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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#1
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#2
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495611/hiv-1-tat-protein-enhances-sensitization-to-methamphetamine-by-affecting-dopaminergic-function
#3
James P Kesby, Julia A Najera, Benedetto Romoli, Yiding Fang, Liana Basova, Amanda Birmingham, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes, Davide Dulcis, Svetlana Semenova
Methamphetamine abuse is common among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV-1 regulatory protein TAT induces dysfunction of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems which may result in impaired reward processes and contribute to methamphetamine abuse. These studies investigated the impact of TAT expression on methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, underlying changes in dopamine function and adenosine receptors in mesolimbic brain areas and neuroinflammation (microgliosis). Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain were tested for locomotor activity in response to repeated methamphetamine injections and methamphetamine challenge after a 7-day abstinence period...
May 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490656/role-of-habenula-and-amygdala-dysfunction-in-parkinson-disease-patients-with-punding
#4
Vladana Markovic, Federica Agosta, Elisa Canu, Alberto Inuggi, Igor Petrovic, Iva Stankovic, Francesca Imperiale, Tanja Stojkovic, Vladimir S Kostic, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a functional dysregulation of the habenula and amygdala, as modulators of the reward brain circuit, contributes to Parkinson disease (PD) punding. METHODS: Structural and resting-state functional MRI were obtained from 22 patients with PD punding, 30 patients with PD without any impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) matched for disease stage and duration, motor impairment, and cognitive status, and 30 healthy controls. Resting-state functional connectivity of the habenula and amygdala bilaterally was assessed using a seed-based approach...
May 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486710/association-between-reward-reactivity-and-drug-use-severity-is-substance-dependent-preliminary-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#5
Alyssa L Peechatka, Amy C Janes
Introduction: Blunted nucleus accumbens (NAc) reactivity to reward is common across drug users. One theory is that individuals abuse substances due to this reward deficit. However, whether there is a relationship between the amount an individual uses and the severity of NAc dysfunction is unclear. It also is possible that such a relationship is substance specific, as nicotine transiently increases reward system sensitivity while alcohol, another commonly used substance, does not. As smokers may use nicotine to bolster NAc reward function, we hypothesize that NAc reactivity to reward will be related to volume of cigarette use, but not volume of alcohol use...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#6
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461466/oxytocin-under-opioid-antagonism-leads-to-supralinear-enhancement-of-social-attention
#7
Olga Dal Monte, Matthew Piva, Kevin M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Avram J Holmes, Steve W C Chang
To provide new preclinical evidence toward improving the efficacy of oxytocin (OT) in treating social dysfunction, we tested the benefit of administering OT under simultaneously induced opioid antagonism during dyadic gaze interactions in monkeys. OT coadministered with a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, invoked a supralinear enhancement of prolonged and selective social attention, producing a stronger effect than the summed effects of each administered separately. These effects were consistently observed when averaging over entire sessions, as well as specifically following events of particular social importance, including mutual eye contact and mutual reward receipt...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445527/enhanced-functional-connectivity-and-volume-between-cognitive-and-reward-centers-of-na%C3%A3-ve-rodent-brain-produced-by-pro-dopaminergic-agent-kb220z
#8
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Panayotis K Thanos, Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, John Giordano, David Baron, Mark S Gold
Dopaminergic reward dysfunction in addictive behaviors is well supported in the literature. There is evidence that alterations in synchronous neural activity between brain regions subserving reward and various cognitive functions may significantly contribute to substance-related disorders. This study presents the first evidence showing that a pro-dopaminergic nutraceutical (KB220Z) significantly enhances, above placebo, functional connectivity between reward and cognitive brain areas in the rat. These include the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, prelimbic and infralimbic loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437669/white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-their-association-with-anticipatory-anhedonia-in-depression
#9
Xin-Hua Yang, Yi Wang, Dong-Fang Wang, Kai Tian, Eric F C Cheung, Guang-Rong Xie, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia is associated with dysfunction of the neural circuitry of reward in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, its neurobiological basis is not fully understood. The present study examined the association between anhedonia and white matter (WM) characteristics in patients with first-episode MDD. We recruited 30 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 28 healthy controls (HC) to undergo diffusion weighted imaging. We examined specifically the correlation between WM characteristics and anhedonia measured with the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) in MDD patients...
April 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432029/suppression-of-reward-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-animal-models-of-depression-differential-responses-to-drug-treatment
#10
Saki Minami, Hiroshi Satoyoshi, Soichiro Ide, Takeshi Inoue, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder, suggesting that the brain reward system may be dysfunctional in this condition. Neurochemical changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are not fully understood in animal models of depression. We investigated reward (30% sucrose intake)-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (5mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice daily for 3 weeks) in two animal models of depression...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#11
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421013/the-blurred-future-of-adolescent-gamblers-impulsivity-time-horizon-and-emotional-distress
#12
Giovanna Nigro, Marina Cosenza, Maria Ciccarelli
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and emotional negative states on gambling severity in Italian adolescents. A second aim of the study was to analyze the developmental trajectories of gambling involvement, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, consideration of future consequences, and negative affectivity in a cross-sectional perspective. One thousand and ten Italian adolescents aging between 12 and 19 years were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity Scale (FDIS), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378511/dissociation-of-reward-and-effort-sensitivity-in-methcathinone-induced-parkinsonism
#13
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376700/frontal-traumatic-brain-injury-increases-impulsive-decision-making-in-rats-a-potential-role-for-the-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-12
#14
Cole Vonder Haar, Kris M Martens, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Cheryl L Wellington, Catharine A Winstanley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the development of numerous psychiatric diseases. Of particular concern for TBI patients is the impact of chronic impulsivity on daily functioning. Despite the scope of the human problem, little has been done to address impulsivity in animal models of brain injury. In the current study, we examined the effects of either a severe or a milder bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact injury on impulsivity using the Delay Discounting Task (DDT), in which preference for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards is indicative of greater impulsive choice...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367951/dopamine-neuronal-loss-contributes-to-memory-and-reward-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Annalisa Nobili, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Virve Cavallucci, Debora Cutuli, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Paraskevi Krashia, Francesca Romana Rizzo, Ramona Marino, Mauro Federici, Paola De Bartolo, Daniela Aversa, Maria Concetta Dell'Acqua, Alberto Cordella, Marco Sancandi, Flavio Keller, Laura Petrosini, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Roberto Coccurello, Nicola Berretta, Marcello D'Amelio
Alterations of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and are commonly linked to cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. However, the cause of DAergic system dysfunction in AD remains to be elucidated. We investigated alterations of the midbrain DAergic system in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD, overexpressing a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPswe). Here, we found an age-dependent DAergic neuron loss in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at pre-plaque stages, although substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DAergic neurons were intact...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342259/rodent-age-related-impairments-in-discriminating-perceptually-similar-objects-parallel-those-observed-in-humans
#16
Sarah A Johnson, Sean M Turner, Lindsay A Santacroce, Katelyn N Carty, Leila Shafiq, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
The ability to accurately remember distinct episodes is supported by high-level sensory discrimination. Performance on mnemonic similarity tasks, which test high-level discrimination, declines with advancing age in humans and these deficits have been linked to altered activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus. Lesion studies in animal models, however, point to the perirhinal cortex as a brain region critical for sensory discriminations that serve memory. Reconciliation of the contributions of different regions within the cortical-hippocampal circuit requires the development of a discrimination paradigm comparable to the human mnemonic similarity task that can be used in rodents...
March 25, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331554/altered-functional-resting-state-hypothalamic-connectivity-and-abnormal-pituitary-morphology-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#18
Akvile Lukoshe, Suzanne E van Dijk, Gerbrich E van den Bosch, Aad van der Lugt, Tonya White, Anita C Hokken-Koelega
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by endocrine problems and hyperphagia, indicating hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. However, few studies have explored the underlying neurobiology of the hypothalamus and its functional connectivity with other brain regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the anatomical differences of the hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, and pituitary gland as well as resting state functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in children with PWS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#19
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315981/the-development-of-severe-and-chronic-violence-among-youth-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-and-reward-processing
#20
Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
March 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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