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Incentive salience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#1
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720249/using-wheel-availability-to-shape-running-behavior-of-the-rat-towards-improved-behavioral-and-neurobiological-outcomes
#2
Julia C Basso, Joan I Morrell
BACKGROUND: Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. NEW METHOD: We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses"...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711811/n-acetylcysteine-reduces-cocaine-cue-attentional-bias-and-differentially-alters-cocaine-self-administration-based-on-dosing-order
#3
B L Bolin, Joseph L Alcorn, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, Abner O Rayapati, Lon R Hays, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Disrupted glutamate homeostasis is thought to contribute to cocaine-use disorder, in particular, by enhancing the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli. n-Acetylcysteine might be useful in cocaine-use disorder by normalizing glutamate function. In prior studies, n-acetylcysteine blocked the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory animals and reduced the salience of cocaine stimuli and delayed relapse in humans. METHODS: The present study determined the ability of maintenance on n-acetylcysteine (0 or 2400mg/day, counterbalanced) to reduce the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli, as measured by an attentional bias task, and attenuate intranasal cocaine self-administration (0, 30, and 60mg)...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705093/incentive-use-for-improving-maternal-health-perspective-from-behavioral-science
#4
Yukiko Washio
Incentive use to improve maternal health behavior has been controversial, and guidelines to effectively design and implement such an intervention have been published. This commentary briefly describes a perspective from behavioral science for the existing guideline on the development of an incentive-based intervention to change maternal health behaviors. It is recommended to emphasize the saliency of incentives as an important variable to maintain the intervention effect while addressing barriers to feasibility and sustainability...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#5
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined if the diminishing dopamine signal in the nucleus accumbens core has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673839/incentive-salience-attribution-is-not-the-sole-determinant-of-suboptimal-choice-in-rats-conditioned-inhibition-matters
#6
Montserrat Martínez, Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons...
July 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670608/neurobiological-basis-of-individual-variation-in-stimulus-reward-learning
#7
Shelly B Flagel, Terry E Robinson
Cues in the environment can guide behavior in adaptive ways, leading one towards valuable resources such as food, water, or a potential mate. However, cues in the environment may also serve as powerful motivators that lead to maladaptive patterns of behavior, such as addiction. Importantly, and central to this article, there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues gain motivational control over behavior. Here we describe an animal model that captures this individual variation, allowing us to better understand the psychological and neurobiological processes that contribute to cue-evoked behaviors...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#8
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign-trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal-trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653666/endocannabinoid-regulation-of-reward-and-reinforcement-through-interaction-with-dopamine-and-endogenous-opioid-signaling
#9
J M Wenzel, J F Cheer
The endocannabinoid system (eCB) is implicated in the mediation of both reward and reinforcement. This is evidenced by the ability of exogenous cannabinoid drugs to produce hedonia and maintain self-administration in both human and animal subjects. eCBs similarly facilitate behaviors motivated by reward through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and endogenous opioid systems. Indeed, eCB signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) stimulates activation of midbrain DA cells and promotes DA release in terminal regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646260/salt-appetite-and-the-influence-of-opioids
#10
Craig M Smith, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564556/brain-on-fire-incentive-salience-hedonic-hot-spots-dopamine-obesity-and-other-hunger-games
#11
Jameason D Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Anders M Sjödin, Gary S Goldfield
This review examines human feeding behavior in light of psychological motivational theory and highlights the importance of midbrain dopamine (DA). Prospective evidence of both reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to increased body weight are evaluated, and we argue that it is more complex than an either/or scenario when examining DA's role in reward sensitivity, eating, and obesity. The Taq1A genotype is a common thread that ties the contrasting models of DA reward and obesity; this genotype related to striatal DA is not associated with obesity class per se but may nevertheless confer an increased risk of weight gain...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498722/positive-affective-processes-underlie-positive-health-behaviour-change
#12
Patty Van Cappellen, Elise L Rice, Lahnna I Catalino, Barbara L Fredrickson
Positive health behaviours such as physical activity can prevent or reverse many chronic conditions, yet a majority of people fall short of leading a healthy lifestyle. Recent discoveries in affective science point to promising approaches to circumvent barriers to lifestyle change. Here, we present a new theoretical framework that integrates scientific knowledge about positive affect with that on implicit processes. The upward spiral theory of lifestyle change explains how positive affect can facilitate long-term adherence to positive health behaviours...
May 12, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483102/use-of-buprenorphine-in-treatment-of-refractory-depression-a-review-of-current-literature
#13
REVIEW
Cornel N Stanciu, Oliver M Glass, Thomas M Penders
OBJECTIVE: Current treatment strategies for depressive disorders have limited efficacy, leaving many patients unimproved or with significant residual symptoms. The development of additional treatments represent a significant unmet need for providers. Several lines of evidence suggest that the opioid system may be involved in regulation of mood and incentives salience. Intervention based on modifying central opioid receptors may represent a novel approach to treatment of depressive disorders among those unresponsive to accepted treatments...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473252/alcohol-seeking-and-relapse-a-focus-on-incentive-salience-and-contextual-conditioning
#14
REVIEW
Milan D Valyear, Franz R Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471221/the-salience-of-a-reward-cue-can-outlast-reward-devaluation
#15
Matteo De Tommaso, Tommaso Mastropasqua, Massimo Turatto
Reward cues can be perceived as highly attractive stimuli because of their acquired motivational properties. However, because the motivational value of reward changes after reward receipt, a debated question is whether the attentional salience of reward cues changes accordingly. In Experiment 1, thirsty participants learned 3 cue-reward associations involving different contingencies. Then, while thirsty, participants performed a visual-search task under extinction, during which the previous reward cues appeared as irrelevant stimuli containing target and distractor items...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398011/striatal-activation-and-frontostriatal-connectivity-during-non-drug-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
Alena Becker, Martina Kirsch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence...
May 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283392/addictions-neuroclinical-assessment-a-reverse-translational-approach
#17
REVIEW
Laura E Kwako, Reza Momenan, Erica N Grodin, Raye Z Litten, George F Koob, David Goldman
Incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function are functional domains that are etiologic in the initiation and progression of addictive disorders, having been implicated in humans with addictive disorders and in animal models of addictions. Measures of these three neuroscience-based functional domains can capture much of the effects of inheritance and early exposures that lead to trait vulnerability shared across different addictive disorders. For specific addictive disorders, these measures can be supplemented by agent specific measures such as those that access pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic variation attributable to agent-specific gatekeeper molecules including receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes...
March 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#18
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
August 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194094/food-seeking-in-a-risky-environment-a-method-for-evaluating-risk-and-reward-value-in-food-seeking-and-consumption-in-mice
#19
Sarah H Lockie, Clare V McAuley, Sasha Rawlinson, Natalie Guiney, Zane B Andrews
Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#20
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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