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Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Uma Sriram, Beth L Hill, Jonathan M Cenna, Larisa Gofman, Nicole C Fernandes, Bijayesh Haldar, Raghava Potula
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection...
2016: PloS One
Landhing M Moran, Karran A Phillips, William J Kowalczyk, Udi E Ghitza, Daniel A Agage, David H Epstein, Kenzie L Preston
Aripiprazole blocks psychostimulant seeking in a rat model of relapse. However, in humans, it may increase ongoing use. We tested aripiprazole specifically for relapse prevention. Methadone-maintained outpatients who were abstinent from cocaine in weeks 11-12 were randomized to double-blind aripiprazole (15 mg daily) or placebo in weeks 13-27 after 12 weeks of contingency management. Participants reported craving through ecological momentary. We stopped the trial because very few (18/41) participants fulfilled the abstinence criterion...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Abigail Benn, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Atomoxetine is a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor licensed for the treatment of adult and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although atomoxetine has established efficacy, the mechanisms which mediate its effects are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of cortical versus sub-cortical noradrenaline by using focal dopamine beta hydroxylase-saporin-induced lesions, to the prefrontal cortex (n = 16) or nucleus accumbens shell (n = 18)...
October 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey A Guy, Lisa M Knight, Yinding Wang, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, and the prescribed psychostimulant. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort design was employed using South Carolina's Medicaid claims data set covering outpatient and inpatient medical services and medication prescriptions over an 11-year period (January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2006) for patients ≤ 17 years of age with ≥ 2 visits for ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for ADHD...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Martin J Bobak, Matthew W Weber, Melissa A Doellman, Douglas R Schuweiler, Jeana M Athens, Steven A Juliano, Paul A Garris
Modafinil (MOD) exhibits therapeutic efficacy for treating sleep and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism is incompletely understood. Compared to other psychostimulants inhibiting dopamine (DA) uptake, MOD weakly interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modestly elevates striatal dialysate DA, suggesting additional targets besides DAT. However, the ability of MOD to induce wakefulness is abolished with DAT knockout, conversely suggesting that DAT is necessary for MOD action. Another psychostimulant target, but one not established for MOD, is activation of phasic DA signaling...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
S Cuesta, J Batuecas, M J Severin, A Funes, S B Rosso, A M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psychostimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Fahad S Alshehri, Atiah H Almalki, Youssef Sari
Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andres Asser, Sulev Kõks, Anniina Snellman, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Eveliina Arponen, Tove Grönroos, Jaak Nairismägi, Jonas Bergquist, Ursel Soomets, Piret Piip, Mall Eltermaa, Martin Sauk, Hanna Lindmäe, Juha O Rinne, Pille Taba
Intravenous use of a psychostimulant drug containing methcathinone (ephedrone) and manganese causes an irreversible extrapyramidal syndrome in drug abusers. We aimed to reproduce the syndrome in mice to evaluate dopaminergic damage. C57/B6 mice were intraperitoneally injected once a day with the study drug or saline for a period of 27 weeks. Motor activity was recorded in an automated motility-box. After 13 and 27 weeks of treatment, ex vivo digital autoradiography was performed using [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ)...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
Nao Chuhma, Susana Mingote, Abigail Kalmbach, Leora Yetnikoff, Stephen Rayport
Brain imaging has revealed alterations in dopamine uptake, release, and receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia that have been resolved on the scale of striatal subregions. However, the underlying synaptic mechanisms are on a finer scale. Dopamine neuron synaptic actions vary across the striatum, involving variations not only in dopamine release but also in dopamine neuron connectivity, cotransmission, modulation, and activity. Optogenetic studies have revealed that dopamine neurons release dopamine in a synaptic signal mode, and that the neurons also release glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid as cotransmitters, with striking regional variation...
July 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Alexander Viktorin, Eleonore Rydén, Michael E Thase, Zheng Chang, Cecilia Lundholm, Brian M D'Onofrio, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik K E Magnusson, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Cristian Arredondo, Marcela González, María Estela Andrés, Katia Gysling
Dopamine neurons are overstimulated by drugs of abuse and suffer molecular alterations that lead to addiction behavior. Nurr1 is a transcription factor crucial for dopamine neurons survival and dopamine production, activating the transcription of key genes like tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Interestingly, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has emerged as a new Nurr1 partner in response to inflammatory stimulus. In this study we evaluated the effects of single and repeated amphetamine administration in the expression of Nurr1 and the NF-κB p65 subunit in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
September 26, 2016: Brain Research
Silvia Minozzi, Rosella Saulle, Franco De Crescenzo, Laura Amato
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulant misuse is a continuously growing medical and social burden. There is no evidence proving the efficacy of pharmacotherapy. Psychosocial interventions could be a valid approach to help patients in reducing or ceasing drug consumption. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for psychostimulant misuse in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (via CRSLive); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science and PsycINFO, from inception to November 2015...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Christian B Billesbølle, Jonas S Mortensen, Azmat Sohail, Solveig G Schmidt, Lei Shi, Harald H Sitte, Ulrik Gether, Claus J Loland
Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) are responsible for Na(+)-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitters and represent key targets for antidepressants and psychostimulants. LeuT, a prokaryotic NSS protein, constitutes a primary structural model for these transporters. Here we show that K(+) inhibits Na(+)-dependent binding of substrate to LeuT, promotes an outward-closed/inward-facing conformation of the transporter and increases uptake. To assess K(+)-induced conformational dynamics we measured fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein site-specifically attached to inserted cysteines and Ni(2+) bound to engineered di-histidine motifs (transition metal ion FRET)...
2016: Nature Communications
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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