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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#1
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890590/can-cleanerfish-overcome-temptation-a-selective-role-for-dopamine-influence-on-cooperative-based-decision-making
#2
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, João T Malato, João P M Messias
Evidence suggests that animals are selected to make accurate choices and prioritize goals within the constraints of a given social environment to maximize fitness. These decisions are mostly based on complex processes in which value is linked to reward and cues may carry variable incentive salience. However, the level in which the incentive elicited by a cue is able to shift individual choices should differ between individuals and neurophysiological states. Here we used a notorious cooperative cleanerfish species Labroides dimidiatus to probe for differences in the incentive motivational valences given to food cues and then tested for the role of the dopaminergic system in the appraisal of such cues...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890441/the-ability-for-cocaine-and-cocaine-associated-cues-to-compete-for-attention
#3
Kyle K Pitchers, Taylor R Wood, Cari J Skrzynski, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
In humans, reward cues, including drug cues in addicts, are especially effective in biasing attention towards them, so much so they can disrupt ongoing task performance. It is not known, however, whether this happens in rats. To address this question, we developed a behavioral paradigm to assess the capacity of an auditory drug (cocaine) cue to evoke cocaine-seeking behavior, thus distracting thirsty rats from performing a well-learned sustained attention task (SAT) to obtain a water reward. First, it was determined that an auditory cocaine cue (tone-CS) reinstated drug-seeking equally in sign-trackers (STs) and goal-trackers (GTs), which otherwise vary in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a localizable drug cue...
November 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#4
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#5
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866486/the-effects-of-cannabis-use-on-salience-attribution-a-systematic-review
#6
Surapi Bhairavi Wijayendran, Aisling O'Neill, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837333/individual-differences-in-food-cue-responsivity-are-associated-with-acute-and-repeated-cocaine-induced-vocalizations-but-not-cue-induced-vocalizations
#7
Jordan A Tripi, Micheal L Dent, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse...
November 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798138/a-gabaergic-projection-from-the-centromedial-nuclei-of-the-amygdala-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-reward-behavior
#8
Dong-Oh Seo, Samuel C Funderburk, Dionnet L Bhatti, Laura E Motard, Dillan Newbold, Kasey S Girven, Jordan G McCall, Michael Krashes, Dennis R Sparta, Michael R Bruchas
: The neural circuitry underlying mammalian reward behaviors involves several distinct nuclei throughout the brain. It is widely accepted that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are critical for the reward-related behaviors. Recent studies have shown that the centromedial nucleus of the amygdala (CeMA) has a distinct role in regulating reward-related behaviors. However, the CeMA and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) interaction in reward regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify and dissect a GABAergic projection that originates in the CeMA and terminates in the vmPFC (VGat-Cre(CeMA-vmPFC)) using viral-vector-mediated, cell-type-specific optogenetic techniques in mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793779/a-food-predictive-cue-attributed-with-incentive-salience-engages-subcortical-afferents-and-efferents-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#9
Joshua L Haight, Zachary L Fuller, Kurt M Fraser, Shelly B Flagel
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been implicated in behavioral responses to reward-associated cues. However, the precise role of the PVT in these behaviors has been difficult to ascertain since Pavlovian-conditioned cues can act as both predictive and incentive stimuli. The "sign-tracker/goal-tracker" rat model has allowed us to further elucidate the role of the PVT in cue-motivated behaviors, identifying this structure as a critical component of the neural circuitry underlying individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793769/oxytocin-receptors-modulate-a-social-salience-neural-network-in-male-prairie-voles
#10
Zachary V Johnson, Hasse Walum, Yao Xiao, Paula C Riefkohl, Larry J Young
Social behavior is regulated by conserved neural networks across vertebrates. Variation in the organization of neuropeptide systems across these networks is thought to contribute to individual and species diversity in network function during social contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) is an ancient neuropeptide that binds to OT receptors (OTRs) in the brain and modulates social and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species, including humans. Central OTRs exhibit extraordinarily diverse expression patterns that are associated with individual and species differences in social behavior...
October 26, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667004/convergence-of-reinforcing-and-anhedonic-cocaine-effects-in-the-ventral-pallidum
#11
Meaghan Creed, Niels R Ntamati, Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo, Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disorder of behavioral symptoms including enhanced incentive salience of drug-associated cues, but also a negative affective state. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the reward system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc), drives drug-adaptive behavior. However, how information is integrated downstream of the NAc remains unclear. Here, we identify the ventral pallidum (VP) as a site of convergence of medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine (DA) receptor type 1 (D1-MSNs) and type 2 (D2-MSNs) of the NAc...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651285/comparing-three-cognitive-biases-for-alcohol-cues-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624149/parallel-role-for-the-dopamine-d1-receptor-in-gambling-and-amphetamine-reinforcement-in-healthy-volunteers
#13
Martin H Zack, Daniela S Lobo, Candice Biback, Tim Fang, Kelly Smart, Daniel Tatone, Aditi Kalia, Daniel Digiacomo, James L Kennedy
This study investigated the role of dopamine, and specifically the D1 receptor (D1R), in the reinforcing effects of a slot-machine game in healthy volunteers (n=30). To compare gambling and drug effects, subjects received the prototypic psychostimulant drug d-amphetamine (AMPH; 20 mg) in a multi-session, placebo-controlled design. To isolate D1R, half the subjects were pretreated with the preferential D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (HAL; 3 mg), and the other half with the mixed D1-D2 antagonist fluphenazine (FLU; 3 mg) before the game (Phase I) and AMPH (Phase II)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603142/incubation-of-cue-induced-craving-in-adults-addicted-to-cocaine-measured-by-electroencephalography
#14
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Rita Z Goldstein
Importance: A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592563/maternal-immune-activation-alters-sensitivity-to-action-outcome-contingency-in-adult-rat-offspring
#15
Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence for a role of maternal immune activation in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. In recent years, several research groups have capitalised on this discovery and developed animal models such as the maternal immune activation (MIA) model that emulates many phenotypes characteristic of disorders such as schizophrenia. In the present series of experiments we used the MIA model to examine motivation, a core component of the negative symptomatology in schizophrenia...
September 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574507/visual-sexual-stimuli-cue-or-reward-a-perspective-for-interpreting-brain-imaging-findings-on-human-sexual-behaviors
#16
Mateusz Gola, Małgorzata Wordecha, Artur Marchewka, Guillaume Sescousse
There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545986/dissociable-effects-of-cocaine-dependence-on-reward-processes-the-role-of-acute-cocaine-and-craving
#17
Emma Jane Rose, Betty Jo Salmeron, Thomas J Ross, James Waltz, Julie B Schweitzer, Elliot A Stein
The relative impact of chronic vs acute cocaine on dependence-related variability in reward processing in cocaine-dependent individuals (CD) is not well understood, despite the relevance of such effects to long-term outcomes. To dissociate these effects, CD (N=15) and healthy controls (HC; N=15) underwent MRI two times while performing a monetary incentive delay task. Both scans were identical across subjects/groups, except that, in a single-blind, counterbalanced design, CD received intravenous cocaine (30 mg/70 kg) before one session (CD+cocaine) and saline in another (CD+saline)...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515723/cue-elicited-increases-in-incentive-salience-for-marijuana-craving-demand-and-attentional-bias
#18
Jane Metrik, Elizabeth R Aston, Christopher W Kahler, Damaris J Rohsenow, John E McGeary, Valerie S Knopik, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. METHODS: This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478141/dopamine-antagonism-does-not-impair-learning-of-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-to-manipulable-or-non-manipulable-cues-but-biases-responding-towards-goal-tracking
#19
Stefanie A Scülfort, Dusan Bartsch, Thomas Enkel
Dopamine's (DA) role in reward-processing is currently discussed as either providing a teaching signal to guide learning or mediating the transfer of incentive salience (i.e. motivational aspects) from unconditioned stimuli (US) to conditioned stimuli (CS). We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to further investigate DAs contribution to these processes. Experiment 1 assessed the acquisition of PCA to a manipulable lever cue for 7days under DA-blockade with Flupenthixol (FLU; 225μg/kg) or Saline (SAL) treatment, followed by 6-days off-drug testing...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475769/neurobiology-of-addiction-a-neurocircuitry-analysis
#20
REVIEW
George F Koob, Nora D Volkow
Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
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