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Reward dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209215/the-relevance-of-goal-orientation-for-motivation-in-high-versus-low-proneness-to-negative-symptoms
#1
Björn Schlier, Maike Engel, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Anja Fritzsche, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202786/dopamine-modulates-adaptive-prediction-error-coding-in-the-human-midbrain-and-striatum
#2
Kelly M J Diederen, Hisham Ziauddeen, Martin D Vestergaard, Tom Spencer, Wolfram Schultz, Paul C Fletcher
Learning to optimally predict rewards requires agents to account for fluctuations in reward value. Recent work suggests that individuals can efficiently learn about variable rewards through adaptation of the learning rate, and coding of prediction errors relative to reward variability. Such adaptive coding has been linked to midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates, and evidence in support for a similar role of the dopaminergic system in humans is emerging from fMRI data. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of dopaminergic perturbations on adaptive prediction error coding in humans, using a between-subject, placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI study with a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and antagonist (sulpiride)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196657/dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-altered-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathan Miller, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang
Mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with prolonged dysfunction of reward circuitry, including motivation and salience, which suggests alterations of dopamine (DA) processing within the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury, we found that stimulus-evoked DA release is distinct in the core and shell of the NAC, with the shell being less responsive to tonic stimulation and more sensitive to the number of pulses when phasic stimulation is applied...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195952/the-relations-of-cognitive-behavioral-and-physical-activity-variables-to-depression-severity-in-traumatic-brain-injury-reanalysis-of-data-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Charles H Bombardier, Jesse R Fann, Evette J Ludman, Steven D Vannoy, Joshua R Dyer, Jason K Barber, Nancy R Temkin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relations of cognitive, behavioral, and physical activity variables to depression severity among people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing a depression treatment trial. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N = 88) who sustained complicated mild to severe TBI within the past 10 years, met criteria for major depressive disorder, and completed study measures. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193628/management-of-endocrine-disease-neuroendocrine-surveillance-and-management-of-neurosurgical-patients-non-pituitary
#5
Aoife Garrahy, Mark Sherlock, Chris J Thompson
Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognized acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life-threatening. While hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179180/developing-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-examining-neural-and-cognitive-function-in-an-equine-model
#6
Kirsty Roberts, Andrew J Hemmings, Sebastian D McBride, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of human neurological disorders are advantageous compared to rodent models due to their neuroanatomical complexity, longevity and their ability to be maintained in naturalised environments. Some large animal models spontaneously develop behaviours that closely resemble the symptoms of neural and psychiatric disorders. The horse is an example of this; the domestic form of this species consistently develops spontaneous stereotypic behaviours akin to the compulsive and impulsive behaviours observed in human neurological disorders such as Tourette's syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178151/reconstruction-of-large-area-defect-of-the-nail-bed-by-cross-finger-fascial-flap-combined-with-split-thickness-toe-nail-bed-graft-a-new-surgical-method
#7
Jianyun Yang, Tao Wang, Cong Yu, Yudong Gu, Xiaotian Jia
Fingertip injury commonly results in avulsion of the nail bed. For large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure, methods for reconstruction of soft tissue defects are scarcely mentioned in the literature.From May 2014 to January 2016, 6 patients with large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure were enrolled. A new surgical method, cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft, was applied in all patients.All the 6 patients were followed-up at least 3 months...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#8
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164168/doubling-down-increased-risk-taking-behavior-following-a-loss-by-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder-is-associated-with-striatal-and-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction
#9
Joshua L Gowin, April C May, Marc Wittmann, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. METHODS: Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148725/the-role-of-orbitofrontal-amygdala-interactions-in-updating-action-outcome-valuations-in-macaques
#10
Emily C Fiuzat, Sarah E V Rhodes, Elisabeth A Murray
: A previous study revealed that although monkeys with bilateral lesions of either the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) or the amygdala could learn an action-outcome task, they could not adapt their choices in response to devalued outcomes. Specifically, they could not adjust their choice between two actions after the value of the outcome associated with one of the actions had decreased. Here we examined whether OFC needs to functionally interact with the amygdala inmediating such choices. Rhesus monkeys were trained to make two mutually exclusive actions on a touch-sensitive screen: 'tap' and 'hold'...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146248/disruption-of-reward-processing-in-addiction-an-image-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#11
Maartje Luijten, Arnt F Schellekens, Simone Kühn, Marise W J Machielse, Guillaume Sescousse
Importance: Disrupted reward processing, mainly driven by striatal dysfunction, is a key characteristic of addictive behaviors. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported conflicting results, with both hypoactivations and hyperactivations during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in addiction. Objective: To determine the nature and direction of reward-processing disruptions during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in individuals with addiction using image-based meta-analyses of fMRI studies...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145402/dysfunction-of-ventrolateral-striatal-dopamine-receptor-type-2-expressing-medium-spiny-neurons-impairs-instrumental-motivation
#12
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Hiroyuki Takiue, Keitaro Yoshida, Ming Xu, Ryutaro Yano, Hiroyuki Ohta, Hiroshi Nishida, Youcef Bouchekioua, Hideyuki Okano, Motokazu Uchigashima, Masahiko Watanabe, Norio Takata, Michael R Drew, Hiromi Sano, Masaru Mimura, Kenji F Tanaka
Impaired motivation is present in a variety of neurological disorders, suggesting that decreased motivation is caused by broad dysfunction of the nervous system across a variety of circuits. Based on evidence that impaired motivation is a major symptom in the early stages of Huntington's disease, when dopamine receptor type 2-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (D2-MSNs) are particularly affected, we hypothesize that degeneration of these neurons would be a key node regulating motivational status. Using a progressive, time-controllable, diphtheria toxin-mediated cell ablation/dysfunction technique, we find that loss-of-function of D2-MSNs within ventrolateral striatum (VLS) is sufficient to reduce goal-directed behaviours without impairing reward preference or spontaneous behaviour...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135847/common-dimensional-reward-deficits-across-mood-and-psychotic-disorders-a-connectome-wide-association-study
#13
Anup Sharma, Daniel H Wolf, Rastko Ciric, Joseph W Kable, Tyler M Moore, Simon N Vandekar, Natalie Katchmar, Aylin Daldal, Kosha Ruparel, Christos Davatzikos, Mark A Elliott, Monica E Calkins, Russell T Shinohara, Danielle S Bassett, Theodore D Satterthwaite
OBJECTIVE: Anhedonia is central to multiple psychiatric disorders and causes substantial disability. A dimensional conceptualization posits that anhedonia severity is related to a transdiagnostic continuum of reward deficits in specific neural networks. Previous functional connectivity studies related to anhedonia have focused on case-control comparisons in specific disorders, using region-specific seed-based analyses. Here, the authors explore the entire functional connectome in relation to reward responsivity across a population of adults with heterogeneous psychopathology...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119174/maoa-and-maob-polymorphisms-and-personality-traits-in-suicide-attempters-and-healthy-controls-a-preliminary-study
#14
Martina Balestri, Raffaella Calati, Alessandro Serretti, Annette M Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Marion Friedl, Ina Giegling, Dan Rujescu
Serotonergic neurotransmission dysfunctions have been well documented in patients with suicidal behaviour. We investigated monoamine oxidase A (MAOA: rs2064070, rs6323, rs909525) and B (MAOB: rs1799836, rs2311013, rs2205655) genetic modulation of personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) as endophenotype for suicidal behaviour. 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy controls of German origin were screened. Among females, allelic analyses revealed associations between MAOA rs6323 A allele and higher Harm Avoidance in suicide attempters and MAOB rs2205655 A allele and higher Cooperativeness scores in healthy controls...
January 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119055/altered-mu-rhythm-suppression-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Franziska Martin, Vera Flasbeck, Elliot C Brown, Martin Brüne
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized, among other symptoms, by interpersonal dysfunction and difficulties in empathizing. According to Simulation Theory empathy is linked to the activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Mu-rhythm desynchronization, as reflected in a suppression of electroencephalographic alpha-frequency bands (8-13Hz) provides a non-invasive electrophysiological window into MNS function. Here, we analyzed mu-desynchronization in twenty-two patients with BPD and twenty-three matched healthy controls in a reward and punishment-sensitive action observation task...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115272/palmitoylation-mechanisms-in-dopamine-transporter-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Danielle E Rastedt, Roxanne A Vaughan, James D Foster
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a key role in several biological processes including reward, mood, motor activity and attention. Synaptic DA homeostasis is controlled by the dopamine transporter (DAT) which transports extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuron after release and regulates its availability to receptors. Many neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with imbalances in DA homeostasis that may be related to DAT dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105895/prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction-in-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-contributes-to-executive-function-impairments-in-rats-potential-contribution-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Bruna Ferrary Deniz, Iohanna Deckmann, Heloísa Deola Confortim, Ramiro Diaz, Daniela Pereira Laureano, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Lenir Orlandi Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compromises the quality of life of individuals including adaptation to the social environment. ADHD aetiology includes perinatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischaemic events; preclinical studies have demonstrated attentional deficits and impulsive-hyperactive outcomes after neonatal hypoxic and/or ischaemic intervention, but data are missing to understand this relationship. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate executive function (EF) and impulsivity, and tissue integrity and dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats submitted to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI)...
January 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103715/irritability-in-youths-a-translational-model
#18
Melissa A Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
Although irritability is among the most common reasons that children and adolescents are brought for psychiatric care, there are few effective treatments. Developmentally sensitive pathophysiological models are needed to guide treatment development. In this review, the authors present a mechanistic model of irritability that integrates clinical and translational neuroscience research. Two complementary conceptualizations of pathological irritability are proposed: 1) aberrant emotional and behavioral responding to frustrative nonreward, mediated by reward-system dysfunction; and 2) aberrant approach responding to threat, mediated by threat-system dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099209/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#19
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098430/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-alterations-for-reinforcement-learning-in-manic-and-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#20
Vin Ryu, Ra Yeon Ha, Su Jin Lee, Kyooseob Ha, Hyun-Sang Cho
AIMS: Bipolar disorder is characterized by behavioral changes such as risk-taking and increasing goal-directed activities, which may result from altered reward processing. Patients with bipolar disorder show impaired reward learning in situations that require the integration of reinforced feedback over time. In this study, we examined the behavioral and electrophysiological characteristics of reward learning in manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic reward task...
January 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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