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Executive dysfunction

Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Min Wu, Lei Li, Ling Sun, Xiaoli Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To use diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging and graph theory approaches to explore the brain structural connectome in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the relevant research ethics committee, and all participants' parents or guardians provided informed consent. Twenty-four pediatric patients with PTSD and 23 control subjects exposed to trauma but without PTSD were recruited after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The structural connectome was constructed by using DT imaging tractography and thresholding the mean fractional anisotropy of 90 brain regions to yield 90 × 90 partial correlation matrixes...
October 25, 2016: Radiology
E Huertas-Hoyas, E J Pedrero-Perez, M Martinez-Campos, M Laselle-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: The use of self-reports about symptoms of malfunctioning in daily life derived from functional deficits of a prefrontal origin has become widespread in clinical practice, since they allow incremental ecological validity to be added to other specific tests. Yet it remains to be determined whether self-assessment is sufficient on its own or if the participation of an external evaluator would be preferable. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) was administered to 115 subjects being treated for a range of brain pathologies...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Klaus Kopitzki, Andreas Oldag, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Judith Machts, Maria Veit, Jörn Kaufmann, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Katja Kollewe, Susanne Petri, Bahram Mohammadi, Reinhard Dengler, Andreas R Kupsch, Stefan Vielhaber
PURPOSE: Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marie McCann, Donna M Bayliss, Mike Anderson, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Judy McMichael, Corinne Reid, Romola S Bucks
In two studies, the relationship between sleep and working memory performance was investigated in children born very preterm (i.e., gestation less than 32 weeks) and the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. In Study 1, parent-reported measures of snoring, night-time sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were collected on 89 children born very preterm aged 6 to 7 years. The children completed a verbal working memory task, as well as measures of processing speed and verbal storage capacity. Night-time sleep quality was found to be associated with verbal working memory performance over and above the variance associated with individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity, suggesting that poor sleep may have an impact on the executive component of working memory...
October 19, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Abhishek Jaywant, Jennifer Barredo, David C Ahern, Linda Resnik
The Trail Making Test (TMT) and written version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) assess attention, processing speed, and executive functions but their utility is limited in populations with upper limb dysfunction. Oral versions of the TMT and SDMT exist, but a systematic review of their psychometric properties and clinical utility has not been conducted, which was the goal of this study. Searches were conducted in PubMed and PsycINFO, test manuals, and the reference lists of included articles. Four measures were identified: the SDMT-oral, oral TMT-A, oral TMT-B, and the Mental Alternation Test (MAT)...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Manavi Tyagi, Theodora Fteropoulli, Catherine S Hurt, Shashivadan P Hirani, Lorna Rixon, Anna Davies, Nathalie Picaut, Fiona Kennedy, John Deanfield, Shay Cullen, Stanton P Newman
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined. METHODS: A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups - tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Miranda C Staples, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Isabelle Cossette, Marie-Ève Gagné, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Philippe Fait, Isabelle Gagnon, Katia Sirois, Sophie Blanchet, Natalie Le Sage, Bradford J McFadyen
OBJECTIVE: To compare gait parameters between children in early adolescence (EA) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during dual-task walking (DTW). METHODS: Children in EA with mTBI (n = 14; six girls) were compared to those without (n = 13; five girls) while walking in different combinations of obstacle avoidance and cognitive dual-tasks. Gait speed and fluidity and their related dual-task costs (DTC) were analysed along with foot clearance and proximity to the obstacle...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Meaghan Clough, Sanuji Gajamange, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
Executive dysfunction has been demonstrated among premutation (PM) carriers (55-199 CGG repeats) of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Further, alterations to neural activation patterns have been reported during memory and comparison based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks in these carriers. For the first time, the relationships between fMRI neural activation during an interleaved ocular motor prosaccade/antisaccade paradigm, and concurrent task performance (saccade measures of latency, accuracy and error rate) in PM females were examined...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
Using a sample of 228 females with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively across 16 years, we measured childhood neurocognitive vulnerability via executive dysfunction using teacher-reported cognitive and learning problems. We then ascertained relations between dimensionally measured internalizing and externalizing psychopathology during adulthood and showed that childhood neurocognitive vulnerability reliably predicted such associated psychopathology. We identified six serial mediation pathways from childhood neurocognitive vulnerability to adult psychopathology through three early- and late-adolescent domains: individual (self-control and delay of gratification), peer (rejection/conflict and acceptance/friendship), and school (academic performance and school failure)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Julio Plata-Bello, Cristián Modroño, Silvia Acosta-López, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Francisco Marcano, Víctor García-Marín, José Luis González-Mora
Nearly 20 % of patients who suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still display cognitive impairment even a year after follow-up. Visuospatial and visuoperceptive domains may be impaired in this cognitive impairment and may not have been fully studied in these patients. Furthermore, these cognitively impaired domains have been associated with activity in the so-called mirror neuron system (MNS). The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of brain activity with an MNS task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in SAH patients...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xia Wu, Qing Li, Xinyu Yu, Kewei Chen, Adam S Fleisher, Xiaojuan Guo, Jiacai Zhang, Eric M Reiman, Li Yao, Rui Li
The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN), has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis (ICA) and Bayesian network (BN) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kelly A Mills, Zoltan Mari, Gregory M Pontone, Alexander Pantelyat, Angela Zhang, Nadine Yoritomo, Emma Powers, Jason Brandt, Ted M Dawson, Liana S Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease, the association between objective and patient-reported measures of cognitive dysfunction is unknown and highly relevant to research and clinical care. OBJECTIVE: To determine which cognitive domain-specific Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) subscores are most strongly associated with patient-reported cognitive impairment on question 1 (Q1) of the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)...
September 27, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand (Psychological Bulletin, Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided...
September 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Angela Federico, Stefano Tamburin, Alice Maier, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Laura Morbioli, Fabio Lugoboni
Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most widely prescribed drug class in developed countries, but they have high potential for tolerance, dependence and abuse. Cognitive deficits in long-term BZD users have long been known, but previous results might have been biased by patients' old age, coexisting neurological or psychiatric conditions or concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. The study was aimed to explore the neuropsychological effect of high-dose BZD dependence, which represents an emerging addiction phenomenon...
October 11, 2016: Neurological Sciences
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