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Executive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776623/nonrestorative-sleep-in-healthy-young-adults-without-insomnia-associations-with-executive-functioning-fatigue-and-pre-sleep-arousal
#1
Ruben Tinajero, Paula G Williams, Matthew R Cribbet, Holly K Rau, Daniel L Bride, Yana Suchy
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that nonrestorative sleep (NRS), even in the absence of insomnia symptoms or other sleep disorders, may be associated with daytime dysfunction. This study examined the association between NRS and daytime dysfunction in healthy adults screened for insomnia and sleep apnea. DESIGN: Multi-day assessment approach. SETTING: Community-based adults and college students. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy young adults without insomnia and sleep apnea (n = 79; 68% female, mean age = 27...
June 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773664/cognitive-development-and-quality-of-life-associated-with-bpd-in-10-year-olds-born-preterm
#2
Sudhir Sriram, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O' Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurocognitive, language, executive function, academic achievement, neurologic and behavioral outcomes, and quality of life at age 10 years in children born extremely preterm who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to children who did not develop BPD. METHODS: The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns study population included 863 children born extremely preterm whose BPD status before discharge was known had an IQ (Differential Ability Scales II [DAS II]) assessment at 10 years...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772557/high-density-lipoprotein-carbamylation-and-dysfunction-in-vascular-disease
#3
Jeans Miguel Santana, Clinton Douglas Brown
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is cardioprotective because of its anti-atherogenic properties. Nevertheless, our goal to optimize HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have had little effects on the atherothrombotic burden and suggests a closer look be taken at HDL function and dysfunction. HDL is a group of complex macromolecules composed of a lipid- and proteome that work in synergy to execute its anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-thrombotic effects. However, throughout its life-span in circulation, HDL undergoes significant modification...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#4
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771474/neurocog-fx-study-a-multicenter-cohort-study-on-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#5
Oliver Rick, Monika Reuß-Borst, Timm Dauelsberg, Holger Hass, Volker König, Reiner Caspari, Gabriele Götz-Keil, Jürgen Pfitzner, Christa Kerschgens, Klaus Fliessbach, Christian Hoppe
OBJECTIVE: Complaints about cognitive dysfunction (CD) reportedly persist in approximately one third of breast cancer patients but the nature of CD and possible risk factors are unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicenter study was set-up at 9 German oncological rehabilitation centers. Objective cognitive performance was assessed by the NeuroCog FX test, a short computerized screening (duration <30 min) which assesses working memory, alertness, verbal/figural memory and language/executive...
May 17, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761877/diagnostic-accuracy-of-new-and-old-cognitive-screening-tools-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#6
M Trunfio, D Vai, C Montrucchio, C Alcantarini, A Livelli, M C Tettoni, G Orofino, S Audagnotto, D Imperiale, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
OBJECTIVES: Considering the similarities between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and neurodegenerative dementias and the frequency of executive dysfunctions among HIV-positive patients, we evaluated the accuracy of the Frontal Assessment Battery and Clock-Drawing Test together with the Three Questions Test and International HIV Dementia Scale to screen for HAND. METHODS: A cross-sectional monocentric study was conducted from 2010 to 2017. The index tests were represented by the four screening tools; the reference standard was represented by a comprehensive neurocognitive battery used to investigate 10 cognitive domains...
May 15, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761020/tested-and-reported-executive-problems-in-children-and-youth-epilepsy
#7
Erik Hessen, Kristin Å Alfstad, Halvor Torgersen, Morten I Lossius
Objectives: Executive problems in children and youth with epilepsy influence their ability to handle important aspects of daily life activities. The present study sought to explore factors associated with executive problems for patients with epilepsy in this age group. Methods: The cohort consisted of 97 consecutive patients at the National Centre for Epilepsy in Norway, aged 10-19 years, with focal or genetic generalized epilepsy. All underwent tests of executive functions (D-KEFS), the Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function (BRIEF), and screening for psychiatric symptoms, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761010/central-cholinergic-system-mediates-working-memory-deficit-induced-by-anesthesia-surgery-in-adult-mice
#8
Xiao Zhang, Xuliang Jiang, Lili Huang, Weitian Tian, Xuemei Chen, Xiyao Gu, Weifeng Yu, Jie Tian, Diansan Su
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757012/developmental-trajectory-of-motor-deficits-in-preschool-children-with-adhd
#9
Kristie L Sweeney, Matthew Ryan, Heather Schneider, Lisa Ferenc, Martha Bridge Denckla, E Mark Mahone
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754497/the-compensatory-adhd-behaviors-scale-cabs-development-and-initial-validation
#10
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748433/selective-elimination-of-membrane-damaged-chloroplasts-via-microautophagy
#12
Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema, Wataru Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Ishida, Masanori Izumi
Plant chloroplasts constantly accumulate damage caused by visible light during photosynthesis. Our previous study revealed that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are subjected to vacuolar digestion through an autophagy process termed chlorophagy; however, how this process is induced and executed remained poorly understood. In the current study, we monitored intracellular induction of chlorophagy in Arabidopsis leaves, and found that mesophyll cells damaged by high visible light (HL) displayed abnormal chloroplasts with a swollen shape and 2...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745359/contribution-of-family-relatedness-to-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-in-idiopathic-childhood-epilepsies
#13
Dace N Almane, Qianqian Zhao, Paul J Rathouz, Melissa Hanson, Daren C Jackson, David A Hsu, Carl E Stafstrom, Jana E Jones, Michael Seidenberg, Monica Koehn, Bruce P Hermann
OBJECTIVES: Rates of cognitive, academic and behavioral comorbidities are elevated in children with epilepsy. The contribution of environmental and genetic influences to comorbidity risk is not fully understood. This study investigated children with epilepsy, their unaffected siblings, and controls to determine the presence and extent of risk associated with family relatedness across a range of epilepsy comorbidities. METHODS: Participants were 346 children (8-18 years), n=180 with recent-onset epilepsy, their unaffected siblings (n=67), and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=99)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742250/association-between-cognitive-function-and-parameters-of-echocardiography-and-coronary-artery-angiography
#14
Mohammad Hashemi, Zahra Teimouri Jervekani, Shahrzad Mortazavi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Majid Barekatain
We aimed to determine whether there is an association between cognition and the results of echocardiography and angiography, based on neuropsychological assessments. METHODS: We assessed the cognition of 85 patients who had recently undergone coronary artery angiography. We calculated the Gensini score for the coronary artery disease index. We also performed echocardiography to find indices of cardiac functioning. RESULTS: The lower left ventricular ejection fraction correlated with lower scores on visuospatial, executive function, processing speed/attention and verbal memory capacities (p ≤ 0...
April 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738636/executive-function-as-a-risk-factor-for-incisor-trauma
#15
Jillian M Nyquist, Ceib Phillips, Margot Stein, Lorne D Koroluk
BACKGROUND/AIM: Executive function is the ability to guide behavior to achieve goals or complete tasks. This study explored the relationship between executive function, as assessed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form Questionnaire (BRIEF® ) and incisor trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included children in the mixed dentition with recent incisor trauma (n=28) and a control group (n=30) without recent incisor trauma. Subjects' parents completed the BRIEF® , while a clinical examination assessed subjects' occlusal relationships...
May 8, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735154/dynamic-functional-connectivity-states-reflecting-psychotic-like-experiences
#16
Anita D Barber, Martin A Lindquist, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with lower social and occupational functioning, and lower executive function. Emerging evidence also suggests that PLEs reflect neural dysfunction resembling that of psychotic disorders. METHODS: The present study examined dynamic connectivity related to a measure of PLEs derived from the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, in an otherwise-healthy sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project. A total of 76 PLE-endorsing and 153 control participants were included in the final sample...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734979/executive-and-visuospatial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-primary-restless-legs-syndrome-willis-ekbom-disease-study-of-a-chinese-population
#17
Gen Li, Huidong Tang, Jie Chen, Xuemei Qi, Shengdi Chen, Jianfang Ma
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the cognitive function of patients with primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with RLS/WED who were drug naïve and 40 controls, matched by age, sex, and educational level, were evaluated by cognitive function assessments, including the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-C), clock drawing test (CDT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734264/the-accuracy-of-ineco-frontal-screening-in-the-diagnosis-of-executive-dysfunction-in-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#18
Valéria S Bahia, Mário A Cecchini, Luciana Cassimiro, Rene Viana, Thais B Lima-Silva, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Viviane Amaral Carvalho, Henrique C Guimarães, Paulo Caramelli, Márcio L F Balthazar, Benito Damasceno, Sônia M D Brucki, Ricardo Nitrini, Mônica S Yassuda
INTRODUCTION: Executive dysfunction is a common symptom in neurodegenerative disorders and is in need of easy-to-apply screening tools that might identify it. The aims of the present study were to examine some of the psychometric characteristics of the Brazilian version of the INECO frontal screening (IFS), and to investigate its accuracy to diagnose executive dysfunction in dementia and its accuracy to differentiate Alzheimer disease (AD) from the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
May 4, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730314/comparison-of-infrapubic-vs-penoscrotal-approaches-for-3-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-do-we-have-a-winner
#19
REVIEW
Franco Palmisano, Luca Boeri, Cristiano Cristini, Gabriele Antonini, Matteo Giulio Spinelli, Giorgio Franco, Fabrizio Longo, Franco Gadda, Fulvio Colombo, Emanuele Montanari
BACKGROUND: The 3-piece inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is the gold standard treatment for male erectile dysfunction when other less invasive approaches are contra-indicated or unacceptable for the patient. There are currently 2 surgical approaches for IPP implantation: the penoscrotal (PS) and the infrapubic (IP) incision. AIM: To assess the most recent evidence on the impact of surgical approach for 3-piece IPP implantation in patients with erectile dysfunction...
May 2, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729204/outcome-of-anti-viral-immunity-in-the-liver-is-shaped-by-the-level-of-antigen-expressed-in-infected-hepatocytes
#20
Katrin Manske, Nina Kallin, Verena König, Annika Schneider, Sandra Kurz, Miriam Bosch, Meike Welz, Ru-Lin Cheng, Bertram Bengsch, Katja Steiger, Ulrike Protzer, Robert Thimme, Percy A Knolle, Dirk Wohlleber
The liver bears unique immune-properties supporting both immune tolerance and immunity, but the mechanisms responsible for clearance versus persistence of virus-infected hepatocytes remains unclear. Here, we dissect the factors determining the outcome of anti-viral immunity using novel recombinant adenoviruses reflecting the hepatropism and -trophism of hepatitis viruses. We generated replication-deficient adenoviruses with equimolar ovalbumin, luciferase and GFP-expression driven by strong ubiquitous CMV-promoter (Ad-CMV-GOL) or by 100-fold weaker, yet hepatocyte-specific Transthyretin(TTR)-promoter (Ad-TTR-GOL)...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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