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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660377/apathy-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#1
Andrew Worthington, Rodger Ll Wood
Apathy is a common problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can have a major impact on cognitive function, psychosocial outcome and engagement in rehabilitation. For scientists and clinicians it remains one of the least understood aspects of brain-behaviour relationships encompassing disturbances of cognition, motivation, emotion and action, and is variously an indication of organic brain disease or psychiatric disorder. Apathy can be both sign and symptom and has been proposed as a diagnosis in its own right as well as a secondary feature of other conditions...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649120/what-is-the-evidence-for-food-addiction-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Eliza L Gordon, Aviva H Ariel-Donges, Viviana Bauman, Lisa J Merlo
The diagnostic construct of "food addiction" is a highly controversial subject. The current systematic review is the first to evaluate empirical studies examining the construct of "food addiction" in humans and animals. Studies were included if they were quantitative, peer-reviewed, and in the English language. The 52 identified studies (35 articles) were qualitatively assessed to determine the extent to which their findings indicated the following addiction characteristics in relation to food: brain reward dysfunction, preoccupation, risky use, impaired control, tolerance/withdrawal, social impairment, chronicity, and relapse...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642691/high-risk-pci-how-to-define-it-today
#3
Vincenzo DE Marzo, Domenico D'Amario, Mattia Galli, Rocco Vergallo, Italo Porto
Before the percutaneous spread, the mortality rate of patients with coronary heart disease not suitable for cardiac surgery was markedly high. This limit has been progressively exceeded with the advent of minimally invasive approaches, which, although was initially intended exclusively for low risk patients, was then employed in complex patients often too compromised to undergo cardiac surgery. Given to the rising of high-risk population, due to an increase of patients with multiple chronic conditions linked to the best care offered, we are witnessing an expansion of the high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) population...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628879/dopamine-effort-based-choice-and-behavioral-economics-basic-and-translational-research
#4
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624440/altered-heart-rate-variability-during-gaming-in-internet-gaming-disorder
#5
Deokjong Lee, Sung Jun Hong, Young-Chul Jung, Jinsick Park, In Young Kim, Kee Namkoong
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by addiction to online gaming and reduced executive control, particularly when individuals are exposed to gaming-related cues. Executive control can be measured as vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV), which corresponds to variability in the time interval between heart beats. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with IGD have altered HRV while playing online games. We hypothesized that while gaming, individuals with IGD would exhibit phasic suppression of vagally mediated HRV, which would reflect executive control dysfunction during game play...
April 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618991/cue-induced-brain-activation-in-chronic-ketamine-dependent-subjects-cigarette-smokers-and-healthy-controls-a-task-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#6
Yanhui Liao, Maritza Johnson, Chang Qi, Qiuxia Wu, An Xie, Jianbin Liu, Mei Yang, Maifang Huang, Yan Zhang, Tieqiao Liu, Wei Hao, Jinsong Tang
Background: Observations of drug-related cues may induce craving in drug-dependent patients, prompting compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Sexual dysfunction is common in drug users. The aim of the study was to examine regional brain activation to drug (ketamine, cigarette smoking) associated cues and natural (sexual) rewards. Methods: A sample of 129 [40 ketamine use smokers (KUS), 45 non-ketamine use smokers (NKUS) and 44 non-ketamine use non-smoking healthy controls (HC)] participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing ketamine use related, smoking and sexual films...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614700/personality-traits-and-cortical-activity-affect-gambling-behavior-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Michela Balconi, Chiara Siri, Nicoletta Meucci, Gianni Pezzoli, Laura Angioletti
BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. METHODS: Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606627/psychometric-properties-of-the-orgasm-rating-scale-in-context-of-sexual-relationship-in-a-spanish-sample
#8
Ana Isabel Arcos-Romero, Nieves Moyano, Juan Carlos Sierra
BACKGROUND: The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. AIM: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. METHODS: We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602521/animal-models-of-addiction-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-their-role-in-drug-discovery-honoring-the-legacy-of-athina-markou
#9
REVIEW
Paul J Kenny, Daniel Hoyer, George F Koob
Each of the co-authors worked with Athina Markou, at different stages of our careers and in different capacities, to develop, optimize, and use animal models of drug addiction and, more generally, mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Here, we briefly summarize some of our work with Athina, primarily involving the use of the intracranial self-stimulation and intravenous drug self-administration procedures. This work established that excessive consumption of addictive drugs can induce profound dysfunction in brain reward circuits...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596854/brain-and-behavioral-correlates-of-insulin-resistance-in-youth-with-depression-and-obesity
#10
Manpreet K Singh, Sara M Leslie, Mary Melissa Packer, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Owen R Phillips, Elizabeth Weisman, Danielle Wall, Booil Jo, Natalie L Rasgon
Depression, together with insulin resistance, is increasingly prevalent among youth. These conditions have traditionally been compartmentalized, but recent evidence suggests that a shared brain motivational network underlies their co-occurrence. We posit that, in the context of depressive symptoms, insulin resistance is associated with aberrant structure and functional connectivity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and hippocampus. This motivational neural circuit underlies dysfunctional behavioral responses and increased sensitivity to rewarding aspects of ingesting high calorie food that lead to disinhibition of eating even when satiated...
March 26, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580570/increased-alcohol-seeking-in-mice-lacking-gpr88-involves-dysfunctional-mesocorticolimbic-networks
#11
Sami Ben Hamida, Sueli Mendonça-Netto, Tanzil Mahmud Arefin, Md Taufiq Nasseef, Laura-Joy Boulos, Michael McNicholas, Aliza Toby Ehrlich, Eleanor Clarke, Luc Moquin, Alain Gratton, Emmanuel Darcq, Laura Adela Harsan, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte Lina Kieffer
BACKGOUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is devastating and poorly treated, and innovative targets are actively sought for prevention and treatment. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR88 is enriched in mesocorticolimbic pathways, and Gpr88 knockout mice show hyperactivity and risk-taking behavior, but a potential role for this receptor in drug abuse has not been examined. METHODS: We tested Gpr88 knockout mice for alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors. To gain system-level understanding of their alcohol endophenotype, we also analyzed whole-brain functional connectivity in naïve mice using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574551/the-dysfunction-of-the-cerebellum-and-its-cerebellum-reward-sensorimotor-loops-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#12
Yuming Wang, Jiliang Fang, Ping Song, Yan Bao, Wenwen Song, Jiao Liu, Courtney Lang, Kristen Jorgenson, Minyoung Jung, Dong Shen, Shasha Li, Ruirui Sun, Xu Ding, Jiao Yang, Xiao Meng, Ning Wang, Zhifang Yan, Yuhe Yan, Qian Kong, Ying Dong, Fangyuan Cui, Yiheng Tu, Bingnan Cui, Jian Kong
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common itchy skin disease. Despite its prevalence, the neuropathology of CSU is uncertain. In this study, we explored resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes in CSU, as well as how the symptom changes following intervention can modulate rs-FC. Forty patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Following an intervention, 32 patients participated in a second scan approximately 6 weeks after the first scan. Compared with healthy controls, CSU subjects exhibited higher regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the cerebellum, which were positively associated with urticaria activity scores over 7 days (UAS7) at baseline...
March 24, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573379/dopamine-dysregulation-hypothesis-the-common-basis-for-motivational-anhedonia-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#13
Jan Józef Szczypiński, Mateusz Gola
Abnormalities in reward processing are crucial symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCH). Recent neuroscientific findings regarding MDD have led to conclusions about two different symptoms related to reward processing: motivational and consummatory anhedonia, corresponding, respectively, to impaired motivation to obtain rewards ('wanting'), and diminished satisfaction from consuming them ('liking'). One can ask: which of these is common for MDD and SCH. In our review of the latest neuroscientific studies, we show that MDD and SCH do not share consummatory anhedonia, as SCH patients usually have unaltered liking...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573046/meta-analytic-evidence-for-altered-mesolimbic-responses-to-reward-in-schizophrenia
#14
Henry W Chase, Polina Loriemi, Tobias Wensing, Simon B Eickhoff, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat
Dysfunction of reward-related neural circuitry in schizophrenia (SCZ) has been widely reported, and may provide insight into the motivational and cognitive disturbances that characterize the disorder. Although previous meta-analyses of reward learning paradigms in SCZ have been performed, a meta-analysis of whole-brain coordinate maps in SCZ alone has not been conducted. In this study, we performed an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis, and performed a follow-up analysis of functional connectivity and functional decoding of identified regions...
March 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547848/the-impact-of-depressed-mood-working-memory-capacity-and-priming-on-delay-discounting
#15
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545146/reduced-learning-and-memory-performances-in-high-fat-treated-hamsters-related-to-brain-neurotensin-receptor1-expression-variations
#16
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535626/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-taar1-modulation-of-food-reward
#17
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Eating disorders and some forms of obesity are characterized by addictive-like, compulsive eating behavior which contains numerous similarities with compulsive drug use. Food intake is in part mediated by reward and reinforcement processes that can become dysregulated in these disorders. Additionally, impairments in inhibitory control regulation of reward-related responding can cause or further exacerbate binge and compulsive eating. Dysfunctions in two neurotransmitter systems in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, dopamine and glutamate, are thought to contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520717/presentation-and-neurobiology-of-anhedonia-in-mood-disorders-commonalities-and-distinctions
#18
REVIEW
Sakina J Rizvi, Clare Lambert, Sidney Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To focus on the clinical and behavioral presentation of anhedonia in mood disorders, as well as the differences and commonalities in the underlying neurocircuitry. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence suggests that depression is characterized by hypofunction of the reward system, while bipolar disorder manifests dysregulation of the behavioral activation system that increases goal-directed reward behavior. Importantly, strong evidence does not exist to suggest significant differences in anhedonia severity between depressed unipolar and bipolar patients, suggesting that there are more nuanced fluctuations in reward processing deficits in bipolar patients depending on their state...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516173/effort-reward-imbalance-in-police-work-associations-with-the-cortisol-awakening-response
#19
John M Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Ja Kook Gu, Penelope Allison, Anna Mnatsakanova, Cathy Tinney-Zara, Michael E Andrew
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is associated with an atypical cortisol response. ERI has been associated with higher job stress. Stress triggers cortisol secretion via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and significant deviation from a typical cortisol pattern can indicate HPA axis dysfunction. METHODS: 176 police officers participated from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. ERI was the exposure variable...
March 7, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515480/hypernatural-monitoring-a-social-rehearsal-account-of-smartphone-addiction
#20
Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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