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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215021/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-processing-speed-and-internalizing-symptoms-the-moderating-effect-of-age
#1
Lisa A Jacobson, Megan Geist, E Mark Mahone
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been defined by a constellation of caregiver-reported symptoms that includes daydreaming, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, lethargy, and physical underactivity. These symptoms have been observed in both typically developing children and in some children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-especially those with the predominantly inattentive presentation. Symptoms of SCT (typically identified via rating scales) appear separable from DSM inattentive ADHD symptoms, but have also been associated with internalizing symptoms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214050/communication-deficits-and-avoidance-of-angry-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Ana García-Blanco, Concepción López-Soler, Máximo Vento, María Carmen García-Blanco, Belén Gago, Manuel Perea
BACKGROUND: Understanding how emotional faces are processed is important to help characterize the social deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). AIMS: We examined: (i) whether attention is modulated by emotional facial expression; (ii) the time course of the attentional preferences (short vs. long stimulus presentation rates); and (iii) the association between attentional biases and autistic symptomatology. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: We applied a dot-probe experiment with emotional faces (happy, sad, and angry)...
February 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213111/childhood-maltreatment-is-associated-with-alteration-in-global-network-fiber-tract-architecture-independent-of-history-of-depression-and-anxiety
#4
Kyoko Ohashi, Carl M Anderson, Elizabeth A Bolger, Alaptagin Khan, Cynthia E McGreenery, Martin H Teicher
Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology. It is also associated with alterations in the network architecture of the brain, which we hypothesized may play a significant role in the development of psychopathology. In this study, we analyzed the global network architecture of physically healthy unmedicated 18-25 year old subjects (n=262) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI and tractography. Anatomical networks were constructed from fiber streams interconnecting 90 cortical or subcortical regions for subjects with no-to-low (n=122) versus moderate-to-high (n=140) exposure to maltreatment...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#5
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212067/the-treatment-of-severe-childhood-aggression-study-12-weeks-of-extended-blinded-treatment-in-clinical-responders
#6
Robert L Findling, Lisa Townsend, Nicole V Brown, L Eugene Arnold, Kenneth D Gadow, David J Kolko, Nora K McNamara, Devin S Gary, Dana B Kaplin, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Kipp, Craig Williams, Eric M Butter, Oscar G Bukstein, Robert Rice, Kristin Buchan-Page, Brooke S G Molina, Michael G Aman
OBJECTIVES: Previous "Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression" (TOSCA) reports demonstrated that many children with severe physical aggression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) responded well to two randomized treatments (parent training [PT]+stimulant+placebo = Basic vs. PT+stimulant+risperidone = Augmented) for 9 weeks. An important clinical question is whether these favorable outcomes are maintained over longer times. METHODS: Clinical responders to the 9-week trial (n = 103/168), defined as Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Improvement of much/very much improved plus substantial reduction in parent ratings of disruptiveness, were followed another 12 weeks (21 weeks total) while remaining on blinded treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#7
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211596/the-structure-of-adult-adhd
#8
Lenard A Adler, Stephen V Faraone, Thomas J Spencer, Patricia Berglund, Samuel Alperin, Ronald C Kessler
Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210762/-impact-assessment-of-inadequate-hospital-disaster-management-reflection-based-on-a%C3%A2-risk-model
#9
E Pfenninger, H Güzelel
BACKGROUND: According to legal regulations alarm and emergency plans have to be developed and kept current in hospitals. However, often neither the hospital administration, nor the medical employees and nursing staff pay the necessary attention to these alarm and evacuation plans. In particular, risks and consequences - including financial ones - due to insufficient planning, are not adequately considered. OBJECTIVES: Risks in hospitals are assessed based on a risk analysis...
February 16, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209979/fractionating-impulsivity-neuropsychiatric-implications
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey W Dalley, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to make decisions and act quickly without hesitation can be advantageous in many settings. However, when persistently expressed, impulsive decisions and actions are considered risky, maladaptive and symptomatic of such diverse brain disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and affective disorders. Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in the identification of discrete neural networks that underlie different forms of impulsivity - from impaired response inhibition and risky decision making to a profound intolerance of delayed rewards...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209975/the-attention-network-changes-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-evidence-from-an-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-study
#12
Xingui Chen, Xiaoxuan He, Longxiang Tao, Huaidong Cheng, Jingjing Li, Jingjie Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Yongqiang Yu, Kai Wang
To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#13
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206782/process-dissociation-analyses-of-memory-changes-in-healthy-aging-preclinical-and-very-mild-alzheimer-disease-evidence-for-isolated-recollection-deficits
#14
Peter R Millar, David A Balota, Geoffrey B Maddox, Janet M Duchek, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Anne M Fagan, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which has been shown to be disrupted in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present longitudinal study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204923/language-deprivation-syndrome-a-possible-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-sociocultural-origins
#15
Wyatte C Hall, Leonard L Levin, Melissa L Anderson
PURPOSE: There is a need to better understand the epidemiological relationship between language development and psychiatric symptomatology. Language development can be particularly impacted by social factors-as seen in the developmental choices made for deaf children, which can create language deprivation. A possible mental health syndrome may be present in deaf patients with severe language deprivation. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify publications focusing on language development and mental health in the deaf population...
February 16, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203275/diagnostic-profiles-and-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-among-children-and-adolescents-attending-a-national-psychiatric-hospital-in-botswana
#16
Anthony A Olashore, Bechedza Frank-Hatitchki, Olorunfemi Ogunwobi
BACKGROUND: Attention is currently being drawn to child psychiatric care, most especially in the developed countries. This type of care is still rudimentary in the developing countries. Botswana is one of the African countries with good health care services but mental illness is given the low priority. Child and adolescent mental health care (CAMHC) is almost non-existent likely due to the dearth of research which would drive a policy change in this direction. Hence the need for this research as a step towards establishing a well-structured CAMHC...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#17
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202705/moderators-and-predictors-of-response-to-behavior-therapy-for-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#18
Denis G Sukhodolsky, Douglas W Woods, John Piacentini, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, Lily Katsovich, James Dziura, John T Walkup, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. METHODS: Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201923/reexamining-adhd-related-self-reporting-problems-using-polynomial-regression
#19
Margaret H Sibley, Mileini Campez, Joseph S Raiker
Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) underreport symptoms compared with informants and objective measures. This study applied enhanced statistical methodology (polynomial regression) to the study of ADHD self-reporting to clarify what contributes to symptom underreporting by adolescents with ADHD ( N = 107; ages = 11-15 years). Polynomial regression models were conducted to test competing hypotheses about the nature of self-reporting problems. Traditional difference score models were nested within polynomial regression models to examine how modeling strategy influences results...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201836/working-memory-in-aphasia-considering-discourse-processing-and-treatment-implications
#20
Amy Henderson, Hana Kim, Stephen Kintz, Nicole Frisco, Heather Harris Wright
Evidence suggests that persons with aphasia (PWAs) present with working memory impairments that affect a variety of language tasks. Most of these studies have focused on the phonological loop component of working memory and little attention has been paid to the episodic buffer component. The episodic buffer, as a limited capacity, multimodal system that binds and integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory would likely be involved in discourse processing. The purposes of this article were to (1) review discourse level deficits associated with aphasia, (2) describe how a deficit at the level of the episodic buffer could cause such deficits, (3) to review discourse treatment approaches for PWAs, and (4) present preliminary results from a novel discourse treatment study for PWAs...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
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