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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444834/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-attention-and-visual-function-on-gait-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-influence-of-task-and-turning
#1
Samuel Stuart, Brook Galna, Louise S Delicato, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored; 1) saccade frequency when walking under different attentional manipulations of turning and dual-task; and 2) direct and indirect relationships between saccades, gait impairment, vision and attention...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444684/-evaluation-and-treatment-of-sleep-problems-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-update-of-the-evidence
#2
REVIEW
M Chamorro, J P Lara, I Insa, M Espadas, J A Alda-Diez
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5% of all children and adolescents, and these patients frequently suffer from sleep problems. The association between sleep disorders and ADHD, however, is multifaceted and complex. AIMS: To explore the relationship between sleep disorders and ADHD. DEVELOPMENT: Sleep problems in children with ADHD include altered sleep and specific disorders per se or that may be due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or to the stimulants they receive as treatment for their ADHD...
May 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444321/evidence-of-altered-brain-responses-to-nicotine-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#3
Guillaume L Poirier, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Introduction: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are susceptible to earlier and more severe nicotine addiction. To shed light on the relationship between nicotine and ADHD, we examined nicotine's effects on functional brain networks in an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Awake magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare functional connectivity in adolescent (postnatal day 44±2) males of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain and two control strains, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley (n = 16 each)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444318/psychiatric-morbidity-in-children-with-hiv-aids-at-a-tertiary-health-institution-in-north-central-nigeria
#4
Mary Oluwatosin Adefalu, Mosunmola Florence Tunde-Ayinmode, Baba Awoye Issa, Adewole Adebola Adefalu, Seleemat Ajoke Adepoju
Introduction: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are living longer with the infection and are at risk of different complications. We assessed for the prevalence of and associated factors for psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected children in a tertiary facility in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional, two-staged study involving 196 HIV-positive children (6-17 years). A semi-structured questionnaire and psychological instruments were used for the study...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444119/spatial-variability-in-adhd-related-behaviors-among-children-born-to-mothers-residing-near-the-new-bedford-harbor-superfund-site
#5
Verónica M Vieira, M Patricia Fabian, Thomas F Webster, Jonathan I Levy, Susan A Korrick
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an uncertain etiology, with potential contributions from different risk factors such as prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorines and metals, social risk factors, and genetics. The degree to which geographic variability in ADHD is independent of, or explained by, risk factors may provide etiological insight. We investigated determinants of geographic variation in ADHD-related behaviors among children living near the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund site in Massachusetts...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443529/selective-attention-and-mismatch-negativity-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-6-months-of-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#6
B Oranje, B Aggernaes, H Rasmussen, B H Ebdrup, B Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443027/personalized-medication-response-prediction-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-learning-in-the-model-space-vs-learning-in-the-data-space
#7
Hin K Wong, Paul A Tiffin, Michael J Chappell, Thomas E Nichols, Patrick R Welsh, Orla M Doyle, Boryana C Lopez-Kolkovska, Sarah K Inglis, David Coghill, Yuan Shen, Peter Tiño
Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health disorders amongst school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 5% in the global population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stimulants, particularly methylphenidate (MPH), are the first-line option in the treatment of ADHD (Reeves and Schweitzer, 2004; Dopheide and Pliszka, 2009) and are prescribed to an increasing number of children and adolescents in the US and the UK every year (Safer et al., 1996; McCarthy et al...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442911/are-psychiatric-comorbidities-and-associated-cognitive-functions-related-to-treatment-response-to-methylphenidate-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Mandy H Chan, Patrick Wl Leung, Ting-Pong Ho, Se-Fong Hung, Chi-Chiu Lee, Chun-Pan Tang, Ka-Chai Cheung, Fung-Yee Ching, Fefe Hk Chan, Lu-Hua Chen, Merce Garcia-Barcelo, Pak-Chung Sham
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH) has been found to be an effective medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on whether psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions of ADHD are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442423/slc6a1-gene-involvement-in-susceptibility-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-case-control-study-and-gene-environment-interaction
#9
Fang-Fen Yuan, Xue Gu, Xin Huang, Yan Zhong, Jing Wu
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early onset childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with an estimated heritability of approximately 76%. We conducted a case-control study to explore the role of the SLC6A1 gene in ADHD. The genotypes of eight variants were determined using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The participants in the study were 302 children with ADHD and 411 controls. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire. In our study, rs2944366 was consistently shown to be associated with the ADHD risk in the dominant model (odds ratio [OR]=0...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442359/emg-biofeedback-training-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-active-control-training
#10
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. METHODS: 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441363/mind-body-therapy-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Anne Herbert, Anna Esparham
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind-body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was reviewed pertaining to the effectiveness of movement-based therapies and mindfulness/meditation-based therapies for ADHD. Many positive effects of yoga, Tai Chi, physical activity, and meditation may significantly improve symptoms of ADHD among children...
April 25, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441242/identifying-undiagnosed-pediatric-mental-illness-in-the-emergency-department
#12
La Vonne A Downey, Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that pediatric psychiatric patients frequent emergency department (ED), but the number of patients with undiagnosed psychiatric illness presenting to an ED is not well known. Identification and referral of these patients may provide an opportunity for improved patient care. The primary study objective was to identify a tool that can screen for unsuspected psychiatric illness in pediatric patients who present to the ED with non-psychiatric-related complaints...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441041/the-child-network-for-parents-to-track-their-child-s-mood-and-behavior
#13
Robert M Post, Michael Rowe, Dana Kaplan, Robert Findling
INTRODUCTION: A wide range of psychiatric disorders are common in young children, especially in those at high risk because of a parent with a unipolar or bipolar mood disorder in the United States. Yet in part because most children are seen in primary care, these illnesses are often not recognized or treated in a timely fashion. To begin to address this problem, we started the Child Network. METHODS: The Child Network is for parents of children age 2-12 with mood or behavioral symptoms or at high risk for them...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440106/identifying-early-markers-of-late-onset-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-impulsivity-symptoms
#14
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Ingrid Obsuth, Denis Ribeaud
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, there has been an increased focus on "late onset" ADHD, referring to the onset of symptoms beyond childhood, into adolescence and adulthood. We aimed to identify childhood predictors of ADHD symptom increases over development. METHOD: We used growth mixture modeling to evaluate predictors of a "late onset" symptom trajectories in a longitudinal cohort study of youth measured at eight points from ages 7 to 15. RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of sensation seeking at age 7 were more likely to show a trajectory of ADHD symptoms characterized by increasing levels from age 7 than persistently low symptom levels...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#15
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439243/relationships-between-behavioural-addictions-and-psychiatric-disorders-what-is-known-and-what-is-yet-to-be-learned
#16
Vladan Starcevic, Yasser Khazaal
This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439178/hispanic-residential-isolation-adhd-diagnosis-and-stimulant-treatment-among-medicaid-insured-youth
#17
Dinci Pennap, Mehmet Burcu, Daniel J Safer, Julie M Zito
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate a conceptual framework that assessed the effect of Hispanic residential isolation on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) health service utilization among 2.2 million publicly insured youth. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Medicaid administrative claims data for ambulatory care services from a US Pacific state linked with US census data. PARTICIPANTS: Youth, aged 2-17 years, continuously enrolled in 2009...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#18
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438970/the-severity-of-vestibular-dysfunction-in-deafness-as-a-determinant-of-comorbid-hyperactivity-or-anxiety
#19
Michelle W Antoine, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Sherri M Jones, Jean M Hébert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2-3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain- or loss-of-function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1, which lies within the 22q11...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438647/effects-of-bms-902483-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognition-and-sensory-gating-in-relation-to-receptor-occupancy-in-rodents
#20
Rick L Pieschl, Regina Miller, Kelli M Jones, Debra J Post-Munson, Ping Chen, Kimberly Newberry, Yulia Benitex, Thaddeus Molski, Daniel Morgan, Ivar M McDonald, John E Macor, Richard E Olson, Yukiko Asaka, Siva Digavalli, Amy Easton, James Herrington, Ryan S Westphal, Nicholas J Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Linda J Bristow, Yu-Wen Li
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is thought to play an important role in human cognition. Here we describe the in vivo effects of BMS-902483, a selective potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in relationship to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy. BMS-902483 has low nanomolar affinity for rat and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and elicits currents in cells expressing human or rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are about 60% of the maximal acetylcholine response...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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