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Dysexecutive syndrome

N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Etienne Savard
OBJECTIVE: Dysimmune encephalitis are neurologic diseases that are more and more diagnosed. Most of patients are young and active. Cognitive and behavior troubles can delay the diagnosis and can cause disability. Functional outcome is not routinely assessed. The aim of this study is to describe the activities and participation several months after the onset. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four cases have been handled in the same multidisciplinary rehabilitation unit...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Valentina La Corte, Géraldine Delarue, Emmanuel Chevrillon, Aurore Balan, Béatrice Garcin
OBJECTIVE: Confabulations are described as "a falsification of memory occurring in clear consciousness in association with an organically derived amnesia". We describe production of confabulations in long-term memory in a 51-year-old woman who do not present amnesic syndrome typically associated. The patient was admitted in reanimation unit for septic shock. After 8 days of coma, she presented signs of encephalopathy of Gayet-Wernicke, without cerebral damage on T1 MRI. OBSERVATIONS: At 6 months of acute episode, the patient presents a severe cognitive and behavioural dysexecutive syndrome, with impulsivity, perseverations and environmental dependency...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Alfredo Ardila, Monica Rosselli
It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Martine Roussel, Eugénie Lhommée, Pauline Narme, Virginie Czernecki, Didier Le Gall, Pierre Krystkowiak, Momar Diouf, Olivier Godefroy
The objectives of this study were to characterize the frequencies and profiles of behavioral and cognitive dysexecutive syndromes in PD (based on validated battery and diagnostic criteria) and to develop a shortened diagnostic battery. Eighty-eight non-demented patients with a diagnosis of PD were examined with an executive validated battery. Using a validated framework, the patients' test results were interpreted with respect to normative data from 780 controls. A dysexecutive syndrome was observed in 80.6% of the patients [95% confidence interval: 71...
September 1, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
E Portaccio
Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting up to 70% of patients. One of the most important possible confounders to cognitive assessment is the occurrence of depression, a common consequence of MS. Cognition and depression have been linked in recent neuropsychiatric research that proposed a number of neurocognitive models of mood disorders. According to these models, primary failure of key brain regions of emotional processing and regulation or abnormal connectivity between them contributes to the adoption of maladaptive cognitive strategies and the development of mood disorders...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Roberto Maestri, Rossana Bera, Nir Giladi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Gianni Pezzoli, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Adriana D B Vizzotto, Diego L Celestino, Patricia C Buchain, Alexandra M Oliveira, Graça M R Oliveira, Elaine S Di Sarno, Isabel C Napolitano, Helio Elkis
Schizophrenia is a chronic disabling mental disorder that involves impairments in several cognitive domains, especially in executive functions (EF), as well as impairments in functional performance. This is particularly true in patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS). The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Occupational Goal Intervention (OGI) method for the improvement of EF in patients with TRS. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind pilot study, 25 TRS patients were randomly assigned to attend 30 sessions of either OGI or craft activities (control) over a 15-week period and evaluated by the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) as the primary outcome and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-BR) as well as the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR) as secondary outcomes, all adapted for the Brazilian population...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Milica G Kramberger
Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Jan W Wijnia, Erik Oudman, Willem A van Gool, André I Wierdsma, Esmay L Bresser, Jan Bakker, Albert van de Wiel, Cornelis L Mulder
BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy can have different clinical outcomes. Although infections may precipitate the encephalopathy itself, it is unknown whether infections also modify the long-term outcome in patients developing Korsakoff syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether markers of infection, such as white blood cell (WBC) counts and absolute neutrophil counts in the Wernicke phase, are associated with cognitive outcomes in the end-stage Korsakoff syndrome...
June 18, 2016: Psychosomatics
David A Gansler, Edward D Huey, Jessica J Pan, Eric Wasserman, Jordan H Grafman
OBJECTIVE: We compared performance on tests of dysexecutive behaviour (DB) and executive function (EF) in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with bvFTD (n=124), PPA (n=34) and CBS (n=85) were recruited. EF was measured with the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS: performance based), and DB was measured with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe: caregiver-report based)...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Silvia Alonso-Lana, José M Goikolea, Caterina M Bonnin, Salvador Sarró, Barbara Segura, Benedikt L Amann, Gemma C Monté, Noemi Moro, Paloma Fernandez-Corcuera, Teresa Maristany, Raymond Salvador, Eduard Vieta, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. METHODS: Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2016: PloS One
Serge Jw Walvoort, Paul T van der Heijden, Roy Pc Kessels, Jos Im Egger
AIM: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. METHODS: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jérémy Besnard, Philippe Allain, Vanesa Lerma, Ghislaine Aubin, Valérie Chauviré, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Didier Le Gall
The concepts of "frontal" and "dysexecutive" syndromes are still a matter of debate in the literature. These terms are often used interchangeably but can be distinguished when considering specific frontal behavioural deficits which occur during social interaction. Despite being of interest for the clinical assessment and care management of patients with anterior brain damage, few studies have tried to disentangle the specificity of each syndrome. We report the case of eight patients with frontal lobe damage who were assigned to one of two groups based on whether or not they showed a dysexecutive syndrome...
July 19, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Hiroko Teramoto, Akihiko Morita, Satoko Ninomiya, Takayoshi Akimoto, Hiroshi Shiota, Satoshi Kamei
Objective. To assess the relation between executive dysfunction (ED) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and resting state functional connectivity evaluated using electroencephalography (EEG) coherence. Methods. Sixty-eight nondemented sporadic PD patients were assessed using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) to evaluate executive function. EEG coherence in the left frontoparietal electrode pair (F3-P3) and the right frontoparietal electrode pair (F4-P4) was analyzed in the alpha and theta range...
2016: BioMed Research International
Alireza Atri
This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Andrea R Zammit, Mindy J Katz, Carol Derby, Markus Bitzer, Richard B Lipton
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the metabolic syndrome and its components on dysexecutive function (DF) in individuals with and without CKD. Among 588 participants aged over 70 from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), we defined DF as performance of 2SDs below the mean on any one test or 1.5SDs below the mean on any two of the following: Block Design, Digit Symbol Coding and the Trail-making Tests A and B. We defined CKD as an eGFR below 60 mL/min/m(2). MetS was defined according to recent guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jim Grigsby, Angela G Brega, Rachael E Bennett, James A Bourgeois, Andreea L Seritan, Glenn K Goodrich, Randi J Hagerman
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the neuropsychiatric phenotype of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and assess the extent to which it is mediated by the dysexecutive syndrome that is a major feature of the disorder. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of clinically meaningful psychiatric symptoms among male carriers of the fragile X premutation, with and without FXTAS, in comparison with men with a normal allele. Measures included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale, a measure of executive functioning...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
E Blanco Martín, I Ugarriza Serrano, X Elcoroaristizabal Martín, L Galdos Alcelay, A Molano Salazar, R Bereincua Gandarias, S Inglés Borda, J M Uterga Valiente, M B Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, J Moraza Lopez, M Barandiarán Amillano, M Fernández-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memory. The study of disexecutive syndrome (DS) has been relegated to advanced stages of the disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that EF are already present in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, we are interested in knowing whether poor scores in EF tests are related to the progression to AD or another kind of dementia...
2016: BMC Neurology
Monica Consonni, Eleonora Catricalà, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Valentina C Gessa, Giuseppe Lauria, Stefano F Cappa
The Strong consensus recommendations (2009) propose behavioural (ALSbi) and/or dysexecutive (ALSci) impairment as the two main clinical profiles of non-motor manifestations in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We aimed at assessing whether clustering pattern of neuropsychological performance of ALS patients suggest the existence of additional clinical syndromes beyond the currently recognized phenotypes. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of 71 non-demented ALS patients in order to identify clusters of variables correlating highly with each other, with the aim of detecting distinct patterns of neuropsychological test performance...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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