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Reward dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907842/reward-representing-d1-type-neurons-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-accumbens-nucleus-regulate-palatable-food-intake
#1
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892051/ant1-mutant-mice-bridge-the-mitochondrial-and-serotonergic-dysfunctions-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Tomoaki M Kato, Mie Kubota-Sakashita, Noriko Fujimori-Tonou, Fumihito Saitow, Satoshi Fuke, Akira Masuda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Hidenori Suzuki, Tadafumi Kato
Although mitochondrial and serotonergic dysfunctions have been implicated in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD), the relationship between these unrelated pathways has not been elucidated. A family of BD and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) caused by a mutation of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1, SLC25A4) implicated that ANT1 mutations confer a risk of BD. Here, we sequenced ANT1 in 324 probands of NIMH bipolar disorder pedigrees and identified two BD patients carrying heterozygous loss-of-function mutations...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881370/do-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-exhibit-reduced-cheating-behavior-a-neuropsychological-study
#3
Nobuhito Abe, Iori Kawasaki, Hiroaki Hosokawa, Toru Baba, Atsushi Takeda
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as "honest," indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867615/single-prolonged-stress-a-review-of-two-decades-of-progress-in-a-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Lisieski, Andrew L Eagle, Alana C Conti, Israel Liberzon, Shane A Perrine
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, costly, and often debilitating psychiatric condition. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this disease are still largely unknown or poorly understood. Considerable evidence indicates that PTSD results from dysfunction in highly-conserved brain systems involved in stress, anxiety, fear, and reward. Pre-clinical models of traumatic stress exposure are critical in defining the neurobiological mechanisms of PTSD, which will ultimately aid in the development of new treatments for PTSD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860948/impulsivity-and-decision-making-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-after-effective-deep-brain-stimulation-or-treatment-as-usual
#5
Giacomo Grassi, Martijn Figee, Pieter Ooms, Lorenzo Righi, Takashi Nakamae, Stefano Pallanti, Rick Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and impaired decision-making have been proposed as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) endophenotypes, running in OCD and their healthy relatives independently of symptom severity and medication status. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the ventral limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is an effective treatment strategy for treatment-refractory OCD. The effectiveness of vALIC-DBS for OCD has been linked to its effects on a frontostriatal network that is also implicated in reward, impulse control, and decision-making...
June 4, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860087/decision-making-in-schizophrenia-a-predictive-coding-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Philipp Sterzer, Martin Voss, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz
Dysfunctional decision-making has been implicated in the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Decision-making can be conceptualized within the framework of hierarchical predictive coding as the result of a Bayesian inference process that uses prior beliefs to infer states of the world. According to this idea, prior beliefs encoded at higher levels in the brain are fed back as predictive signals to lower levels. Whenever these predictions are violated by the incoming sensory data, a prediction error is generated and fed forward to update beliefs encoded at higher levels...
May 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845013/the-anatomy-of-the-human-medial-forebrain-bundle-ventral-tegmental-area-connections-to-reward-associated-subcortical-and-frontal-lobe-regions
#7
Volker Arnd Coenen, Lena Valerie Schumacher, Christoph Kaller, Thomas Eduard Schlaepfer, Peter Christoph Reinacher, Karl Egger, Horst Urbach, Marco Reisert
Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB) - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843560/anhedonia-as-a-clinical-correlate-of-inflammation-in-adolescents-across-psychiatric-conditions
#8
Rachel D Freed, Lushna M Mehra, Daniel Laor, Manishkumar Patel, Carmen M Alonso, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Vilma Gabbay
Objectives Peripheral inflammation has been associated with multiple psychiatric disorders, particularly with depression. However, findings remain inconsistent and unreproducible, most likely due to the disorder's heterogeneity in phenotypic presentation. Therefore, in the present study, in an effort to account for inter-individual differences in symptom severity, we utilised a dimensional approach to assess the relationships between a broad panel of inflammatory cytokines and key psychiatric symptoms (i.e...
May 30, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808011/impairment-in-delay-discounting-in-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-but-not-primary-mood-disorders
#9
Hannah E Brown, Kamber L Hart, Leslie A Snapper, Joshua L Roffman, Roy H Perlis
A measure of planning and impulse control, the delay-discounting (DD) task estimates the extent to which an individual decreases the perceived value of a reward as the reward is delayed. We examined cross-disorder performance between healthy controls (n = 88), individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 23), major depressive disorder (n = 43), and primary psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder; n = 51) on the DD task (using a $10 delayed larger reward), as well as the interaction of DD scores with other symptom domains (cognition, psychosis, and affect)...
May 28, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795403/nicotine-normalizes-cortico-striatal-connectivity-in-non-smoking-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Amy C Janes, Maya Zegel, Kyoko Ohashi, Jennifer Betts, Elena Molokotos, David Olson, Lauren Moran, Diego A Pizzagalli
Nicotine dependence and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid, yet causal links between these prevalent disorders are unclear. One possible mechanism is that nicotine ameliorates MDD-related neurobiological dysfunction in specific networks. For instance, cortico-striatal circuitry is enhanced by nicotine, and such paths are disrupted in individuals with MDD. Specifically, MDD has been associated with reduced connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) but enhanced connectivity between the dorsal striatum (DS) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#11
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#12
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783076/disrupted-reward-and-cognitive-control-networks-contribute-to-anhedonia-in-depression
#13
Liang Gong, Cancan He, Haisan Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Chunming Xie
Neuroimaging studies have identified that anhedonia, a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), is associated with dysfunction in reward and cognitive control processing. However, it is still not clear how the reward network (β-network) and the cognitive control network (δ-network) are linked to biased anhedonia in MDD patients. Sixty-eight MDD patients and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A 2*2 ANCOVA analysis was used to explore the differences in the nucleus accumbens-based, voxelwise functional connectivity (FC) between the groups...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#14
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770478/the-endocannabinoid-alcohol-crosstalk-recent-advances-on-a-bi-faceted-target
#15
REVIEW
Gianluca Lavanco, Valentina Castelli, Anna Brancato, Giuseppe Tringali, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
Increasing evidence focuses on the endocannabinoid system as a relevant player in the induction of aberrant synaptic plasticity and related addictive phenotype following chronic excessive alcohol drinking. Besides, the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Interestingly, whereas the involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in alcohol rewarding properties is established, the central and peripheral action of CB2 cannabinoid signalling is still to be elucidated. This review aims at giving the input to deepen knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system, highlighting the advancing evidence that suggests that CB1 and CB2 receptors may play opposite roles in the regulation of both the reinforcing properties of alcohol in the brain and the mechanisms responsible for cell injury and inflammation in the hepatic tissue...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759821/using-multilevel-modeling-to-examine-blunted-neural-responses-to-reward-in-major-depression
#16
Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Greg Hajcak, Edward A Selby, Brandon L Alderman
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pernicious disorder characterized by deficits in reward processing. A better understanding of these deficits may help to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology and guide treatment development. METHODS: This study assessed reward positivity and feedback negativity event-related potentials and their difference scores elicited in response to monetary gains and losses among 100 young adults (52 with MDD). Multilevel modeling was used to assess individual- and trial-level change in neural responses over time...
April 17, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748629/abnormal-reward-prediction-error-signalling-in-antipsychotic-naive-individuals-with-first-episode-psychosis-or-clinical-risk-for-psychosis
#17
Anna O Ermakova, Franziska Knolle, Azucena Justicia, Edward T Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Trevor W Robbins, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Ongoing research suggests preliminary, though not entirely consistent, evidence of neural abnormalities in signalling prediction errors in schizophrenia. Supporting theories suggest mechanistic links between the disruption of these processes and the generation of psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown at what stage in the pathogenesis of psychosis these impairments in prediction-error signalling develop. One major confound in prior studies is the use of medicated patients with strongly varying disease durations...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702452/decision-making-performance-of-depressed-patients-within-72-h-following-a-suicide-attempt
#19
Klára M Hegedűs, Andrea Szkaliczki, Bernadett I Gál, Bálint Andó, Zoltán Janka, Péter Z Álmos
BACKGROUND: The significance of decision-making in suicidal behaviour is often highlighted; however, the performance of persons in suicide crisis is unknown. This study aimed to explore the comprehensive decision-making profile of depressed patients following a suicide attempt. METHODS: Decision-making was measured by reward- ("ABCD") and punishment- ("EFGH") sensitive versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 59 medication-free depressed patients within 72 h after a suicide attempt and in 46 healthy control subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687930/deficient-neural-activity-subserving-decision-making-during-reward-waiting-time-in-intertemporal-choice-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision-making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting (i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward) is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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