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Executive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107668/neurotrophins-role-in-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-function-performance-association-analysis-of-nrn1-gene-and-its-interaction-with-bdnf-gene-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#1
C Prats, B Arias, G Ortet, M I Ibáñez, J Moya, E Pomarol-Clotet, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
BACKGROUND: Neuritin-1 is a neurotrophic factor involved in synaptic plasticity that has been associated with depressive disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive performance. The study of genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy individuals is a useful framework to investigate the etiology of brain dysfunctions. We therefore aimed to investigate in a non-clinical sample whether NRN1 gene contributes to the psychopathological profile, with a particular focus on the clinical dimensions previously related to the NRN1 gene (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106066/the-psychosis-spectrum-in-parkinson-disease
#2
REVIEW
Dominic H Ffytche, Byron Creese, Marios Politis, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105895/prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction-in-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-contributes-to-executive-function-impairments-in-rats-potential-contribution-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Bruna Ferrary Deniz, Iohanna Deckmann, Heloísa Deola Confortim, Ramiro Diaz, Daniela Pereira Laureano, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Lenir Orlandi Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compromises the quality of life of individuals including adaptation to the social environment. ADHD aetiology includes perinatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischaemic events; preclinical studies have demonstrated attentional deficits and impulsive-hyperactive outcomes after neonatal hypoxic and/or ischaemic intervention, but data are missing to understand this relationship. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate executive function (EF) and impulsivity, and tissue integrity and dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats submitted to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI)...
January 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103593/executive-dysfunction-and-behavioral-symptoms-are-associated-with-deficits-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#4
Negar Moheb, Mario F Mendez, Sarah A Kremen, Edmond Teng
BACKGROUND: Deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs) may be more prominent in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) than in nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). It is uncertain whether frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subgroups exhibit different patterns and/or predictors of functional impairment. METHODS: We examined data from participants diagnosed with bvFTD (n = 607), svPPA (n = 132), and nfvPPA (n = 155) who were included in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set (UDS) and assessed with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ)...
January 20, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102493/a-meta-analysis-of-working-memory-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Ya Wang, Yi-Bing Zhang, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Jing Wang, David H K Shum, Therese van Amelsvoort, Raymond C K Chan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by executive dysfunction, and working memory (WM) comprises one core component of executive function. Many studies have investigated WM impairments in individuals with ASD, however, a conclusive agreement has not been reached. The present study provided a meta-analytic review of WM impairments in individuals with ASD and evaluated potential moderating variables of this problem. Twenty-eight studies were included in this study, and the participants comprised 819 individuals with ASD and 875 healthy controls...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096678/risperidone-improves-interpersonal-perception-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Zhenhe Zhou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jun Wang, Hongmei Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether risperidone improves social cognitive impairments and executive dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. METHODS: Fifty-six patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were allocated to a risperidone treatment group (RTG, n=28) and a typical antipsychotic treatment group (TATG, n=28). Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal control group (NCG)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096672/a-biopsychological-review-of-gambling-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095060/executive-functioning-mediates-the-effect-of-behavioral-problems-on-depression-in-mothers-of-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#8
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jan S Greenberg, Jinkuk Hong, Marsha R Mailick
The present investigation explored long-term relationships of behavioral symptoms of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities with the mental health of their mothers. Fragile X premutation carrier mothers of an adolescent or adult child with fragile X syndrome (n = 95), and mothers of a grown child with autism (n = 213) were included. Behavioral symptoms at Time 1 were hypothesized to predict maternal depressive symptoms at Time 3 via maternal executive dysfunction at Time 2. Results provided support for the mediating pathway of executive dysfunction...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094021/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-encephalopathy-in-susac-s-syndrome-case-report
#9
Magdalena Roessler-Górecka, Tadeusz Mendel, Justyna Wiśniowska, Joanna Seniów
Susac's Syndrome (SS) is a rare, autoimmune angiopathy characterized by hearing loss, retinal artery occlusions and encephalopathy, which is usually expressed in multifocal neurological signs and symptoms, confusion state and cognitive impairment. There have been few descriptions of neuropsychological assessment of SS. We present a case study of 29-year-old woman who developed full SS. During the post-acute stage of disease, she was admitted to neurorehabilitation ward to improve her cognitive-behavioral and motor functioning...
January 10, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#10
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#11
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077667/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-high-stages-of-motor-planning-hierarchy
#12
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Giulia Valtorta, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi, Renato Borgatti
Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts have to be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence the execution of the first...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#13
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073810/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#14
Ivan Koychev, David Okai
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a disproportionate impact on quality of life and carer burden. Pharmacological treatment is the main approach in dealing with these symptoms, but it is limited by variable efficacy and risk of drug interactions. Non-pharmacological approaches using the cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) model are viable alternatives and in this review paper we summarise the evidence of CBT for three of the most common psychiatric manifestations of PD: depression and anxiety, impulse-control disorders and insomnia...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072701/pathophysiology-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-study-of-visual-search-combined-with-overactive-performance-monitoring
#15
Qingxiao Liu, Bo Tan, Jing Zhou, Zhong Zheng, Ling Li, Yanchun Yang
Based on both functional and structural studies of excessive activity, fronto-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits have been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD refractory to medication and therapy remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate neuroanatomical abnormalities of the whole brain and to evaluate visual processing in patients with refractory OCD.This study was comprised of 2 experiments...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067423/current-standards-of-neuropsychological-assessment-in-epilepsy-surgery-centers-across-europe
#16
Viola Lara Vogt, Marja Äikiä, Antonio Del Barrio, Paul Boon, Csaba Borbély, Ema Bran, Kees Braun, Evelien Carette, Maria Clark, Judith Helen Cross, Petia Dimova, Daniel Fabo, Nikolaos Foroglou, Stefano Francione, Anna Gersamia, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Alla Guekht, Sue Harrison, Hrvoje Hecimovic, Einar Heminghyt, Edouard Hirsch, Alena Javurkova, Reetta Kälviäinen, Nicole Kavan, Anna Kelemen, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Margarita Kirschner, Catherine Kleitz, Teia Kobulashvili, Mary H Kosmidis, Selin Yagci Kurtish, Mathieu Lesourd, Sofia Ljunggren, Morten Ingvar Lossius, Kristina Malmgren, Ruta Mameniskiené, Patricia Martin-Sanfilippo, Petr Marusic, Marijke Miatton, Çiğdem Özkara, Federica Pelle, Guido Rubboli, Sarah Rudebeck, Philippe Ryvlin, Monique van Schooneveld, Elisabeth Schmid, Pia-Magdalena Schmidt, Margitta Seeck, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Sara Shavel-Jessop, Oana Tarta-Arsene, Eugen Trinka, Gerd Viggedal, Anne-Sophie Wendling, Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup...
January 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067185/effect-of-formal-education-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-after-stroke-a-meta-analysis-and-study-in-young-stroke-patients
#17
Roy P C Kessels, Willem Sake Eikelboom, Pauline Schaapsmeerders, Noortje A M Maaijwee, Renate M Arntz, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
OBJECTIVES: The extent of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) after stroke varies greatly across individuals, even when the same amount of brain damage is present. Education level is a potentially protective factor explaining these differences, but results on its effects on VCI are inconclusive. METHODS: First, we performed a meta-analysis on formal education and VCI, identifying 21 studies (N=7770). Second, we examined the effect of formal education on VCI in young-stroke patients who were cognitively assessed on average 11...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067184/cognitive-reserve-and-self-efficacy-as-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-stress-exposure-and-executive-functioning-among-spousal-dementia-caregivers
#18
M M Pertl, C Hannigan, S Brennan, I H Robertson, B A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067106/retrospective-neuropsychological-profile-of-patients-with-parkinson-disease-prior-to-developing-visual-hallucinations
#19
Alana J Muller, Claire O'Callaghan, Courtney C Walton, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
Visual hallucinations (VH) are a common feature of Parkinson disease (PD); however, the cognitive profile preceding the onset of VH has not yet been established. The present study investigated longitudinal neuropsychological performance of patients with PD who developed VH during follow-up compared to a group who did not develop VH. The patient groups were matched for demographic and disease severity variables at their baseline assessments. Patients who developed VH displayed impaired performance at baseline on measures of psychomotor speed, executive functioning, reaction time, and attention compared to patients who did not develop VH...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064113/cognitive-control-dysfunction-in-emotion-dysregulation-and-psychopathology-of-major-depression-md-evidence-from-transcranial-brain-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-dlpfc
#20
Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Elham Ghanavai, Reza Rostami, Vahid Nejati
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that MD is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits and executive dysfunctions which can persist even in remitted states. However, the role of cognitive impairments in MD psychopathology and treatment is not fully understood. This article aims to discuss how executive functions central components (e.g., Working memory and attention) mediate MD psychopathology considering the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) and present findings of a brain stimulation experiment to support this notion...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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