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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441698/ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-and-its-role-in-assessing-arterial-stiffness-in-dialysis-patients
#1
Wenjin Liu, Jiajun Zhou, Jianping Chen, Meijuan Meng, Xiurong Li, Chaoqing Gao, Jianmei Zhou, Liang Wang, Zhuxing Sun, Hong Chu, Wei Fan, Youwei Bai, Junwei Yang
OBJECTIVE: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a parameter derived from ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) readings. It is calculated as 1 minus the linear slope of DBP on SBP. We tested its value in assessing arterial stiffness in dialysis patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a cohort study. A total of 344 patients on maintenance hemodialysis from six tertiary hospitals were included. All patients underwent ABP monitoring and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428740/protein-quality-control-by-molecular-chaperones-in-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
Aaron Ciechanover, Yong Tae Kwon
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) requires the timely degradation of misfolded proteins and their aggregates by protein quality control (PQC), of which molecular chaperones are an essential component. Compared with other cell types, PQC in neurons is particularly challenging because they have a unique cellular structure with long extensions. Making it worse, neurons are postmitotic, i.e., cannot dilute toxic substances by division, and, thus, are highly sensitive to misfolded proteins, especially as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428030/complement-inhibition-with-eculizumab-for-thrombotic-microangiopathy-rescues-a-living-donor-kidney-transplant-in-a-patient-with-antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome
#3
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Patrick Mille, Rakesh Gulati, Srikanth Nagalla
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an enigmatic heterogeneous disorder despite several revelations in its pathobiology. Renal transplantation in patients with APS has been notoriously difficult due to the high risk of development of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), which is often refractory to conventional treatment modalities such as aggressive anticoagulation and plasmapheresis. We describe a case of a 58-year-old male with secondary APS undergoing living unrelated renal transplantation for end-stage renal disease from lupus nephritis...
March 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424901/driving-with-a-neurodegenerative-disorder-an-overview-of-the-current-literature
#4
REVIEW
Milou Jacobs, Ellen P Hart, Raymund A C Roos
Driving is important for employment, social activities, and for the feeling of independence. The decision to cease driving affects the quality of life and has been associated with reduced mobility, social isolation, and sadness. Patients with neurodegenerative disorders can experience difficulties while driving due to their cognitive, motor, and behavioral impairments. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on changes in driving competence and behavior in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, with a particular focus on Huntington's (HD), Parkinson's (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#5
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400517/aggregation-landscapes-of-huntingtin-exon-1-protein-fragments-and-the-critical-repeat-length-for-the-onset-of-huntington-s-disease
#6
Mingchen Chen, Peter G Wolynes
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine (polyQ) track of the Huntingtin (HTT) protein. The severity of the disease depends on the polyQ repeat length, arising only in patients with proteins having 36 repeats or more. Previous studies have shown that the aggregation of N-terminal fragments (encoded by HTT exon 1) underlies the disease pathology in mouse models and that the HTT exon 1 gene product can self-assemble into amyloid structures. Here, we provide detailed structural mechanisms for aggregation of several protein fragments encoded by HTT exon 1 by using the associative memory, water-mediated, structure and energy model (AWSEM) to construct their free energy landscapes...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379197/abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ju Gao, Luwen Wang, Jingyi Liu, Fei Xie, Bo Su, Xinglong Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and devastating neurological disorders characterized by the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system. Mitochondria, organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, are essential for neuronal survival and are involved in a number of neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been demonstrated as a common prominent early pathological feature of a variety of common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376262/the-effects-of-iterative-reconstruction-and-kernel-selection-on-quantitative-computed-tomography-measures-of-lung-density
#8
Alfonso Rodriguez, Frank N Ranallo, Philip F Judy, Sean B Fain
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of iterative reconstruction (IR) and high frequency kernels on quantitative computed tomography (qCT) density measures at reduced X-ray dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COPDGene 2 Phantom (CTP 698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) with four embedded lung mimicking foam densities (12lb, 20lb, and 4lb), as well as water, air, and acrylic reference inserts was imaged using a GE 64 slice CT750 HD scanner in helical mode with four current-time products ranging from 12-100 mAs...
April 4, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373014/the-combyn%C3%A2-ecg-adding-haemodynamic-and-fluid-leads-for-the-ecg-part-ii-prediction-of-total-body-water-tbw-extracellular-fluid-ecf-ecf-overload-fat-mass-fm-and-dry-appendicular-muscle-mass-appmm
#9
Falko Skrabal, Georg P Pichler, Mathias Penatzer, Johannes Steinbichl, Anna-Katharina Hanserl, Alfred Leis, Herbert Loibner
Simultaneous with a 12 channel ECG, body composition was analysed by segmental multi-frequency impedance analysis in 101 healthy subjects and in 118 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, n= 40), chronic renal failure with haemodialysis (HD, n= 20), and miscellaneous internal diseases (n= 58). Whole body DXA and sodium bromide dilution were used as reference methods for total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF), appendicular muscle mass (AppMM) and fat mass (FM). Empirical prediction equations were developed in a randomized evaluation sample and then evaluated in unknowns...
March 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339843/availability-and-cost-of-extracorporeal-treatments-for-poisonings-and-other-emergency-indications-a-worldwide-survey
#10
Josée Bouchard, Valery Lavergne, Darren M Roberts, Monique Cormier, Genevieve Morissette, Marc Ghannoum
Background: Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) are used for different conditions, including replacement of organ function and poisoning. Current recommendations for ECTRs in various poisonings suggest that intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) is the most efficient technique. However, the practicality of these recommendations is poorly defined in view of limited information on availability and cost worldwide. Methods: A survey invitation to an Internet-based questionnaire was emailed between January 2014 and March 2015 to members of international societies to determine the availability, time to initiation and cost of ECTRs (including filters, dialysate, catheter, anticoagulant and nursing/physician salary)...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339826/the-importance-of-considering-competing-treatment-affecting-prognosis-in-the-evaluation-of-therapy-in-trials-the-example-of-renal-transplantation-in-hemodialysis-trials
#11
C Marijn Hazelbag, Sanne A E Peters, Peter J Blankestijn, Michiel L Bots, Bernard Canaud, Andrew Davenport, Muriel P C Grooteman, Fatih Kircelli, Francesco Locatelli, Francisco Maduell, Marion Morena, Menso J Nubé, Ercan Ok, Ferran Torres, Arno W Hoes, Rolf H H Groenwold
Background.: During the follow-up in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), participants may receive additional (non-randomly allocated) treatment that affects the outcome. Typically such additional treatment is not taken into account in evaluation of the results. Two pivotal trials of the effects of hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus hemodialysis (HD) on mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease reported differing results. We set out to evaluate to what extent methods to take other treatments (i...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337125/neuronal-mitophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Marta Martinez-Vicente
Neuronal homeostasis depends on the proper functioning of different quality control systems. All intracellular components are subjected to continuous turnover through the coordinated synthesis, degradation and recycling of their constituent elements. Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism by which intracellular cytosolic components, including proteins, organelles, aggregates and any other intracellular materials, are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Among the different types of selective autophagy described to date, the process of mitophagy involves the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336338/knockdown-of-appl-mimics-transgenic-a%C3%AE-induced-neurodegenerative-phenotypes-in-drosophila
#13
Sandeep Kumar Singh, Saurabh Srivastav, Amarish Kumar Yadav, Saripella Srikrishna
A variety of Drosophila mutant lines have been established as potential disease-models to study various disease mechanisms including human neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The evolutionary conservation of APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein) and APPL (Amyloid Precursor Protein-Like) and the comparable detrimental effects caused by their metabolic products strongly implies the conservation of their normal physiological functions. In view of this milieu, a comparative analysis on the pattern of neurodegenerative phenotypes between Drosophila APPL-RNAi line and transgenic Drosophila line expressing eye tissue specific human Aβ (Amyloid beta) was undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332006/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-decreases-the-release-of-dopamine-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-induces-atomoxetine-responsive-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-mice
#14
Tursun Alkam, Takayoshi Mamiya, Nami Kimura, Aya Yoshida, Daisuke Kihara, Yuki Tsunoda, Yuki Aoyama, Masayuki Hiramatsu, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is partly associated with the early developmental exposure to nicotine in tobacco smoke. Emerging reports link tobacco smoke exposure or prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) with AD/HD-like behaviors in rodent models. We have previously reported that PNE induces cognitive behavioral deficits in offspring and decreases the contents of dopamine (DA) and its turnover in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of offspring It is well known that the dysfunction of DAergic system in the brain is one of the core factors in the pathophysiology of AD/HD...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320296/biological-basis-for-amyloidogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
T V Andreeva, W J Lukiw, E I Rogaev
Certain cellular proteins normally soluble in the living organism under certain conditions form aggregates with a specific cross-β sheet structure called amyloid. These intra- or extracellular insoluble aggregates (fibers or plaques) are hallmarks of many neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, and other progressive neurological diseases that develop in the aging human central nervous system. Amyloid diseases (amyloidoses) are widespread in the elderly human population, a rapidly expanding demographic in many global populations...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317317/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-caffeine-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Mahshad Kolahdouzan, Mazen J Hamadeh
Caffeine is the most widely used psychostimulant in Western countries, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), caffeine is beneficial in both men and women, in humans and animals. Similar effects of caffeine were observed in men with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the effect of caffeine in female PD patients is controversial due to caffeine's competition with estrogen for the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Studies conducted in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showed protective effects of A2A R antagonism...
April 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315271/role-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-cocaine-abuse-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#17
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Fang Niu, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch
Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R) are recognized as a unique class of non-G protein-coupled intracellular protein. Sig-1R binds to its ligand such as cocaine , resulting in dissociation of Sig-1R from mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane, and nuclear membrane, regulating function of various proteins. Sig-1R has diverse roles in both physiological as well as in pathogenic processes. The disruption of Sig-1R pathways has been implicated as causative mechanism(s) in the development of both neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD ), Parkinson disease (PD ), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS ) and Huntington Disease (HD ) ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293168/modeling-human-neurological-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-neuronal-differentiation-and-its-applications-in-neurotrauma
#18
REVIEW
Hisham Bahmad, Ola Hadadeh, Farah Chamaa, Katia Cheaito, Batoul Darwish, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Wassim Abou-Kheir
With the help of several inducing factors, somatic cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines. The success is in obtaining iPSCs almost identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), therefore various approaches have been tested and ultimately several ones have succeeded. The importance of these cells is in how they serve as models to unveil the molecular pathways and mechanisms underlying several human diseases, and also in its potential roles in the development of regenerative medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292606/speech-language-and-reading-skills-in-10-year-old-children-with-palatal-clefts-the-impact-of-additional-conditions
#19
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Ragnhild Aukner, Tone K Særvold, Øydis Hide
BACKGROUND: This study examined speech (hypernasality and intelligibility), language, and reading skills in children with a cleft palate, specifically investigating additional conditions to the cleft, in order to differentiate challenges related to a cleft only, and challenges associated with an additional condition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data collected during routine assessments of speech and language in a centralised treatment setting. PARTICIPANTS: Children born with cleft with palatal involvement from four birth cohorts (n=184), aged 10...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277301/body-composition-analysis-and-adipocytokine-concentrations-in-haemodialysis-patients-abdominal-fat-gain-as-an-additional-cardiovascular-risk-factor
#20
Elena González, Juan J Díez, Almudena Pérez Torres, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Gloria Del Peso, Rafael Sánchez-Villanueva, Cristina Grande, Olaia Rodríguez, Mónica Coronado, Carmen Gómez Candela, Mariana Díaz-Almirón, Pedro Iglesias, Rafael Selgas
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. OBJECTIVES: To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
March 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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