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Psychostimulant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323108/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-significantly-decreases-microglia-activation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#1
Steven A Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C Bruster, Rick L Roberts, Ryan A Shanks
Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322161/the-use-of-methylphenidate-in-cancer-patients-a-review
#2
Beatrice Andrew, Chong Guan Ng, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar
BACKGROUND: One of the goals of cancer treatment is symptoms management especially at the end stage. The common symptoms in cancer include pain, fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. The available treatment options for symptom management are limited. Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant, may be of benefit for these patients. In this report, we review the use of methylphenidate for symptoms control in cancer patients. METHOD: Electronic literature search on PubMed was conducted using the following keywords: methylphenidate, cancer, carcinoma, oncology, oncological and tumour...
March 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321131/does-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-promote-or-reduce-feeding
#3
L Boekhoudt, T J M Roelofs, J W de Jong, A E de Leeuw, M C M Luijendijk, I G Wolterink-Donselaar, G van der Plasse, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317317/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-caffeine-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Mahshad Kolahdouzan, Mazen J Hamadeh
Caffeine is the most widely used psychostimulant in Western countries, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), caffeine is beneficial in both men and women, in humans and animals. Similar effects of caffeine were observed in men with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the effect of caffeine in female PD patients is controversial due to caffeine's competition with estrogen for the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Studies conducted in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showed protective effects of A2A R antagonism...
April 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316267/efficacy-of-a-computer-based-cognitive-training-program-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-randomized-study
#5
Angela J Pereira-Morales, Andrés F Cruz Salinas, Jairo Aponte Melo, Francisco Pereira Manrique
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of computer-assisted cognitive training in healthy older adults with subjective memory complaints. METHODS: 40 older adults, mean age (standard Deviation) = 66.4 (5.6) with subjective memory complaints, were included in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to an Integrated Psychostimulation Program (IPP) (N = 17), a Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) (N = 12) or a control group (N = 11)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302862/arresting-the-development-of-addiction-the-role-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-in-drug-abuse
#6
Kirsten A Porter-Stransky, David Weinshenker
The protein β-arrestin2 (βarr2) directly interacts with receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, making it a prime candidate for therapeutic interventions. βarr2 drives desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors, including dopamine, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors, and can also trigger G protein-independent intracellular signaling. βarr2 mediates several drug-induced behaviors, but the relationship is complex and dependent on the type of behavior (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301174/differential-characteristics-of-ketamine-self-administration-in-the-olfactory-bulbectomy-model-of-depression-in-male-rats
#7
Zuzana Babinska, Jana Ruda-Kucerova
Ketamine has been extensively studied for its antidepressant potential, with promising results in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, concerns regarding its abuse liabilities greatly limit its potential to become an approved treatment for depression. Therefore, a better understanding the risks and benefits of ketamine use in depression is needed. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of operant intravenous (IV) ketamine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression in male rats...
March 16, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287790/cocaine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-pcbs-evaluating-drug-use-in-an-animal-model-of-environmental-contaminant-exposure
#8
Mellessa M Miller, Abby E Meyer, Jenna L N Sprowles, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely impact human health. Ortho-substituted PCBs affect the nervous system, including the brain dopaminergic system. The reinforcing effects of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this study used a preclinical (i.e., rodent) model to evaluate whether developmental contaminant exposure altered intravenous self-administration (IV SA) for the psychostimulant cocaine. Long-Evans rats were perinatally exposed to 6 or 3 mg/kg/day of PCBs throughout gestation and lactation and compared with nonexposed controls...
March 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287355/donepezil-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-can-attenuate-gabapentinoid-induced-somnolence-in-patients-with-neuropathic-pain-a-retrospective-chart-review
#9
Takamichi Kogure, Masahiko Sumitani, Kiyoshi Ikegami, Hiroaki Abe, Jun Hozumi, Reo Inoue, Kazuo Kawahara, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Donepezil, an oral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is used to treat Alzheimer's disease and reportedly attenuates opioid-induced sedation in patients with cancer pain. Neuropathic pain is often treated with gabapentinoids (pregabalin, gabapentin), but gabapentinoid-induced somnolence sometimes prevents patients from using these agents. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with neuropathic pain to examine whether donepezil is useful for gabapentinoid-induced somnolence. We investigated pain severity in 13 patients before and after taking gabapentinoids and donepezil, the degree of gabapentinoid-induced somnolence before and after starting donepezil, and gabapentinoid dose escalation after taking donepezil...
March 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284952/importance-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-stimulation-for-the-induction-and-expression-of-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-preweanling-rats
#10
Sanders A McDougall, Krista N Rudberg, Ana Veliz, Janhavi M Dhargalkar, Aleesha S Garcia, Loveth C Romero, Ashley E Gonzalez, Alena Mohd-Yusof, Cynthia A Crawford
The behavioral manifestations of psychostimulant-induced sensitization vary markedly between young and adult rats, suggesting that the neural mechanisms mediating this phenomenon differ across ontogeny. In this project we examined the importance of D1 and D2 receptors for the induction and expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization during the preweanling period. In the behavioral experiments, rats were injected with reversible D1 and/or D2 antagonists (SCH23390 and/or raclopride) or an irreversible receptor antagonist (EEDQ) either before cocaine administration on the pretreatment day (induction) or before cocaine challenge on the test day (expression)...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278589/assessment-and-treatment-of-mental-fatigue-after-a-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Birgitta Johansson, Lars Rönnbäck
Mental fatigue is a frequently occurring symptom after mild, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such mental fatigue may become a long-lasting problem, irrespective of severity and even after recovery from other neurological or psychiatric symptoms. Two characteristics of this mental fatigue are that patients easily become exhausted and there is generally a long recovery time. There is a need to increase knowledge and awareness of mental fatigue as it interferes considerably with work, studies, and social activities...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277842/an-update-on-the-safety-of-psychostimulants-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Annabeth P Groenman, Lizanne J S Schweren, Andrea Dietrich, Pieter J Hoekstra
Methylphenidate is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although methylphenidate has a well-established evidence base for treating ADHD, its long-term benefits are unclear. Areas covered: Physical adverse effects, psychiatric adverse events and brain development Expert opinion: Some physical adverse events have been described (e.g. sleep disturbances, growth reduction, loss of appetite), although most are of transient nature. Psychiatric adverse events seem more related to the diagnosis ADHD itself, and not stimulant treatment...
March 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274858/neurotoxicity-induced-by-methamphetamine-heroin-combination-in-pc12-cells
#13
Xiang Tian, Qin Ru, Qi Xiong, Kai Yue, Lin Chen, Baomiao Ma, Weimin Gan, Yuanren Si, Huqiao Xiao, Chaoying Li
Simultaneous administration of psychostimulants and opioids is a major drug abuse problem worldwide. The combination of psychostimulants and opioids produces more serious effects than either drug alone and is responsible for numerous deaths. In recent years, owing to its increased use, methamphetamine (METH), a psychostimulant, has become a popular choice for use in combination with opioids, especially heroin. However, little is known about the neurotoxicity of METH/heroin combination. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether METH/heroin combination was more neurotoxic than either drug alone and analyze the possible neurotoxic mechanisms using rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells...
March 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272130/pharmacological-treatment-of-adhd-in-addicted-patients-what-does-the-literature-tell-us
#14
Pieter-Jan Carpentier, Frances R Levin
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate pharmacologic treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with substance use disorder (SUD) • Assess the causes of the diminished efficacy of ADHD medication in patients with comorbid SUD OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorder (SUD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur, and the presence of ADHD complicates the treatment of the addiction...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#15
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268188/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-neurochemical-alterations-in-the-brain-of-adolescent-rats-following-acute-methylphenidate-administration
#16
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Fay Probert, Tyra S C Zetterström
The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is increasingly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is little evidence for common brain pathology in ADHD, some studies suggest a right hemisphere dysfunction among people diagnosed with the condition. However, in spite of the high usage of MPH in children and adolescents, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given that MPH blocks the neuronal transporters for dopamine and noradrenaline, most research into the effects of MPH on the brain has largely focused on these two monoamine neurotransmitter systems...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266501/the-novel-modafinil-analog-jjc8-016-as-a-potential-cocaine-abuse-pharmacotherapeutic
#17
Hai-Ying Zhang, Guo-Hua Bi, Hong-Ju Yang, Yi He, Gilbert Xue, Jian-Jing Cao, Gianluigi Tanda, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
(±)Modafinil ((±)MOD) and its R-enantiomer (R-modafinil; R-MOD) have been investigated for their potential as treatments for psychostimulant addiction. We recently reported a series of (±)MOD analogues, of which JJC8-016 (N-(2-((bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)thio)ethyl)-3-phenylpropan-1-amine) was selected for further development. JJC8-016 and R-MOD were evaluated for binding across ~70 receptors, transporters and enzymes. Although at a concentration of 10 μM, there were many hits for JJC8-016, binding affinities in the range of its DAT affinity were only observed at the serotonin transporter (SERT), dopamine D2-like and sigma1 receptors...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263712/synergistic-blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-drinking-in-mice-by-a-combination-of-novel-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-mesyl-salvinorin-b-and-naltrexone
#18
Yan Zhou, Rachel Saylor Cowley, Konrad Ben, Thomas E Prisinzano, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Mesyl Salvinorin B (MSB) is a potent selective kappa opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist that has potential for development as an anti-psychostimulant agent with fewer side-effects (e.g., sedation, depression and dysphoria) than classic KOP-r agonists. However, no such study has been done on alcohol. We investigated whether MSB alone or in combination with naltrexone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) altered voluntary alcohol drinking in both male and female mice. Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic escalation drinking (CED) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
March 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262947/exposure-of-mice-to-mdpv-during-adolescence-increases-the-psychostimulant-rewarding-and-reinforcing-effects-of-cocaine-in-adulthood
#19
R López-Arnau, M A Luján, L Duart-Castells, D Pubill, J Camarasa, O Valverde, E Escubedo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with powerful psychostimulant effects. It selectively inhibits dopamine transporter (DAT) being 10-50-fold more potent as DAT blocker than cocaine, pointing to a high abuse liability. The main objective of the present study was to assess the consequences of an early (adolescence) MDPV exposure on the psychostimulant, rewarding and reinforcing effects induced by cocaine in adult mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 21 days after MDPV pretreatment (1...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256698/-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-using-virtual-reality-through-a-mindfulness-programme
#20
J F Serra-Pla, M Pozuelo, V Richarte, M Corrales, P Ibanez, M Bellina, R Vidal, E Calvo, M Casas, J A Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, which presents a high comorbidity with anxiety and affective signs and symptoms. It has repercussions on the functioning of those suffering from it, who also have low therapy compliance and generate a significant cost both at a personal level and for society. Mindfulness is a psychological treatment that has proved to be effective for ADHD. Virtual reality is widely used as treatment in cases of phobias and other pathologies, with positive results...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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