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Executive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#1
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345880/strategies-for-managing-patients-with-depression-who-are-experiencing-cognitive-impairment
#2
Larry Culpepper
Pronounced deficits in executive function are found in up to one-third of patients with MDD, and this impairment can keep patients from achieving full functional recovery. In this CME activity, review the evidence regarding the effectiveness of available interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction in patients with MDD.
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336125/association-of-chronic-subjective-tinnitus-with-neuro-cognitive-performance
#3
Sunita Gudwani, Sanjay K Munjal, Naresh K Panda, Adarsh Kohli
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subjective tinnitus is associated with cognitive disruptions affecting perception, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, memory, visual tasks (reading) and attention. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus parameters and neuropsychological performance to explain cognitive processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design was prospective, consisting 25 patients with idiopathic chronic subjective tinnitus and gave informed consent before planning their treatment...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334322/plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pbdnf-and-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Stefanie Wagner, Sarah Kayser, Jan Engelmann, Konrad F Schlicht, Nadine Dreimüller, Oliver Tüscher, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Dieter F Braus, André Tadić, Alexandra Neyazi, Helge Frieling, Klaus Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunctions are frequently seen in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and normalize in many cases during effective antidepressant therapy. This study investigated whether a normalization of executive dysfunctions during antidepressant treatment correlates with or can be predicted by clinical parameters or levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: In 110 MDD patients with executive dysfunctions (percentile < 16), executive functions and plasma BDNF levels were analysed at baseline, day 14 and 56 of an antidepressant treatment...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333611/cognitive-dysfunction-after-generalized-tonic-clonic-status-epilepticus-in-adults
#5
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
January 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330420/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-cognitive-function-a-systematic-review
#6
C Restrepo, S K Patel, V Rethnam, E Werden, J Ramchand, L Churilov, L M Burrell, A Brodtmann
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is recognised as a marker of hypertension-related organ damage and is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke. There is evidence that LVH is independently associated with cognitive impairment, even after adjustment for the presence of hypertension. We conducted a systematic review that examined cognitive impairment in adults with LVH. Independent searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid psycInfo and PubMed with the terms left ventricular hypertrophy and cognition...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325626/fragile-x-syndrome-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#7
Deborah A Hall, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325477/cognitive-performance-and-apathy-predict-unemployment-in-huntington-s-disease-mutation-carriers
#8
Milou Jacobs, Ellen P Hart, Raymund A C Roos
Unemployment is common for those with Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disorder, and affects patients' quality of life. HD is characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The purpose of this article was to determine which clinical signs of HD are predictive of unemployment. Data for employed (N=114) and unemployed (N=106) HD mutation carriers were used to investigate group differences. Univariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, were performed to determine individual predictors of unemployment...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322860/antenatal-and-neonatal-antecedents-of-executive-dysfunctions-in-extremely-preterm-children
#9
Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, H Gerry Taylor, Karl K C Kuban
To find out why children born extremely preterm are at heightened risk of executive dysfunctions, the authors assessed 716 children who were 10 years old born extremely preterm whose IQ was ≥ 70. A working memory dysfunction (n = 169), an inhibition dysfunction (n = 360), a switching dysfunction (355), and all 3 (executive dysfunction; n = 107) were defined on the basis of Z-scores ≤ -1 on the Differential Ability Scales-II Working Memory composite, and/or on the NEPSY-II Inhibition-Inhibition and Inhibition-Switching subtests...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320933/gray-matter-networks-and-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Carolina M Rimkus, Menno M Schoonheim, Martijn D Steenwijk, Hugo Vrenken, Anand Jc Eijlers, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes, Claudia C Leite, Frederik Barkhof, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Coordinated patterns of gray matter morphology can be represented as networks, and network disruptions may explain cognitive dysfunction related to multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether single-subject gray matter network properties are related to impaired cognition in MS. METHODS: We studied 148 MS patients (99 female) and 33 healthy controls (HC, 21 female). Seven network parameters were computed and compared within MS between cognitively normal and impaired subjects, and associated with performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains with regression models...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314772/the-contribution-of-executive-control-to-semantic-cognition-convergent-evidence-from-semantic-aphasia-and-executive-dysfunction
#11
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309954/impaired-theory-of-mind-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-with-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-association-with-behavioral-manifestations-of-executive-dysfunction
#12
Ting Zhang, Lingyan Chen, Yu Wang, Mengmeng Zhang, Lanlan Wang, Xiangjun Xu, Gairong Xiao, Jing Chen, Yeru Shen, Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a core feature of cognitive impairments. Previous studies showed that patients with focal epilepsy have deficits in both theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). However, there are few studies of ToM in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), especially in populations with pediatric epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of ToM and EF, including some of their subcomponents, and explore the relationship between them in Chinese children with IGE...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300226/intervention-program-to-improve-executive-functions-and-enhance-planning-abilities-of-patients-with-mild-neurocognitive-disorder
#13
Daisuke Fukuta, Chizuru Mori
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intervention program to improve executive functions and enhance the planning abilities of patients with mild neurocognitive disorder. DESIGN: A pilot intervention study. METHODS: Ten inpatients performed an intervention program based on Lezak's conceptual model that teaches task-specific routines. The program consisted of six training sessions presented over a 2-week period. Neuropsychological assessments were performed pre- and postintervention...
January 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299391/the-auditory-comprehension-changes-over-time-after-sport-related-concussion-can-indicate-multisensory-processing-dysfunctions
#14
Anita Białuńska, Anthony P Salvatore
Background: Although science findings and treatment approaches of a concussion have changed in recent years, there continue to be challenges in understanding the nature of the post-concussion behavior. There is growing a body of evidence that some deficits can be related to an impaired auditory processing. Purpose: To assess auditory comprehension changes over time following sport-related concussion (SRC) in young athletes. Methods: A prospective, repeated measures mixed-design was used...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287199/trillium-tschonoskii-maxim-saponin-mitigates-d-galactose-induced-brain-aging-of-rats-through-rescuing-dysfunctional-autophagy-mediated-by-rheb-mtor-signal-pathway
#15
Lingjie Wang, Junlong Du, Fangyu Zhao, Zonghai Chen, Jingru Chang, Furong Qin, Zili Wang, Fengjie Wang, Xianbing Chen, Ning Chen
During the expansion of aging population, the study correlated with brain aging is one of the important research topics. Developing novel and effective strategies for delaying brain aging is highly desired. Brain aging is characteristics of impaired cognitive capacity due to dysfunctional autophagy regulated by Rheb-mTOR signal pathway in hippocampal tissues. In the present study, we have established a rat model with brain aging through subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal). Upon the intervention of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim (TTM) saponin, one of bioactive components from local natural herbs in China, the learning and memory capacity of D-gal-induced aging rats was evaluated through Morris water maze test, and the regulation of Rheb-mTOR signal pathway and functional status of autophagy in hippocampal tissues of D-gal-induced aging rats was explored by Western blot...
December 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283403/preliminary-findings-that-a-targeted-intervention-leads-to-altered-brain-function-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#16
Kelly Nash, Sara Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Joanne Rovet
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8-12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10) or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11) conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283024/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury-abi-using-a-novel-complex-multi-tasking-computerised-task-the-jansari-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-children-jef-c%C3%A2
#17
Yafit Gilboa, Ashok Jansari, Bernadette Kerrouche, Emel Uçak, Anne Tiberghien, Ouarda Benkhaled, Delphine Aligon, Aude Mariller, Valentine Verdier, Amaia Mintegui, Geneviève Abada, Céline Canizares, Andrew Goldstein, Mathilde Chevignard
OBJECTIVES: The Jansari assessment of Executive Functions for Children (JEF-C©) is a new non-immersive computerised assessment of executive functions. The objectives of the study were to test the feasibility and validity of JEF-C© in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ABI aged 10-18 years and 30 age-and gender-matched controls were tested. Participants performed JEF-C©, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (BADS-C), while parents completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire...
December 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280019/impact-of-short-term-cycle-ergometer-training-on-quality-of-life-cognition-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#18
Alison Barry, Owen Cronin, Aisling M Ryan, Brian Sweeney, Orna O'Toole, Andrew P Allen, Gerard Clarke, Ken D O'Halloran, Eric J Downer
In this pilot study, we investigate whether a routine cycle ergometry training programme has therapeutic potential in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) by improving quality of life (QOL) and depressive symptomatology, while ameliorating cognitive disturbances. Healthy volunteers and MS patients cycled for 30 min at 65-75% age-predicted maximal heart rate on a recumbent ergometer, with this session repeated twice a week for 8 weeks. QOL, depressive symptomatology and cognitive function were assessed pre- and post-exercise using the MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) questionnaire, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16) questionnaire and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), respectively...
December 26, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274848/mirror-neuron-system-activation-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-replication-functional-mri-study
#19
J E Reynolds, J Billington, S Kerrigan, J Williams, C Elliott, A M Winsor, L Codd, M Bynevelt, M K Licari
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) may lead to deficits in imitation and the internal representation of movement, potentially contributing to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). AIMS: Using fMRI, this study examined brain activation patterns in children with and without DCD on a finger adduction/abduction task during four MNS activation states: observation; motor imagery; execution; and imitation...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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