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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#1
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993692/suboptimal-choice-in-rats-incentive-salience-attribution-promotes-maladaptive-decision-making
#2
Jonathan J Chow, Aaron P Smith, A George Wilson, Thomas R Zentall, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980891/a-review-of-anticipatory-pleasure-in-schizophrenia
#3
Katherine H Frost, Gregory P Strauss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anhedonia, traditionally defined as a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, has long been considered a core symptom of schizophrenia. However, recent research calls into question whether individuals with schizophrenia are truly anhedonic, suggesting intact subjective and neurophysiological response to rewarding stimuli in-the-moment. Despite a presumably intact capacity to experience pleasure, people with schizophrenia still engage in fewer reward-seeking behaviors...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977239/liking-wanting-and-the-incentive-sensitization-theory-of-addiction
#4
Kent C Berridge, Terry E Robinson
Rewards are both "liked" and "wanted," and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of "wanting" a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is "liked." Incentive salience or "wanting," a form of motivation, is generated by large and robust neural systems that include mesolimbic dopamine. By comparison, "liking," or the actual pleasurable impact of reward consumption, is mediated by smaller and fragile neural systems, and is not dependent on dopamine...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956212/voluntary-ethanol-consumption-changes-anticipatory-ultrasonic-vocalizations-but-not-novelty-response
#5
Erik J Garcia, Emily T Jorgensen, Lukas S Sprick, Mary E Cain
Novelty and sensation seeking (NSS) and affective disorders are correlated with earlier ethanol (ETOH) consumption, and sustained drinking into adulthood. Understanding the NSS response and affective response before and after voluntary ETOH consumption could elucidate important individual differences promoting sustained ETOH consumption. This study determined that NSS and affective response to rewarding stimulation-measured by ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)-change after adolescent ETOH voluntary drinking. Rats were tested for their NSS response using the inescapable novelty test...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#6
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#7
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890590/can-cleanerfish-overcome-temptation-a-selective-role-for-dopamine-influence-on-cooperative-based-decision-making
#8
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, João T Malato, João P M Messias
Evidence suggests that animals are selected to make accurate choices and prioritize goals within the constraints of a given social environment to maximize fitness. These decisions are mostly based on complex processes in which value is linked to reward and cues may carry variable incentive salience. However, the level in which the incentive elicited by a cue is able to shift individual choices should differ between individuals and neurophysiological states. Here we used a notorious cooperative cleanerfish species Labroides dimidiatus to probe for differences in the incentive motivational valences given to food cues and then tested for the role of the dopaminergic system in the appraisal of such cues...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890441/the-ability-for-cocaine-and-cocaine-associated-cues-to-compete-for-attention
#9
Kyle K Pitchers, Taylor R Wood, Cari J Skrzynski, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
In humans, reward cues, including drug cues in individuals experiencing addiction, are especially effective in biasing attention towards them, so much so they can disrupt ongoing task performance. It is not known, however, whether this happens in rats. To address this question, we developed a behavioral paradigm to assess the capacity of an auditory drug (cocaine) cue to evoke cocaine-seeking behavior, thus distracting thirsty rats from performing a well-learned sustained attention task (SAT) to obtain a water reward...
November 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#10
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#11
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866486/the-effects-of-cannabis-use-on-salience-attribution-a-systematic-review
#12
Surapi Bhairavi Wijayendran, Aisling O'Neill, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837333/individual-differences-in-food-cue-responsivity-are-associated-with-acute-and-repeated-cocaine-induced-vocalizations-but-not-cue-induced-vocalizations
#13
Jordan A Tripi, Micheal L Dent, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798138/a-gabaergic-projection-from-the-centromedial-nuclei-of-the-amygdala-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-reward-behavior
#14
Dong-Oh Seo, Samuel C Funderburk, Dionnet L Bhatti, Laura E Motard, Dillan Newbold, Kasey S Girven, Jordan G McCall, Michael Krashes, Dennis R Sparta, Michael R Bruchas
: The neural circuitry underlying mammalian reward behaviors involves several distinct nuclei throughout the brain. It is widely accepted that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are critical for the reward-related behaviors. Recent studies have shown that the centromedial nucleus of the amygdala (CeMA) has a distinct role in regulating reward-related behaviors. However, the CeMA and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) interaction in reward regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify and dissect a GABAergic projection that originates in the CeMA and terminates in the vmPFC (VGat-Cre(CeMA-vmPFC)) using viral-vector-mediated, cell-type-specific optogenetic techniques in mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793779/a-food-predictive-cue-attributed-with-incentive-salience-engages-subcortical-afferents-and-efferents-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#15
Joshua L Haight, Zachary L Fuller, Kurt M Fraser, Shelly B Flagel
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been implicated in behavioral responses to reward-associated cues. However, the precise role of the PVT in these behaviors has been difficult to ascertain since Pavlovian-conditioned cues can act as both predictive and incentive stimuli. The "sign-tracker/goal-tracker" rat model has allowed us to further elucidate the role of the PVT in cue-motivated behaviors, identifying this structure as a critical component of the neural circuitry underlying individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793769/oxytocin-receptors-modulate-a-social-salience-neural-network-in-male-prairie-voles
#16
Zachary V Johnson, Hasse Walum, Yao Xiao, Paula C Riefkohl, Larry J Young
Social behavior is regulated by conserved neural networks across vertebrates. Variation in the organization of neuropeptide systems across these networks is thought to contribute to individual and species diversity in network function during social contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) is an ancient neuropeptide that binds to OT receptors (OTRs) in the brain and modulates social and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species, including humans. Central OTRs exhibit extraordinarily diverse expression patterns that are associated with individual and species differences in social behavior...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667004/convergence-of-reinforcing-and-anhedonic-cocaine-effects-in-the-ventral-pallidum
#17
Meaghan Creed, Niels R Ntamati, Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo, Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disorder of behavioral symptoms including enhanced incentive salience of drug-associated cues, but also a negative affective state. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the reward system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc), drives drug-adaptive behavior. However, how information is integrated downstream of the NAc remains unclear. Here, we identify the ventral pallidum (VP) as a site of convergence of medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine (DA) receptor type 1 (D1-MSNs) and type 2 (D2-MSNs) of the NAc...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651285/comparing-three-cognitive-biases-for-alcohol-cues-in-alcohol-dependence
#18
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624149/parallel-role-for-the-dopamine-d1-receptor-in-gambling-and-amphetamine-reinforcement-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Martin H Zack, Daniela S Lobo, Candice Biback, Tim Fang, Kelly Smart, Daniel Tatone, Aditi Kalia, Daniel Digiacomo, James L Kennedy
This study investigated the role of dopamine, and specifically the D1 receptor (D1R), in the reinforcing effects of a slot-machine game in healthy volunteers (n=30). To compare gambling and drug effects, subjects received the prototypic psychostimulant drug d-amphetamine (AMPH; 20 mg) in a multi-session, placebo-controlled design. To isolate D1R, half the subjects were pretreated with the preferential D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (HAL; 3 mg), and the other half with the mixed D1-D2 antagonist fluphenazine (FLU; 3 mg) before the game (Phase I) and AMPH (Phase II)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603142/incubation-of-cue-induced-craving-in-adults-addicted-to-cocaine-measured-by-electroencephalography
#20
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Rita Z Goldstein
Importance: A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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