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Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
L Zimmer, P Fourneret
Methylphenidate (MPH) remains the only accessible psychostimulant used in France in the attention and behavior disturbances of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Its prescription has been extended during the past decade to other neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, also associated with a deficit of attentional resources or, more broadly, fragility of executive functions. Despite its efficiency, validated by more than 400 randomized controlled and double-blind studies, and the good tolerance of MPH in these indications, this treatment remains limited in France because of many fears and other prejudices on the part of medical practitioners and/or families...
March 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Eating disorders and some forms of obesity are characterized by addictive-like, compulsive eating behavior which contains numerous similarities with compulsive drug use. Food intake is in part mediated by reward and reinforcement processes that can become dysregulated in these disorders. Additionally, impairments in inhibitory control regulation of reward-related responding can cause or further exacerbate binge and compulsive eating. Dysfunctions in two neurotransmitter systems in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, dopamine and glutamate, are thought to contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lydia Giménez-Llort, Marc Guitart-Masip, Adolf Tobeña, Albert Fernández-Teruel, Björn Johansson
The psychogenetically selected Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats are being proposed as a valuable animal model of individual vulnerability to the two distinct neurobiological mechanisms of behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, namely induction and expression. Most hallmarks of their divergent phenotypes are also found in the inbred RHA (RHA-I) and RLA (RLA-I) strains. For instance, they differ in the expression of sensitization to amphetamine. However, the pattern of spontaneous activity of the inbred rats seems to differ from that of outbred Roman strains...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Tara L White, Mollie A Monnig, Edward G Walsh, Adam Z Nitenson, Ashley D Harris, Ronald A Cohen, Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Damon G Lamb, Chelsea A Boyd, Sinda Fekir
Prescription psychostimulants produce rapid changes in mood, energy, and attention. These drugs are widely used and abused. However, their effects in human neocortex on glutamate and glutamine (pooled as Glx), and key neurometabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (tNAA), creatine (tCr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (Ins) are poorly understood. Changes in these compounds could inform the mechanism of action of psychostimulant drugs and their abuse potential in humans. We investigated the acute impact of two FDA-approved psychostimulant drugs on neurometabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Francesca Romana Rizzo, Mauro Federici, Nicola Biagio Mercuri
An increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the psychostimulant properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Although this drug has been reported to affect the DA uptake transporter (DAT), it might activate other mechanisms to regulate the outflow of DA in the brain. Our aim was to examine the overall effects of MDMA on the release of DA in the striatum. We studied the effect of MDMA on stimulus-evoked synaptic DA release in dorsal striatal slices of mice using in vitro amperometric techniques...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Chittaranjan Andrade
The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Enquan Xu, Jianuo Liu, Han Liu, Xiaobei Wang, Huangui Xiong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant abused worldwide. Ample evidence indicate that chronic abuse of Meth induces neurotoxicity via microglia-associated neuroinflammation and the activated microglia present in both Meth-administered animals and human abusers. The development of anti-neuroinflammation as a therapeutic strategy against Meth dependence promotes research to identify inflammatory pathways that are specifically tied to Meth-induced neurotoxicity. Currently, the exact mechanisms for Meth-induced microglia activation are largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
M Espadas, I Insa, M Chamorro, J A Alda-Diez
INTRODUCTION: The use of psychostimulants has been present in common medical practice since the 20th century and has undergone an exponential growth in terms of the number of prescriptions. AIM: To review the current state of knowledge about the side effects of psychostimulants in the child and teen populations. DEVELOPMENT: A review was performed by searching in different databases and included clinical analyses, observational prospective studies and systematic reviews...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Tyra S C Zetterström
Abnormalities in the cerebellar circuitry have been suggested to contribute to some of the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is the major drug for treating this condition. Here, the effects of acute (2.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg) and chronic (2.0 mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) MPH treatments were investigated in adolescent (35-40 days old) rats on monoaminergic and metabolic markers in the cerebellum. Data acquired indicates that acute MPH treatment (2...
February 22, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shasha Xu, Shaoang Tu, Jinlong Gao, Jia Liu, Zhirui Guo, Jinming Zhang, Xingdang Liu, Jianhui Liang, Yiyun Huang, Mei Han
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant with high abuse liability that affects the monoamine neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system. Currently there are no effective medications for the treatment of METH abuse to restore METH-induced dopaminergic dysfunction. The Jitai tablet (JTT), a commercial traditional Chinese medicinal preparation, has been shown to modulate the dopaminergic function both in heroin addicts and in morphine-dependent rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a rodent model, whether JTT can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity, and/or restore METH-damaged dopaminergic function...
February 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Amandine Valomon, Sebastian C Holst, Alessandro Borrello, Susanne Weigend, Thomas Müller, Wolfgang Berger, Michael Sommerauer, Christian R Baumann, Hans-Peter Landolt
Tolcapone, a brain penetrant selective inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) devoid of psychostimulant properties, improves cognition and cortical information processing in rested volunteers, depending on the genotype of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of COMT. The impact of this common genetic variant on behavioral and neurophysiological markers of increased sleep need after sleep loss is controversial. Here we investigated the potential usefulness of tolcapone to mitigate consequences of sleep deprivation on lapses of sustained attention, and tested the hypothesis that dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) causally contributes to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological markers of sleep homeostasis in humans...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nausheen Alam, Kulsoom Choudhary
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lihua Yang, Yinli Guo, Mengbin Huang, Xiaoli Wu, Xiang Li, Guobing Chen, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant abused around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that METH causes brain damage. However, there are very few reports on METH-induced demyelination. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays the roles in protecting neurons from various stresses. However, whether Trx-1 resists demyelination induced by METH has not been reported. In this study, we found that METH-induced thin myelin sheaths in spinal cord, whereas Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice restored the myelin sheaths thickness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mikaela K Barker, Carly M Sable, Sarah E Montgomery, Lorrie Chow, Timothy J Green, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Angela M Devlin
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in children is associated with metabolic side effects including weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to determine if SGA treatment in children affects dietary intakes and relationship to metabolic side effects. METHODS: Three-day food records assessed dietary energy and macronutrient intakes in a cross-sectional population of SGA-treated (n = 35) and SGA-naïve (n = 29) children...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Chang-Liang Liu, Ya-Kun Wang, Guo-Zhang Jin, Wei-Xing Shi, Ming Gao
The initiation of psychostimulant sensitization depends on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Although many cellular adaptations has been reported to be associated with this addictive behavior, the overall influence of these adaptations on the network regulation of DA neurons has not been established. Here, we profile a network-driven slow oscillation (SO) in the firing activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) putative DA and non-DA neurons and their correlation with locomotor sensitization induced by repeated administration of cocaine...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael O Ogundele, Hani F Ayyash
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
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