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Psychostimulant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349706/effect-of-the-combination-of-mephedrone-plus-ethanol-on-serotonin-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-awake-rats
#1
Raúl López-Arnau, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Jorge Camarasa, David Pubill, Elena Escubedo
Cathinones, such as mephedrone (Meph), are often co-abused with alcoholic drinks. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of Meph plus ethanol (EtOH) on neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A guide canula was stereotaxically implanted into either the NAc or the mPFC of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days after surgery, a microdialysis probe was inserted and rats were administered saline, EtOH (1 g/kg, i.p.), Meph (25 mg/kg, s...
January 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343767/blockade-of-trpv1-inhibits-methamphetamine-induced-rewarding-effects
#2
Yu-Hua Tian, Shi-Xun Ma, Kwang-Wook Lee, Sunmee Wee, George F Koob, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Methamphetamine (MAP) is the most widely used psychostimulant in the world, but the exact mechanisms underlying MAP addiction are not yet fully understood. Recent studies have identified the distribution of TRPV1 in several brain regions that are related to drug addiction, including nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DSt). In the present study, we performed conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration tests to examine the effects of capsazepine (CPZ) and SB366791 (SB) on MAP reward. We found that both CPZ and SB significantly inhibited MAP-induced CPP and self-administration; in contrast, TRPV1 knock-out (KO) mice did not develop MAP-induced CPP...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339293/methylphenidate-significantly-alters-the-functional-coupling-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#3
Ike C Dela Peña, Guofang Shen, Wei-Xing Shi
Amphetamine-like psychostimulants, including methylphenidate, have been shown to produce two opposing effects on dopamine (DA) neurons: a DA receptor-mediated feedback inhibition and a non-DA receptor-mediated excitation. To test whether the latter effect is mediated through the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we made dual-site recordings from the PFC and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Consistent with previous reports, methylphenidate inhibited VTA DA neurons. The D2 receptor antagonist raclopride completely reversed the inhibition and further increased the activity, particularly bursting, to above pre-drug baseline...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338873/opioid-and-psychostimulant-plasticity-targeting-overlap-in-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Hearing, Nicholas Graziane, Yan Dong, Mark J Thomas
Commonalities in addictive behavior, such as craving, stimuli-driven drug seeking, and a high propensity for relapse following abstinence, have pushed for a unified theory of addiction that encompasses most abused substances. This unitary theory has recently been challenged - citing distinctions in structural neural plasticity, biochemical signaling, and neural circuitry to argue that addiction to opioids and psychostimulants is behaviorally and neurobiologically distinct. Recent more selective examination of drug-induced plasticity has highlighted that these two drug classes promote an overall reward circuitry signaling overlap through modifying excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens - a key constituent of the reward system...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338767/effect-of-exercise-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-or-no-intervention-on-anxiety-depression-fitness-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-previous-methamphetamine-dependency-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Linzette Morris, Jessica Stander, Wardah Ebrahim, Stephanie Eksteen, Orissa Anna Meaden, Ané Ras, Annemarie Wessels
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant used by approximately 52 million people worldwide. Chronic MA abuse leads to detrimental physiological and neurological changes, as well as increases in anxiety and depression, and decreases in overall fitness and quality of life. Exercise has been reported to possibly reverse physiological and neurological damage caused by previous MA use, and to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, clinically appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the effectiveness of exercise, compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), standard care or no intervention, on decreasing anxiety and depression and improving fitness and quality of life in previous MA users...
January 16, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338492/genetic-variation-of-gria3-gene-is-associated-with-vulnerability-to-methamphetamine-dependence-and-its-associated-psychosis
#6
Sri-Arun Iamjan, Samur Thanoi, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug commonly leading to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Disturbances in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been proposed as neurobiological mechanisms and the α-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor has been implicated in these processes. Moreover, genetic variants in GRIAs, genes encoding AMPA receptor subunits, have been observed in association with both drug dependence and psychosis. We hypothesized that variation of GRIA genes may be associated with METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335402/a-partially-open-inward-facing-intermediate-conformation-of-leut-is-associated-with-na-release-and-substrate-transport
#7
Daniel S Terry, Rachel A Kolster, Matthias Quick, Michael V LeVine, George Khelashvili, Zhou Zhou, Harel Weinstein, Jonathan A Javitch, Scott C Blanchard
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS), targets of antidepressants and psychostimulants, clear neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft through sodium (Na+)-coupled transport. Substrate and Na+ are thought to be transported from the extracellular to intracellular space through an alternating access mechanism by coordinated conformational rearrangements in the symporter that alternately expose the binding sites to each side of the membrane. However, the mechanism by which the binding of ligands coordinates conformational changes occurring on opposite sides of the membrane is not well understood...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323553/revealing-the-structural-neural-circuitry-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-diffusion-mri-implications-for-future-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
Vitria Adisetiyo
OBJECTIVE: Rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and psychostimulant prescriptions continue to rise, yet there are no clear diagnostic tests or biomarkers for the disorder. The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of diffusion MRI in bolstering a neurobiologic conceptualization of ADHD and how this holds promise for optimizing future diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Diffusion MRI is a powerful neuroimaging tool for noninvasive assessment of the structural neural circuitry underlying brain function and behavior...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321233/effect-of-psychostimulants-on-blood-pressure-profile-and-endothelial-function-in-narcolepsy
#9
Adriana Bosco, Régis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Sofiene Chenini, Carole Pesenti, Jean-Louis Pépin, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of psychostimulant treatments on the 24-hour blood pressure (BP) profile of patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). METHODS: Heart rate (HR) and BP were monitored for 24 hours and morning endothelial function was evaluated in 160 consecutive patients with NT1: 68 untreated (41 male, median age 34.9 years), 54 treated (32 male, median age 40.9 years), and 38 evaluated twice (21 male, median age 32 years), before and during treatment...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314376/validation-of-a-behavioral-economic-purchase-task-for-assessing-drug-abuse-liability
#10
James MacKillop, Nicholas I Goldenson, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Adam M Leventhal
Behavioral economic purchase tasks quantify drug demand (i.e. reinforcing value of a drug) and have been used extensively to assess the value of various drugs among current users. However, purchase tasks have been rarely used with unfamiliar drugs to address a compound's abuse liability, and the current study sought to validate the paradigm in this capacity. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects drug challenge design, the study evaluated differential drug demand on an experimental drug purchase task for a 20 mg dose of oral D-amphetamine (versus placebo), a prototypic psychostimulant, in 98 stimulant-naïve participants...
January 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313415/a-controlled-trial-of-extended-release-guanfacine-and-psychostimulants-on-executive-function-and-adhd
#11
Judy P M van Stralen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) versus placebo as adjunct therapy to usual care stimulant therapy in improving executive function in children aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: In this single center, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, subjects continued to take their psychostimulant and were randomly assigned at baseline to receive active treatment or placebo first. Efficacy measures included Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P), ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS IV), and Clinical Global Impressions of Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298167/newly-developed-skin-picking-after-methylphenidate-treatment-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-possible-mechanisms
#12
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun
Dermatillomania is characterized by excessive and repeated skin picking sufficient to damage cutaneous tissue, but with no underlying dermatological disease. The condition appears as an independent diagnosis in the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A psychiatric pathology is generally reported to accompany this symptom. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a potentially lifelong condition involving inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297590/involvement-of-the-delayed-rectifier-outward-potassium-channel-kv2-1-in-methamphetamine-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-via-the-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#13
Jingying Zhu, Songsong Zang, Xufeng Chen, Lei Jiang, Aihua Gu, Jie Cheng, Li Zhang, Jun Wang, Hang Xiao
Methamphetamine (Meth) is an illicit psychostimulant with high abuse potential and severe neurotoxicity. Recent studies have shown that dysfunctions in learning and memory induced by Meth may partially reveal the mechanisms of neuronal channelopathies. Kv2.1, the primary delayed rectifying potassium channel in neurons, is responsible for mediating apoptotic current surge. However, whether Kv2.1 is involved in Meth-mediated neural injury remains unknown. In the present study, the treatment of primary cultured hippocampal neurons with Meth indicated that Meth induced a time- and dose-dependent augmentation of Kv2...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289963/treatment-guidelines-for-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders-of-the-polish-sleep-research-society-and-the-section-of-biological-psychiatry-of-the-polish-psychiatric-association-part-ii-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Adam Wichniak, Konrad S Jankowski, Michał Skalski, Krystyna Skwarło-Sońta, Jolanta B Zawilska, Marcin Żarowski, Ewa Poradowska, Wojciech Jernajczyk
AIM: Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. METHOD: Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289668/involvement-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-the-lectin-isolated-from-the-red-marine-alga-solieria-filiformis-in-mice
#15
Ticiana Monteiro Abreu, Valdécio Silvano Monteiro, Ana Beatriz Souza Martins, Felipe Barros Teles, Renata Line da Conceição Rivanor, Érika Freitas Mota, Danielle S Macedo, Silvânia Maria Mendes de Vasconcelos, José Eduardo Ribeiro Honório Júnior, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
This study aimed at evaluating the antidepressant-like action of the marine alga Solieria filiformis lectin (SfL) and to investigate the participation of the monoaminergic system in this action. For this, male Swiss mice (n=10) were pretreated with intravenous injections (i.v.) of SfL (1, 3 or 9mg/kg) and submitted to open field (OFT), tail suspension (TST), forced swimming (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPMT) and hole-board tests (HBT). As controls, mice received sterile saline (i.v.), imipramine (10 or 30mg/kg; intraperitoneally - i...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#16
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288365/methylphenidate-disrupts-cytoskeletal-homeostasis-and-reduces-membrane-associated-lipid-content-in-juvenile-rat-hippocampus
#17
Felipe Schmitz, Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti-Brendler, Fernanda Silva Ferreira, Fernanda Dos Santos Petry, Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Angela T S Wyse
Although methylphenidate (MPH) is ubiquitously prescribed to children and adolescents, the consequences of chronic utilization of this psychostimulant are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of MPH on cytoskeletal homeostasis and lipid content in rat hippocampus. Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of MPH (2.0 mg/kg) or saline solution (controls), once a day, from the 15th to the 44th day of age. Results showed that MPH provoked hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and reduced its immunocontent...
December 29, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261228/overview-of-monoamine-transporters
#18
Shaili Aggarwal, Ole V Mortensen
The dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET) transporters, which are collectively referred to as monoamine transporters (MATs), play significant roles in regulating the neuronal response to these neurotransmitters. MATs terminate the action of these neurotransmitters by translocating them from the synaptic space into the presynaptic neurons. These three transmitters are responsible for controlling a number of physiological, emotional, and behavioral functions, with their transporters being the site of action of drugs employed for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, ADHD, schizophrenia, and psychostimulant abuse...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248633/effects-of-non-contingent-cocaine-on-3alpha-androstanediol-i-disruption-of-male-sexual-behavior
#19
Amy S Kohtz, Alicia A Walf, Cheryl A Frye
One of the hallmarks of drug abuse is a reduction in the salience of, and motivation for, natural rewards, such as mating. The effects of psychostimulants on male sexual interest and performance are conflicting; use of psychostimulants can produce increases in risky sexual behaviors but have detrimental effects on sexual ability. We hypothesize that these conflicting effects on sexual behavior are due to interactions between cocaine and androgens, such as testosterone and its neuroactive metabolite, 3α-androstanediol (3α-diol)...
December 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247759/repeated-methamphetamine-and-modafinil-induce-differential-cognitive-effects-and-specific-histone-acetylation-and-dna-methylation-profiles-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Betina González, Subramaniam Jayanthi, Natalia Gomez, Oscar V Torres, Máximo H Sosa, Alejandra Bernardi, Francisco J Urbano, Edgar García-Rill, Jean-Lud Cadet, Verónica Bisagno
Methamphetamine (METH) and modafinil are psychostimulants with different long-term cognitive profiles: METH is addictive and leads to cognitive decline, whereas modafinil has little abuse liability and is a cognitive enhancer. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation behind the lasting changes that drugs of abuse and other psychotropic compounds induce in the brain, like the control of gene expression by histones 3 and 4 tails acetylation (H3ac and H4ac) and DNA cytosine methylation (5-mC)...
December 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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