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Dysexecutive syndrome

Grazia D'Onofrio, Francesco Panza, Daniele Sancarlo, Filomena Addante, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Chiara Cantarini, Antonio Mangiacotti, Michele Lauriola, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Madia Lozupone, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) lead to progressive decline in executive function. We estimated the prevalence of executive dysfunction in AD and VaD patients, investigating cognitive, functional, and clinical correlates and also using a multidimensional approach based on a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We included 215 patients (115 AD patients and 100 VaD patients) consecutively evaluated with a complete cognitive and affective assessment, a CGA, and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) with six subtests investigating conceptualization, mental flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Gabi Zeilig, Harold Weingarden, Clara Rozental-Iluz, Debbie Rand
Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are often still present at the chronic stage after stroke, which may negatively impact independent living. The objectives of this study were (a) to characterize the EF and independence in daily living of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke by using pen-and-paper and performance-based EF assessments, (b) to explore correlations between scores detected by different EF assessments and (c) to assess the correlations between EF and independence in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Diana Caine, Akin Nihat, Philippa Crabb, Peter Rudge, Lisa Cipolotti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Akinetic mutism is a key diagnostic feature of prion diseases, however, their rapidly progressive nature makes detailed investigation of the language disorder in a large cohort extremely challenging. This study aims to position prion diseases in the nosology of language disorders and improve early clinical recognition. METHODS: A systematic, prospective investigation of language disorders in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with prion diseases. 568 patients were included as a sub-study of the National Prion Monitoring Cohort...
2018: PloS One
Daisuke Fukuta, Chizuru Mori
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intervention program to improve executive functions and enhance the planning abilities of patients with mild neurocognitive disorder. DESIGN: A pilot intervention study. METHODS: Ten inpatients performed an intervention program based on Lezak's conceptual model that teaches task-specific routines. The program consisted of six training sessions presented over a 2-week period. Neuropsychological assessments were performed pre- and postintervention...
January 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Yafit Gilboa, Ashok Jansari, Bernadette Kerrouche, Emel Uçak, Anne Tiberghien, Ouarda Benkhaled, Delphine Aligon, Aude Mariller, Valentine Verdier, Amaia Mintegui, Geneviève Abada, Céline Canizares, Andrew Goldstein, Mathilde Chevignard
OBJECTIVES: The Jansari assessment of Executive Functions for Children (JEF-C© ) is a new non-immersive computerised assessment of executive functions. The objectives of the study were to test the feasibility and validity of JEF-C© in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ABI aged 10-18 years and 30 age-and gender-matched controls were tested. Participants performed JEF-C© , Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (BADS-C), while parents completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire...
December 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Jeffrey S Phillips, Fulvio Da Re, Laynie Dratch, Sharon X Xie, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Carlo Ferrarese, Edward B Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls...
March 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Marta Croca, Aurèlie Lagodka, Remi Gadel, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphael Gaillard, Jean Pierre Olié, M Champagne-Lavau, Marie Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Theory of Mind (ToM) is compromised in schizophrenia, and responsible for social disability. We aim to study the correlation between ToM deficits and Executive Functions (EF), using the Faux Pas Test (FPT) for ToM evaluation, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for EF assessment. Two groups of patients with schizophrenia were included: 22 young (18-35 years-old) and 18 middle-aged (>50 years-old) Patients, compared to age-matched Controls. We found worst FPT performances in both groups of patients, but with a more generalized pattern of dysfunction in the middle-aged patient group...
November 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Hidetomo Murakami, Tetsuhito Nohara, Hidenobu Shozawa, Yoshiyuki Owan, Takeshi Kuroda, Satoshi Yano, Machiko Kezuka, Mitsuru Kawamura, Kenjiro Ono
Background: Effects of dopaminergic medication on executive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the effect of dopaminergic medication on executive function in 24 drug-naïve PD patients (de novo group) and in 21 PD patients on chronic dopaminergic medication (chronic medication group). Methods: PD patients without dementia were included in this study. For the de novo group patients, dopaminergic medication was initiated, and the dose was increased to improve motor symptoms...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Veena Kallambettu, Angela N Burda, Nicole Wakeman
Purpose: This study compared the performance of South Asian and White adults on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS; Wilson, Alderman, Burgess, Emslie, & Evans, 1996) and the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES; MacDonald, 2005), tests that can be used by speech-language pathologists to assess executive function (EF). Method: Twenty South Asian and 20 White participants were administered the BADS and FAVRES...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Grazia Fernanda Spitoni, Massimiliano Aragonaa, Sara Bevacqua, Armando Cotugno, Gabriella Antonucci
The use of ecological tests to assess executive functions (EFs) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) has not examined extensively. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the performance of patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs) on standard versus ecologically valid tests on EFs. Sixty-two females aged between 16 and 42 who were diagnosed with AN and 70 matched HCs completed 2 neuropsychological test batteries: standard tests (WCST, TMT, Stroop, ToL, fluency test) and the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS)...
October 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Paul Kauv, Anaïs Charles-Nelson, Axel Van Der Gucht, Paul Blanc-Durand, Emmanuel Itti, Romain K Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François Jérôme Authier
Patients with macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive disorder. Representative features of MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction include attentional dysfunction, dysexecutive syndrome, visual memory deficit and left ear extinction. Our study aims to reevaluate the neuropsychological profile of MMF. 105 unselected consecutive MMF patients were subjected to a neuropsychological battery of screen short term and long-term memory, executive functions, attentional abilities, instrumental functions and dichotic listening...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Léonard Kouamé Kouassi, Mariam Doumbia-Ouattara
BACKGROUND Bi-thalamic infarctions are rare and marked by clinical polymorphism. Their association with HIV has never been reported. CASE REPORT We report a 51-year-old right-handed man with no medical history, who presented an acute onset vascular dementia associated with an antero-retrograde amnesia, a word-finding difficulty, and a dysexecutive syndrome. The CT scan was normal. Brain MRI revealed a paramedian and bi-thalamic infarction, evoking an occlusion of the Percheron artery. The electrocardiogram, transthoracic and transesophageal cardiac ultrasound, and Doppler echo of cervical arteries gave normal results...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Keera N Fishman, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Krista L Lanctôt, Megan L Cayley, Nathan Herrmann, Brian J Murray, Michelle Sicard, Karen Lien, Demetrios J Sahlas, Richard H Swartz
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between apathy and cognition in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Apathy may result from damage to frontal subcortical circuits causing dysexecutive syndromes, but apathy is also related to depression. We assessed the ability of apathy to predict phonemic fluency and semantic fluency performance after controlling for depressive symptoms in 282 individuals with stroke and/or transient ischemic attack. METHOD: Participants (N = 282) completed the Phonemic Fluency Test, Semantic Fluency Test, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Apathy Evaluation Scale...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Shaobo Shan, Lingling Fang, Jia Huang, Raymond C K Chan, Guijun Jia, Weiqing Wan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore different aspects of executive function in patients with acromegaly and investigate the cause of dysexecutive syndrome in these patients. METHODS: We conducted five typical executive function tests (Stroop test, verbal fluency [VF] test, Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], N-back test, and Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) on 42 acromegalic patients and 42 strictly matched healthy controls. Comparative analyses were conducted for five major executive function domains...
December 2017: Pituitary
Evelyn Lindsay, Elsdon Storey
The dominantly-inherited ataxias characterised by expanded polyglutamine tracts-spinocere bellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and, in part, SCA 8-have all been shown to result in various degrees of cognitive impairment. We survey the literature on the cognitive consequences of each disorder, attempting correlation with their published neuropathological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features. We suggest several psychometric instruments for assessment of executive function, whose results are unlikely to be confounded by visual, articulatory or upper limb motor difficulties...
July 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
Aleksandra Gruszka, Adam Hampshire, Roger A Barker, Adrian M Owen
Impaired ability to shift attention between stimuli (i.e. shifting attentional 'set') is a well-established part of the dysexecutive syndrome in Parkinson's Disease (PD), nevertheless cognitive and neural bases of this deficit remain unclear. In this study, an fMRI-optimised variant of a classic paradigm for assessing attentional control (Hampshire and Owen 2006) was used to contrast activity in dissociable executive circuits in early-stage PD patients and controls. The results demonstrated that the neural basis of the executive performance impairments in PD is accompanied by hypoactivation within the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), and inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) regions...
August 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Natalya Korsakova, Elizabeth Liebson, Lena Moskovich
In 1976, a patient with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) rupture (diagnosed on angiography) and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) underwent serial neuropsychological testing revealing a classical anterior cerebral artery (ACA) spasm picture with severe anterograde amnesia of Korsakoff's type and dysexecutive syndrome. In addition, the patient demonstrated impaired hemispheric interaction with alien hand syndrome, dyscopia-dysgraphia, complete left ear neglect, and other, more complex, split-brain phenomena...
June 2017: PsyCh Journal
Maura Gallo, Francesca Frangipane, Chiara Cupidi, Matteo De Bartolo, Sabina Turone, Camilla Ferrari, Benedetta Nacmias, Giuliana Grimaldi, Valentina Laganà, Rosanna Colao, Livia Bernardi, Maria Anfossi, Maria Elena Conidi, Franca Vasso, Sabrina Anna Maria Curcio, Maria Mirabelli, Nicoletta Smirne, Giusi Torchia, Maria Gabriella Muraca, Gianfranco Puccio, Raffaele Di Lorenzo, Maristella Piccininni, Andrea Tedde, Raffaele Giovanni Maletta, Sandro Sorbi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni
We identified the novel PSEN1 pathogenic mutation M84V in 3 patients belonging to a large kindred affected by autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD). The clinical phenotype was characterized by early onset dementia in 14 affected subjects over 3 generations. Detailed clinical, imaging and genetic assessment was performed. We highlighted the presence of unusual symptoms such as frontal executive syndrome, psychosis and spastic paraparesis in these patients. Spastic paraparesis has been reported in other PSEN1 mutations in adjacent codons, suggesting that the position of the genetic defect may affect the clinical expression, although this phenotype can occur in mutations throughout the whole PSEN1 gene...
August 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Oleg A Levada, Nataliya V Cherednichenko, Alexandra S Troyan
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic construct of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs) is substantially congruent with previously proposed criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MNCD/MCI is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Previous studies have examined the prevalence of NPS in amnestic and non-amnestic MCI subtypes; however, no studies exist for etiological types of MNCD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NPS in patients with MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD) and subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) and to determine whether NPS would expand these MNCD phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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