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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#1
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194094/food-seeking-in-a-risky-environment-a-method-for-evaluating-risk-and-reward-value-in-food-seeking-and-consumption-in-mice
#2
Sarah H Lockie, Clare V McAuley, Sasha Rawlinson, Natalie Guiney, Zane B Andrews
Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#3
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats (sign-trackers; STs) are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact Pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#4
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157228/the-neuroeconomics-of-tobacco-demand-an-initial-investigation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-cigarette-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-male-smokers
#5
Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Max Owens, John Acker, Courtney L Brown, Gene H Brody, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
How the brain processes cigarette cost-benefit decision making remains largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural correlates of decisions for cigarettes (0-10 cigarettes) at varying levels of price during a Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) in male regular smokers (N = 35). Differential neural activity was examined between choices classified as inelastic, elastic, and suppressed demand, operationalized as consumption unaffected by cost, partially suppressed by cost, and entirely suppressed by cost, respectively...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134808/from-belly-to-brain-targeting-the-ghrelin-receptor-in-appetite-and-food-intake-regulation
#6
REVIEW
Ken Howick, Brendan T Griffin, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129056/motivational-salience-modulates-early-visual-cortex-responses-across-task-sets
#7
Valentina Rossi, Naomi Vanlessen, Mareike Bayer, Annika Grass, Gilles Pourtois, Annekathrin Schacht
Motivationally relevant stimuli benefit from strengthened sensory processing. It is unclear, however, if motivational value of positive and negative valence has similar or dissociable effects on early visual processing. Moreover, whether these perceptual effects are task-specific, stimulus-specific, or more generally feature-based is unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of positive and negative motivational value on early sensory processing using ERPs. We tested the extent to which these effects could generalize to new task contexts and to stimuli sharing common features with the motivationally significant ones...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107679/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-substance-related-cognitive-biases
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Leung, Petra K Staiger, Melissa Hayden, Jarrad A G Lum, Kate Hall, Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that substance-related cognitive biases (attentional, memory, and approach bias) contribute to the maintenance and development of substance misuse. Impulsivity has been suggested to influence how cognitive biases contribute to substance misuse, possibly by biasing incentive salience attribution processes. However, the strength and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and substance-related cognitive biases has yet to be empirically examined...
January 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#9
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993692/suboptimal-choice-in-rats-incentive-salience-attribution-promotes-maladaptive-decision-making
#10
Jonathan J Chow, Aaron P Smith, A George Wilson, Thomas R Zentall, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980891/a-review-of-anticipatory-pleasure-in-schizophrenia
#11
Katherine H Frost, Gregory P Strauss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anhedonia, traditionally defined as a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, has long been considered a core symptom of schizophrenia. However, recent research calls into question whether individuals with schizophrenia are truly anhedonic, suggesting intact subjective and neurophysiological response to rewarding stimuli in-the-moment. Despite a presumably intact capacity to experience pleasure, people with schizophrenia still engage in fewer reward-seeking behaviors...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977239/liking-wanting-and-the-incentive-sensitization-theory-of-addiction
#12
Kent C Berridge, Terry E Robinson
Rewards are both "liked" and "wanted," and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of "wanting" a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is "liked." Incentive salience or "wanting," a form of motivation, is generated by large and robust neural systems that include mesolimbic dopamine. By comparison, "liking," or the actual pleasurable impact of reward consumption, is mediated by smaller and fragile neural systems, and is not dependent on dopamine...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956212/voluntary-ethanol-consumption-changes-anticipatory-ultrasonic-vocalizations-but-not-novelty-response
#13
Erik J Garcia, Emily T Jorgensen, Lukas S Sprick, Mary E Cain
Novelty and sensation seeking (NSS) and affective disorders are correlated with earlier ethanol (ETOH) consumption, and sustained drinking into adulthood. Understanding the NSS response and affective response before and after voluntary ETOH consumption could elucidate important individual differences promoting sustained ETOH consumption. This study determined that NSS and affective response to rewarding stimulation-measured by ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)-change after adolescent ETOH voluntary drinking. Rats were tested for their NSS response using the inescapable novelty test...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#14
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#15
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890590/can-cleanerfish-overcome-temptation-a-selective-role-for-dopamine-influence-on-cooperative-based-decision-making
#16
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, João T Malato, João P M Messias
Evidence suggests that animals are selected to make accurate choices and prioritize goals within the constraints of a given social environment to maximize fitness. These decisions are mostly based on complex processes in which value is linked to reward and cues may carry variable incentive salience. However, the level in which the incentive elicited by a cue is able to shift individual choices should differ between individuals and neurophysiological states. Here we used a notorious cooperative cleanerfish species Labroides dimidiatus to probe for differences in the incentive motivational valences given to food cues and then tested for the role of the dopaminergic system in the appraisal of such cues...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890441/the-ability-for-cocaine-and-cocaine-associated-cues-to-compete-for-attention
#17
Kyle K Pitchers, Taylor R Wood, Cari J Skrzynski, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
In humans, reward cues, including drug cues in individuals experiencing addiction, are especially effective in biasing attention towards them, so much so they can disrupt ongoing task performance. It is not known, however, whether this happens in rats. To address this question, we developed a behavioral paradigm to assess the capacity of an auditory drug (cocaine) cue to evoke cocaine-seeking behavior, thus distracting thirsty rats from performing a well-learned sustained attention task (SAT) to obtain a water reward...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#18
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#19
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866486/the-effects-of-cannabis-use-on-salience-attribution-a-systematic-review
#20
Surapi Bhairavi Wijayendran, Aisling O'Neill, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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