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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317317/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-caffeine-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Mahshad Kolahdouzan, Mazen J Hamadeh
Caffeine is the most widely used psychostimulant in Western countries, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), caffeine is beneficial in both men and women, in humans and animals. Similar effects of caffeine were observed in men with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the effect of caffeine in female PD patients is controversial due to caffeine's competition with estrogen for the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Studies conducted in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showed protective effects of A2A R antagonism...
April 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315271/role-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-cocaine-abuse-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Fang Niu, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch
Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R) are recognized as a unique class of non-G protein-coupled intracellular protein. Sig-1R binds to its ligand such as cocaine , resulting in dissociation of Sig-1R from mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane, and nuclear membrane, regulating function of various proteins. Sig-1R has diverse roles in both physiological as well as in pathogenic processes. The disruption of Sig-1R pathways has been implicated as causative mechanism(s) in the development of both neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD ), Parkinson disease (PD ), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS ) and Huntington Disease (HD ) ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293168/modeling-human-neurological-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-neuronal-differentiation-and-its-applications-in-neurotrauma
#3
REVIEW
Hisham Bahmad, Ola Hadadeh, Farah Chamaa, Katia Cheaito, Batoul Darwish, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Wassim Abou-Kheir
With the help of several inducing factors, somatic cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines. The success is in obtaining iPSCs almost identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), therefore various approaches have been tested and ultimately several ones have succeeded. The importance of these cells is in how they serve as models to unveil the molecular pathways and mechanisms underlying several human diseases, and also in its potential roles in the development of regenerative medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292606/speech-language-and-reading-skills-in-10-year-old-children-with-palatal-clefts-the-impact-of-additional-conditions
#4
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Ragnhild Aukner, Tone K Særvold, Øydis Hide
BACKGROUND: This study examined speech (hypernasality and intelligibility), language, and reading skills in children with a cleft palate, specifically investigating additional conditions to the cleft, in order to differentiate challenges related to a cleft only, and challenges associated with an additional condition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data collected during routine assessments of speech and language in a centralised treatment setting. PARTICIPANTS: Children born with cleft with palatal involvement from four birth cohorts (n=184), aged 10...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277301/body-composition-analysis-and-adipocytokine-concentrations-in-haemodialysis-patients-abdominal-fat-gain-as-an-added-cardiovascular-risk-factor-abdominal-fat-gain-and-cardiovascular-risk
#5
Elena González, Juan J Díez, Almudena Pérez Torres, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Gloria Del Peso, Rafael Sánchez-Villanueva, Cristina Grande, Olaia Rodríguez, Mónica Coronado, Carmen Gómez Candela, Mariana Díaz-Almirón, Pedro Iglesias, Rafael Selgas
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. OBJECTIVES: To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 26, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270301/synapses-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Jae Ryul Bae, Sung Hyun Kim
Synapse is a basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. To initiate and maintain continuous functional neural information flow, the presynaptic terminal is a structurally and functionally essential place as an initiator for communication. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitter, active zone for release place, and a number of proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is one of the representative characteristics however it is also highly vulnerable in various pathological circumstances...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270096/selecting-sequence-variants-to-improve-genomic-predictions-for-dairy-cattle
#7
Paul M VanRaden, Melvin E Tooker, Jeffrey R O'Connell, John B Cole, Derek M Bickhart
BACKGROUND: Millions of genetic variants have been identified by population-scale sequencing projects, but subsets of these variants are needed for routine genomic predictions or genotyping arrays. Methods for selecting sequence variants were compared using simulated sequence genotypes and real July 2015 data from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project. METHODS: Candidate sequence variants for 444 Holstein animals were combined with high-density (HD) imputed genotypes for 26,970 progeny-tested Holstein bulls...
March 7, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267336/phase-acrobatics-the-influence-of-excitonic-resonance-and-gold-nonresonant-background-on-heterodyne-detected-vibrational-sum-frequency-generation-emission
#8
Christopher C Rich, Kathryn A Lindberg, Amber T Krummel
We show how heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy can discriminate between the excitonic and monomeric properties of a helical, nanotube molecular aggregate by monitoring the phase of the VSFG emission associated with different polarization configurations. By keeping track of the "phase acrobatics" associated with the added phase of the nonresonant SFG emission of gold as well as that of the double-resonance conditions achieved when the SF frequency is resonant with an electronic exciton transition, we discover that for aggregates of tetra(sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) the PPP-polarized spectra exhibit double-resonance conditions while SSP-polarized spectra exhibit resonance only with the ground-state vibration...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259856/7t-mri-for-neurodegenerative-dementias-in-vivo-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth Frances McKiernan, John Tiernan O'Brien
The spatial resolution of 7T MRI approaches the scale of pathologies of interest in degenerative brain diseases, such as amyloid plaques and changes in cortical layers and subcortical nuclei. It may reveal new information about neurodegenerative dementias, although challenges may include increased artefact production and more adverse effects. We performed a systematic review of papers investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo using 7T MRI...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257875/game-based-combined-cognitive-and-neurofeedback-training-using-focus-pocus-reduces-symptom-severity-in-children-with-diagnosed-ad-hd-and-subclinical-ad-hd
#10
Stuart J Johnstone, Steven J Roodenrys, Kirsten Johnson, Rebecca Bonfield, Susan J Bennett
Previous studies report reductions in symptom severity after combined working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) training in children with AD/HD. Based on theoretical accounts of the role of arousal/attention modulation problems in AD/HD, the current study examined the efficacy of combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training in children with AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD. Using a randomized waitlist control design, 85 children were randomly allocated to a training or waitlist condition and completed pre- and post-training assessments of overt behavior, trained and untrained cognitive task performance, and resting and task-related EEG activity...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243103/blood-pressure-and-anthropometry-in-children-treated-with-stimulants-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-with-an-individual-approach
#11
Magnus Landgren, Salmir Nasic, Mats Johnson, Trygve Lövoll, Daniel Holmgren, Elisabeth Fernell
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the long-term effects on blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) when treating young patients for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) with stimulants is limited. Most of the studies have reported mean and not individual values for anthropometrics and BP in treatment with stimulants. This seems to be the first study of changes based on the analyses of individual data measured over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy young patients (aged 8-18 years) diagnosed with AD/HD and responding well to treatment with stimulants were followed for a mean period of 3 years and 3 months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242464/n2o-micro-profiles-in-biofilm-from-a-one-stage-autotrophic-nitrogen-removal-system-by-microelectrode
#12
Xi-Xi Wang, Fang Fang, You-Peng Chen, Jin-Song Guo, Kai Li, Han Wang
Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, is of growing concern in biological wastewater treatment. N2O emission from biofilm in a one-stage completely autotrophic nitrogen removal system was investigated using microelectrodes in this study. It is indicated that the pathways of nitrogen transformation in biofilm mainly included partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), also included nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification (HD). Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) denitrification and HD were the main pathways resulting in N2O production in the biofilm, and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidation was a subordinate pathway...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241839/caspase-vinyl-sulfone-small-molecule-inhibitors-prevent-axonal-degeneration-in-human-neurons-and-reverse-cognitive-impairment-in-caspase-6-overexpressing-mice
#13
Prateep Pakavathkumar, Anastasia Noël, Clotilde Lecrux, Agne Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Edith Hamel, Jan-Eric Ahlfors, Andrea C LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: The activation of the aspartate-specific cysteinyl protease, Caspase-6, is proposed as an early pathogenic event of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Huntington's disease. Caspase-6 inhibitors could be useful against these neurodegenerative diseases but most Caspase-6 inhibitors have been exclusively studied in vitro or show acute liver toxicity in humans. Here, we assessed vinyl sulfone small molecule peptide caspase inhibitors for potential use in vivo. METHODS: The IC50 of NWL vinyl sulfone small molecule caspase inhibitors were determined on Caspase-1 to 10, and Caspase-6-transfected human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228057/intravenous-chlorothiazide-versus-enteral-metolazone-to-augment-loop-diuretic-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Christopher J Michaud, Kendall C Mintus
BACKGROUND: In cases of loop diuretic resistance in the intensive care unit (ICU), recommendations for a specific second-line thiazide agent are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of intravenous chlorothiazide (CTZ) and enteral metolazone (MET) on urine output (UOP) when added to furosemide monotherapy therapy in critically ill adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in the medical, surgical, and cardiothoracic ICUs of a quaternary medical center...
April 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224036/clinical-results-of-biologic-prosthesis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-comparative-studies
#15
REVIEW
Chumpon Wilasrusmee, Boonying Siribumrungwong, Suthas Horsirimanont, Napaphat Poprom, Jakrapan Jirasiritham, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: Biologic prosthesis (BP) has been reported as a safe alternative to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in vascular reconstruction. However, efficacy of BP remains controversial. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review to summarize previous available evidences comparing the BP and PTFE in terms of clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of the MEDLINE and Scopus was performed to identify comparative studies reporting outcomes of BP, PTFE, and/or autologous veins graft (VG) in vascular access for hemodialysis or femoropopliteal bypass...
March 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223004/sudden-cardiac-death-among-hemodialysis-patients
#16
Melissa S Makar, Patrick H Pun
Hemodialysis patients carry a large burden of cardiovascular disease; most onerous is the high risk for sudden cardiac death. Defining sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients and understanding its pathogenesis are challenging, but inferences from the existing literature reveal differences between sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients and the general population. Vascular calcifications and left ventricular hypertrophy may play a role in the pathophysiology of sudden cardiac death, whereas traditional cardiovascular risk factors seem to have a more muted effect...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215142/small-molecule-modulation-of-hdac6-activity-the-propitious-therapeutic-strategy-to-vanquish-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic enzymes creating the transcriptionally inactive state of chromatin by erasing acetyl moiety from histone and non-histone substrates. HDAC6 modulates several biological pathways in dividing cells as well as in post-mitotic neurons, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. The distinct cellular functions and survival in these cells are reliant on HDAC6-mediated processes including intracellular trafficking, chaperone-mediated stress responses, anti-oxidation and protein degradation...
February 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213931/successful-resumption-of-peritoneal-dialysis-following-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-children-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#18
Hiroyuki Kanazawa, Akinari Fukuda, Mai Sato, Shingo Ishimori, Kengo Sasaki, Hajime Uchida, Takanobu Shigeta, Vidyadhar Padmakar Mali, Seisuke Sakamoto, Kenji Ishikura, Mureo Kasahara
Children with ESRD in need of RRT are commonly managed by PD due to difficulty with vascular access for HD and the relatively large extracorporeal blood volume required. Major abdominal surgery may result in injury to the peritoneum and consequent adhesion, thereby resulting in a reduction in the anatomical capacity and transport capability across the peritoneal membrane. Here, we report successful resumption of PD after LDLT in two pediatric patients. The causes of ESRD were PH1 and juvenile nephronophthisis, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209335/impact-of-fluid-status-and-inflammation-and-their-interaction-on-survival-a-study-in-an-international-hemodialysis-patient-cohort
#19
Marijke J E Dekker, Daniele Marcelli, Bernard J Canaud, Paola Carioni, Yuedong Wang, Aileen Grassmann, Constantijn J A M Konings, Peter Kotanko, Karel M Leunissen, Nathan W Levin, Frank M van der Sande, Xiaoling Ye, Vaibhav Maheshwari, Len A Usvyat, Jeroen P Kooman
In hemodialysis patients extracellular fluid overload is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and a relation with inflammation has been reported in previous studies. The magnitude and nature of this interaction and the effects of moderate fluid overload and extracellular fluid depletion on survival are still unclear. We present the results of an international cohort study in 8883 hemodialysis patients from the European MONDO initiative database where, during a three-month baseline period, fluid status was assessed using bioimpedance and inflammation by C-reactive protein...
February 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199087/expression-purification-and-properties-of-a-human-arachidonoyl-specific-isoform-of-diacylglycerol-kinase
#20
William Jennings, Sejal Doshi, Prasanta Kumar Hota, Aaron Prodeus, Stephanie Black, Richard M Epand
Diacylglycerol kinase ε (DGKε) catalyzes the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol, producing phosphatidic acid. DGKε demonstrates exquisite specificity for the acyl chains of diacylglycerol. This contributes to the enrichment of particular acyl chains within the lipids of the phosphatidylinositol cycle. Phosphatidylinositol is highly enriched with 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl, which is important for maintaining cellular health. Dysregulation of DGKε perturbs lipid signaling and biosynthesis, which has been linked to epilepsy, Huntington's disease, and heart disease...
February 24, 2017: Biochemistry
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