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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185837/effects-of-negative-affect-urge-to-smoke-and-working-memory-performance-n-back-on-nicotine-dependence
#1
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180968/food-predicting-stimuli-differentially-influence-eye-movements-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-individuals
#2
Rea Lehner, Joshua H Balsters, Alexandra Bürgler, Todd A Hare, Nicole Wenderoth
Obese individuals have been shown to exhibit abnormal sensitivity to rewards and reward-predicting cues as for example food-associated cues frequently used in advertisements. It has also been shown that food-associated cues can increase goal-directed behavior but it is currently unknown, whether this effect differs between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Here, we investigate this question by using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task in normal-weight (N = 20), overweight (N = 17), and obese (N = 17) individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170649/does-the-effort-of-processing-potential-incentives-influence-the-adaption-of-context-updating-in-older-adults
#3
Hannah Schmitt, Jutta Kray, Nicola K Ferdinand
A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012). Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015), we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults' ability to exert cognitive control...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160742/university-affiliated-alcohol-marketing-enhances-the-incentive-salience-of-alcohol-cues
#4
Bruce D Bartholow, Chris Loersch, Tiffany A Ito, Meredith P Levsen, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Kimberly A Fleming, Paul Bolls, Brooke K Carter
We tested whether affiliating beer brands with universities enhances the incentive salience of those brands for underage drinkers. In Study 1, 128 undergraduates viewed beer cues while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results showed that beer cues paired with in-group backgrounds (logos for students' universities) evoked an enhanced P3 ERP component, a neural index of incentive salience. This effect varied according to students' levels of identification with their university, and the amplitude of the P3 response prospectively predicted alcohol use over 1 month...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#5
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126998/high-runner-mice-have-reduced-incentive-salience-for-a-sweet-taste-reward-when-housed-with-wheel-access
#6
Zoe Thompson, Erik M Kolb, Theodore Garland
To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet 'N Low(®): 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal(®): 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda(®): 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096335/decreased-value-sensitivity-in-schizophrenia
#7
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Ray J Dolan, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Pathophysiology in schizophrenia has been linked to aberrant incentive salience, namely the dysfunctional processing of value linked to abnormal dopaminergic activity. In line with this, recent studies showed impaired learning of value in schizophrenia. However, how value is used to guide behaviour independently from learning, as in risky choice, has rarely been examined in this disorder. We studied value-guided choice under risk in patients with schizophrenia and in controls using a task requiring a choice between a certain monetary reward, varying trial-by-trial, and a gamble offering an equal probability of getting double this certain amount or nothing...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-vs-cold-behavioural-cognitive-styles-motivationaldopaminergic-vs-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#8
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience) in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal-trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here, we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037660/nmda-receptor-blockade-specifically-impedes-the-acquisition-of-incentive-salience-attribution
#9
Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann
Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in learning and memory. Using Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, the mechanisms that drive stimulus-reward learning and memory have been investigated. However, there are instances where reward-predictive stimuli can function beyond being solely predictive and can be attributed with "motivational value" or incentive salience. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two different but equally predictive stimuli (lever vs. tone) we investigated the role NMDA receptor function has in the attribution of incentive salience...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030248/explicit-wanting-and-liking-for-palatable-snacks-are-differentially-affected-by-change-in-physiological-state-and-differentially-related-to-salivation-and-hunger
#10
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Tuki Attuquayefio, Candice Ockert
Incentive salience theory (IST) suggests that 'wanting' and liking are dissociable processes. We argue that explicit measures of wanting in humans can reflect the impact of implicit 'wanting' as envisaged by IST, suggesting that dissociations should also be evident for explicit judgments of wanting and liking. To test this, participants were asked to make ratings of these variables for 8 palatable snack foods - and in a related test salivation rate was also assessed. Participants viewed and sniffed each snack food and rated wanting, and then sampled it and rated liking and whether they wanted more of it...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#11
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992038/understanding-female-receiver-psychology-in-reproductive-contexts
#12
Kathleen S Lynch
Mate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component...
August 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983134/pension-spiking-free-riding-and-the-effects-of-pension-reform-on-teachers-earnings
#13
Maria D Fitzpatrick
In many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the earnings that determines the size of pensions, but are not required to make contributions to cover the resulting state pension fund liabilities. In this paper, I document evidence that this intergovernmental incentive inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distorts the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. I use the introduction of a policy that required experience-rating on earnings increases above a certain limit in a differences-in-differences framework to identify whether districts are willing to pay the full costs of their earnings promises...
April 2017: Journal of Public Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971233/mapping-trait-like-socio-affective-phenotypes-in-rats-through-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations
#14
K -Alexander Engelhardt, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
RATIONALE: Fifty-kilohertz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats are believed to express inter-individual differences in trait-like positive affective phenotypes. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced by amphetamine (AMPH) to model mania-like positive affect, raising the possibility that predispositions for high 50-kHz USV production confer susceptibility to mania-like states. Such 50-kHz USV presumably express the sender's motivation for social contact and elicit social approach behavior in receivers...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899646/early-life-adversity-potentiates-expression-of-addiction-related-traits
#15
Tristan J Hynes, Catherine S Thomas, Alicia S Zumbusch, Anna Samson, Ioana Petriman, Una Mrdja, Angelique Orr, Emilie Cutts, Bruce G Ruzindana, Alimohamed Hazari, Margaret Zjadewicz, Vedran Lovic
Many individuals sporadically and circumstantially sample addictive drugs, yet few become addicted. The individual vulnerabilities underlying the development of addiction are not well understood. Correlational findings show that early life adversity is associated with a greater propensity to develop drug addiction. However, the mechanisms by which early life adversity increases addiction vulnerability are unknown. Separate lines of research have found that several traits are associated with addiction. Here, we examined the effects of early life adversity on addiction-related traits in adulthood...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888030/increased-sign-tracking-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#16
Nicole E DeAngeli, Sarah B Miller, Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS(+) ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS(-) ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882695/effects-of-an-acute-therapeutic-or-rewarding-dose-of-amphetamine-on-acquisition-of-pavlovian-autoshaping-and-ventral-striatal-dopamine-signaling
#17
D R Schuweiler, J M Athens, J M Thompson, S T Vazhayil, P A Garris
Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#18
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#19
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751460/optogenetic-central-amygdala-stimulation-intensifies-and-narrows-motivation-for-cocaine
#20
Shelley M Warlow, Mike J F Robinson, Kent C Berridge
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here, we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nose-poke porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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