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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030248/explicit-wanting-and-liking-for-palatable-snacks-are-differentially-affected-by-change-in-physiological-state-and-differentially-related-to-salivation-and-hunger
#1
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Tuki Attuquayefio, Candice Ockert
Incentive salience theory (IST) suggests that 'wanting' and liking are dissociable processes. We argue that explicit measures of wanting in humans can reflect the impact of implicit 'wanting' as envisaged by IST, suggesting that dissociations should also be evident for explicit judgments of wanting and liking. To test this, participants were asked to make ratings of these variables for 8 palatable snack foods - and in a related test salivation rate was also assessed. Participants viewed and sniffed each snack food and rated wanting, and then sampled it and rated liking and whether they wanted more of it...
October 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#2
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992038/understanding-female-receiver-psychology-in-reproductive-contexts
#3
Kathleen S Lynch
Mate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component...
August 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983134/pension-spiking-free-riding-and-the-effects-of-pension-reform-on-teachers-earnings
#4
Maria D Fitzpatrick
In many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the earnings that determines the size of pensions, but are not required to make contributions to cover the resulting state pension fund liabilities. In this paper, I document evidence that this intergovernmental incentive inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distorts the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. I use the introduction of a policy that required experience-rating on earnings increases above a certain limit in a differences-in-differences framework to identify whether districts are willing to pay the full costs of their earnings promises...
April 2017: Journal of Public Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971233/mapping-trait-like-socio-affective-phenotypes-in-rats-through-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations
#5
K -Alexander Engelhardt, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
RATIONALE: Fifty-kilohertz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats are believed to express inter-individual differences in trait-like positive affective phenotypes. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced by amphetamine (AMPH) to model mania-like positive affect, raising the possibility that predispositions for high 50-kHz USV production confer susceptibility to mania-like states. Such 50-kHz USV presumably express the sender's motivation for social contact and elicit social approach behavior in receivers...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899646/early-life-adversity-potentiates-expression-of-addiction-related-traits
#6
Tristan J Hynes, Catherine S Thomas, Alicia S Zumbusch, Anna Samson, Ioana Petriman, Una Mrdja, Angelique Orr, Emilie Cutts, Bruce G Ruzindana, Alimohamed Hazari, Margaret Zjadewicz, Vedran Lovic
Many individuals sporadically and circumstantially sample addictive drugs, yet few become addicted. The individual vulnerabilities underlying the development of addiction are not well understood. Correlational findings show that early life adversity is associated with a greater propensity to develop drug addiction. However, the mechanisms by which early life adversity increases addiction vulnerability are unknown. Separate lines of research have found that several traits are associated with addiction. Here, we examined the effects of early life adversity on addiction-related traits in adulthood...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888030/increased-sign-tracking-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#7
Nicole E DeAngeli, Sarah B Miller, Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS(+) ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS(-) ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882695/effects-of-an-acute-therapeutic-or-rewarding-dose-of-amphetamine-on-acquisition-of-pavlovian-autoshaping-and-ventral-striatal-dopamine-signaling
#8
D R Schuweiler, J M Athens, J M Thompson, S T Vazhayil, P A Garris
Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#9
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#10
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751460/optogenetic-central-amygdala-stimulation-intensifies-and-narrows-motivation-for-cocaine
#11
Shelley M Warlow, Mike J F Robinson, Kent C Berridge
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here, we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nose-poke porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#12
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#13
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720249/using-wheel-availability-to-shape-running-behavior-of-the-rat-towards-improved-behavioral-and-neurobiological-outcomes
#14
Julia C Basso, Joan I Morrell
BACKGROUND: Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. NEW METHOD: We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses"...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711811/n-acetylcysteine-reduces-cocaine-cue-attentional-bias-and-differentially-alters-cocaine-self-administration-based-on-dosing-order
#15
B Levi Bolin, Joseph L Alcorn, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, Abner O Rayapati, Lon R Hays, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Disrupted glutamate homeostasis is thought to contribute to cocaine-use disorder, in particular, by enhancing the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli. n-Acetylcysteine might be useful in cocaine-use disorder by normalizing glutamate function. In prior studies, n-acetylcysteine blocked the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory animals and reduced the salience of cocaine stimuli and delayed relapse in humans. METHODS: The present study determined the ability of maintenance on n-acetylcysteine (0 or 2400mg/day, counterbalanced) to reduce the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli, as measured by an attentional bias task, and attenuate intranasal cocaine self-administration (0, 30, and 60mg)...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705093/incentive-use-for-improving-maternal-health-perspective-from-behavioral-science
#16
Yukiko Washio
Incentive use to improve maternal health behavior has been controversial, and guidelines to effectively design and implement such an intervention have been published. This commentary briefly describes a perspective from behavioral science for the existing guideline on the development of an incentive-based intervention to change maternal health behaviors. It is recommended to emphasize the saliency of incentives as an important variable to maintain the intervention effect while addressing barriers to feasibility and sustainability...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#17
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673839/incentive-salience-attribution-is-not-the-sole-determinant-of-suboptimal-choice-in-rats-conditioned-inhibition-matters
#18
Montserrat Martínez, Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons...
September 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670608/neurobiological-basis-of-individual-variation-in-stimulus-reward-learning
#19
Shelly B Flagel, Terry E Robinson
Cues in the environment can guide behavior in adaptive ways, leading one towards valuable resources such as food, water, or a potential mate. However, cues in the environment may also serve as powerful motivators that lead to maladaptive patterns of behavior, such as addiction. Importantly, and central to this article, there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues gain motivational control over behavior. Here we describe an animal model that captures this individual variation, allowing us to better understand the psychological and neurobiological processes that contribute to cue-evoked behaviors...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#20
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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