang, Junshan Zhou, Meijuan Zhang, Hui Wang, Yan Chen, Biyun Xu, Yanfeng Wu, Lai Qian, Yun Xu
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in acute ischaemic stroke and its impact on the recurrence of vascular events. Methods: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, blinded, controlled clinical trial enrollingpatients with an onset of acute stroke within 7 days from five hospitals in China Jiangsu Province. Participants were assigned to the GBE group (450 mg GBE with 100 mg aspirin daily) or the control group (100 mg aspirin daily) for 6 months...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
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