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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391243/incentives-facilitate-developmental-improvement-in-inhibitory-control-by-modulating-control-related-networks
#1
Michael N Hallquist, Charles F Geier, Beatriz Luna
Adolescence is a period of heightened sensitivity to incentives and relatively weak cognitive control, which may contribute to risky behaviors. Studies of brain activity have generally identified greater activation of the ventral striatum to rewards and less activation of prefrontal regions during control tasks in adolescents compared to adults. Little is known, however, about age-related changes in the functional brain networks underlying incentive processing and cognitive control. This cross-sectional study characterized the effects of incentives on inhibitory control during an oculomotor task using whole-brain functional connectivity analyses...
January 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374305/effects-of-nicotine-self-administration-on-incentive-salience-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Paula F Overby, Carter W Daniels, Armani Del Franco, Julianna Goenaga, Gregory L Powell, Cassandra D Gipson, Federico Sanabria
RATIONALE: Prolonged use of nicotine appears to enhance incentive salience, a motivational-cognitive process that transforms an otherwise neutral stimulus into a "wanted" stimulus. It has been suggested that nicotinic enhancement of incentive salience contributes to the potential of relapse in individuals with tobacco addiction. However, there are two main limitations of prior research that caution this claim: (a) the use of passive experimentally delivered nicotine and (b) the use of sign-tracking as an index of incentive salience, without acknowledging the competing nature of goal- and sign-tracking responses...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371023/selective-attention-to-smoking-cues-in-former-smokers
#3
Anne K Rehme, Katharina Bey, Ingo Frommann, Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley, Julia Bludau, Verena Block, Birgitta Sträter, Christian G Schütz, Michael Wagner
Repeated drug use modifies the emotional and cognitive processing of drug-associated cues. These changes are supposed to persist even after prolonged abstinence. Several studies demonstrated that smoking cues selectively attract the attention of smokers, but empirical evidence for such an attentional bias among successful quitters is inconclusive. Here, we investigated whether attentional biases persist after smoking cessation. Thirty-eight former smokers, 34 current smokers, and 29 non-smokers participated in a single experimental session...
January 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339559/evidence-of-structure-and-persistence-in-motivational-attraction-to-serial-pavlovian-cues
#4
Elizabeth B Smedley, Kyle S Smith
Sign-tracking is a form of autoshaping where animals develop conditioned responding directed toward stimuli predictive of an outcome even though the outcome is not contingent on the animal's behavior. Sign-tracking behaviors are thought to arise out of the attribution of incentive salience (i.e., motivational value) to reward-predictive cues. It is not known how incentive salience would be attributed to serially occurring cues, despite cues often occurring in a sequence in the real world as reward approaches...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324797/sex-dependent-impact-of-early-life-stress-and-adult-immobilization-in-the-attribution-of-incentive-salience-in-rats
#5
Silvia Fuentes, Javier Carrasco, Abigail Hatto, Juan Navarro, Antonio Armario, Manel Monsonet, Jordi Ortiz, Roser Nadal
Early life stress (ELS) induces long-term effects in later functioning and interacts with further exposure to other stressors in adulthood to shape our responsiveness to reward-related cues. The attribution of incentive salience to food-related cues may be modulated by previous and current exposures to stressors in a sex-dependent manner. We hypothesized from human data that exposure to a traumatic (severe) adult stressor will decrease the attribution of incentive salience to reward-associated cues, especially in females, because these effects are modulated by previous ELS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315659/the-role-of-glutamate-signaling-in-incentive-salience-second-by-second-glutamate-recordings-in-awake-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Seth R Batten, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Joshua S Beckmann
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315615/preparing-for-saliencies-emotional-expectations-under-probabilistically-and-aversively-salient-situations
#7
Mio Kamei, Yasunori Kotani, Haruo Sakuma
In humans, the expectation process in decision making has not been as thoroughly investigated as the evaluation process. The present study focused on the interaction between probabilistic saliency and motivational saliency during expectation and evaluation periods using stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and reward positivity (RewP). Twenty healthy participants performed a modified monetary-incentive delay task under reward-approach and punishment-avoidance conditions. Each condition was characterized by the likely outcome (reward only, punishment only) to manipulate motivational saliency...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313106/neural-correlates-of-instrumental-responding-in-the-context-of-alcohol-related-cues-index-disorder-severity-and-relapse-risk
#8
Daniel J Schad, Maria Garbusow, Eva Friedel, Christian Sommer, Miriam Sebold, Claudia Hägele, Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Shuyan Liu, Uta Eichmann, Anne Beck, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Henrik Walter, Philipp Sterzer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Florian Schlagenhauf, Quentin J M Huys, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp
The influence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli on ongoing behavior may contribute to explaining how alcohol cues stimulate drug seeking and intake. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task, we investigated the effects of alcohol-related cues on approach behavior (i.e., instrumental response behavior) and its neural correlates, and related both to the relapse after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy controls underwent instrumental training, where approach or non-approach towards initially neutral stimuli was reinforced by monetary incentives...
January 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#9
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278696/individual-differences-in-incentive-salience-attribution-are-not-related-to-suboptimal-choice-in-rats
#10
Paulina López, Rodrigo Alba, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has shown great variation in the extent to which individual rats attribute incentive salience to stimuli that are predictors of reinforcement. When using the Pavlovian Conditioned Approach procedure, in which a discrete stimulus is presented contingently before the delivery of reinforcement, the attribution of incentive salience is demonstrated by sign-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the stimulus predictor of reinforcement), while an absence of this attribution is reflected by goal-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the source of reinforcement)...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247796/theta-burst-modulation-of-mid-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-salience-coding-in-the-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#11
Martin Ulrich, Sabrina Lorenz, Markus W Spitzer, Leon Steigleder, Thomas Kammer, Georg Grön
In the context of hedonic (over-)eating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a core part of the dopaminergic reward system plays a central role in coding incentive salience of high-caloric food. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether transcranial magnetic theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the right mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (mid-VLPFC) can induce modulation of calorie-sensitive brain activation in the VTA. The prefrontal location for TBS had been predetermined by seed-based resting-state fMRI with a functionally defined portion of the VTA serving as seed region obtained from an independent second fMRI experiment...
December 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#12
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243531/impact-of-reward-and-loss-anticipation-on-cognitive-control-an-event-related-potential-study-in-subjects-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#13
Annarita Vignapiano, Armida Mucci, Eleonora Merlotti, Giulia Maria Giordano, Antonella Amodio, Davide Palumbo, Silvana Galderisi
INTRODUCTION: Deficits of cognitive functions and motivation are core aspects of schizophrenia. The interaction of these deficits might contribute to impair the ability to flexibly adjust behavior in accordance with one's intentions and goals. Many studies have focused on the anterior N2 as a correlate of cognitive control based on motivational value. AIMS: Given the key role of motivation impairment in schizophrenia as a predictor of functional outcome, we aimed to study the impact of reward- and avoidance-based motivation on cognitive control using N2...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185837/effects-of-negative-affect-urge-to-smoke-and-working-memory-performance-n-back-on-nicotine-dependence
#14
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180968/food-predicting-stimuli-differentially-influence-eye-movements-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-individuals
#15
Rea Lehner, Joshua H Balsters, Alexandra Bürgler, Todd A Hare, Nicole Wenderoth
Obese individuals have been shown to exhibit abnormal sensitivity to rewards and reward-predicting cues as for example food-associated cues frequently used in advertisements. It has also been shown that food-associated cues can increase goal-directed behavior but it is currently unknown, whether this effect differs between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Here, we investigate this question by using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task in normal-weight (N = 20), overweight (N = 17), and obese (N = 17) individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170649/does-the-effort-of-processing-potential-incentives-influence-the-adaption-of-context-updating-in-older-adults
#16
Hannah Schmitt, Jutta Kray, Nicola K Ferdinand
A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012). Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015), we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults' ability to exert cognitive control...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160742/university-affiliated-alcohol-marketing-enhances-the-incentive-salience-of-alcohol-cues
#17
Bruce D Bartholow, Chris Loersch, Tiffany A Ito, Meredith P Levsen, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Kimberly A Fleming, Paul Bolls, Brooke K Carter
We tested whether affiliating beer brands with universities enhances the incentive salience of those brands for underage drinkers. In Study 1, 128 undergraduates viewed beer cues while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results showed that beer cues paired with in-group backgrounds (logos for students' universities) evoked an enhanced P3 ERP component, a neural index of incentive salience. This effect varied according to students' levels of identification with their university, and the amplitude of the P3 response prospectively predicted alcohol use over 1 month...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#18
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126998/high-runner-mice-have-reduced-incentive-salience-for-a-sweet-taste-reward-when-housed-with-wheel-access
#19
Zoe Thompson, Erik M Kolb, Theodore Garland
To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet 'N Low(®): 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal(®): 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda(®): 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096335/decreased-value-sensitivity-in-schizophrenia
#20
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Ray J Dolan, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Pathophysiology in schizophrenia has been linked to aberrant incentive salience, namely the dysfunctional processing of value linked to abnormal dopaminergic activity. In line with this, recent studies showed impaired learning of value in schizophrenia. However, how value is used to guide behaviour independently from learning, as in risky choice, has rarely been examined in this disorder. We studied value-guided choice under risk in patients with schizophrenia and in controls using a task requiring a choice between a certain monetary reward, varying trial-by-trial, and a gamble offering an equal probability of getting double this certain amount or nothing...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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