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Nuclear spatial organisation

Radim Šumbera, Jarmila Krásová, Leonid A Lavrenchenko, Sewnet Mengistu, Afework Bekele, Ondřej Mikula, Josef Bryja
Root-rats of the genus Tachyoryctes (Spalacidae) are subterranean herbivores occupying open humid habitats in the highlands of Eastern Africa. There is strong disagreement about species diversity of the genus, because some authors accept two species, while others more than ten. Species with relatively high surface activity, the giant root-rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus, which is by far largest member of the genus, and the more fossorial African root-rat Tachyoryctes splendens, which eventually has been divided up to 12-13 species, represent two major morphological forms within the genus...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sergio Sarnataro, Andrea M Chiariello, Andrea Esposito, Antonella Prisco, Mario Nicodemi
New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence...
2017: PloS One
Vera Moiseeva, Hanna Amelina, Laura C Collopy, Christine A Armstrong, Siân R Pearson, Kazunori Tomita
During meiotic prophase, chromosome arrangement and oscillation promote the pairing of homologous chromosomes for meiotic recombination. This dramatic movement involves clustering of telomeres at the nuclear membrane to form the so-called telomere bouquet. In fission yeast, the telomere bouquet is formed near the spindle pole body (SPB), which is the microtubule organising centre, functionally equivalent to the metazoan centrosome. Disruption of bouquet configuration impedes homologous chromosome pairing, meiotic recombination and spindle formation...
2017: Cell Discovery
Eiki Sekine, Nora Schmidt, David Gaboriau, Peter O'Hare
We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of HSV genome transport during the initiation of infection using viruses containing bioorthogonal traceable precursors incorporated into their genomes (HSVEdC). In vitro assays revealed a structural alteration in the capsid induced upon HSVEdC binding to solid supports that allowed coupling to external capture agents and demonstrated that the vast majority of individual virions contained bioorthogonally-tagged genomes. Using HSVEdC in vivo we reveal novel aspects of the kinetics, localisation, mechanistic entry requirements and morphological transitions of infecting genomes...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Philip Heraud, Katarzyna Maria Marzec, Qing-Hua Zhang, Wai Shan Yuen, John Carroll, Bayden R Wood
Confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) can provide information about oocyte competency through measurement of changes in the macromolecular architecture during oocyte development and maturation. Hitherto most spectroscopic studies have been limited to fixed oocytes due to the inherent difficulties working with live cells. Here we report the first three-dimensional images of living murine oocytes using CRS. We show that fixation induces significant changes in the macromolecular chemistry compared to living oocytes...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Einari A Niskanen, Jorma J Palvimo
Post-translational modifications, e.g. SUMO modifications (SUMOylation), provide a mechanism for swiftly changing a protein's activity. Various stress conditions trigger a SUMO stress response (SSR) - a stress-induced rapid change in the conjugation of SUMO to multiple proteins, which predominantly targets nuclear proteins. The SSR has been postulated to protect stressed cells by preserving the functionality of crucial proteins. However, it is unclear how it exerts its protective functions. Interestingly, heat stress (HS) increases SUMOylation of proteins at active promoters and enhancers...
June 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Jacob A Ross, Adam Pearson, Yotam Levy, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin, Julien Ochala
Muscle fibres are multinucleated cells, with each nucleus controlling the protein synthesis in a finite volume of cytoplasm termed the myonuclear domain (MND). What determines MND size remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the level of expression of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and subsequent activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis are major contributors. Hence, we used two transgenic mouse models with varying expression of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. We isolated myofibres from the fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow twitch diaphragm muscles...
June 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nourdine Hamdane, Michel G Tremblay, Stefan Dillinger, Victor Y Stefanovsky, Attila Németh, Tom Moss
The nucleolus is the site of ribosome biogenesis and forms around the actively transcribed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. However, the nucleolus is also implicated in cell cycle regulation, tumour suppression and chromosome segregation and nucleolar disfunction is linked to a wide range of human diseases. Interestingly, the nucleolus is also required for genome reprogramming and the establishment of heterochromatin in the mammalian embryo. Mammalian oocytes contain a subnuclear structure that is believed to be the precursor of the functional nucleolus, the Nucleolar Precursor Body (NPB)...
May 15, 2017: Gene
Kara Turner, Katie Fowler, Gothami Fonseka, Darren Griffin, Dimitrios Ioannou
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) revolutionized cytogenetics using fluorescently labelled probes with high affinity with target (nuclear) DNA. By the early 1990s FISH was adopted as a means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) sexing for couples at risk of transmitting X-linked disorders and later for detection of unbalanced translocations. Following a rise in popularity of PGD by FISH for sexing and the availability of multicolor probes (5-8 colors), the use of FISH was expanded to the detection of aneuploidy and selective implantation of embryos more likely to be euploid, the rationale being to increase pregnancy rates (referral categories were typically advanced maternal age, repeated IVF failure, repeated miscarriage or severe male factor infertility)...
June 2016: Panminerva Medica
Michal Sobecki, Karim Mrouj, Alain Camasses, Nikolaos Parisis, Emilien Nicolas, David Llères, François Gerbe, Susana Prieto, Liliana Krasinska, Alexandre David, Manuel Eguren, Marie-Christine Birling, Serge Urbach, Sonia Hem, Jérôme Déjardin, Marcos Malumbres, Philippe Jay, Vjekoslav Dulic, Denis Lj Lafontaine, Robert Feil, Daniel Fisher
Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators...
March 7, 2016: ELife
Ines J de Castro, Ezgi Gokhan, Paola Vagnarelli
The maintenance of the correct cellular information goes beyond the simple transmission of an intact genetic code from one generation to the next. Epigenetic changes, topological cues and correct protein-protein interactions need to be re-established after each cell division to allow the next cell cycle to resume in the correct regulated manner. This process begins with mitotic exit and re-sets all the changes that occurred during mitosis thus restoring a functional G1 nucleus in preparation for the next cell cycle...
September 2016: Chromosoma
Koray Kırlı, Samir Karaca, Heinz Jürgen Dehne, Matthias Samwer, Kuan Ting Pan, Christof Lenz, Henning Urlaub, Dirk Görlich
CRM1 is a highly conserved, RanGTPase-driven exportin that carries proteins and RNPs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We now explored the cargo-spectrum of CRM1 in depth and identified surprisingly large numbers, namely >700 export substrates from the yeast S. cerevisiae, ≈1000 from Xenopus oocytes and >1050 from human cells. In addition, we quantified the partitioning of ≈5000 unique proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes. The data suggest new CRM1 functions in spatial control of vesicle coat-assembly, centrosomes, autophagy, peroxisome biogenesis, cytoskeleton, ribosome maturation, translation, mRNA degradation, and more generally in precluding a potentially detrimental action of cytoplasmic pathways within the nuclear interior...
December 17, 2015: ELife
Kamil J Solarczyk, Magdalena Kordon, Krzysztof Berniak, Jurek W Dobrucki
Induction of local photosensitised DNA damage has been used to study recruitment of repair factors, spatial organisation and subsequent stages of the repair processes. However, the damage induced by a focused laser beam interacting with a photosensitiser may not fully reflect the types of damage and repair encountered in cells of an animal under typical conditions in vivo. We report on two characteristic stages of recruitment of XRCC1 (a protein engaged in BER and SSB repair pathways), in response to low level DNA damage induced by visible light...
January 2016: DNA Repair
Jenny Knapp, Bruno Gottstein, Urmas Saarma, Laurence Millon
Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy...
October 30, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Claudia Caudai, Emanuele Salerno, Monica Zoppè, Anna Tonazzini
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the spatial organisation of the chromatin fibre in cell nuclei helps researchers to understand the nuclear machinery that regulates DNA activity. Recent experimental techniques of the type Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C, or similar) provide high-resolution, high-throughput data consisting in the number of times any possible pair of DNA fragments is found to be in contact, in a certain population of cells. As these data carry information on the structure of the chromatin fibre, several attempts have been made to use them to obtain high-resolution 3D reconstructions of entire chromosomes, or even an entire genome...
July 29, 2015: BMC Bioinformatics
Aurore Chatron-Colliet, Nathalie Lalun, Christine Terryn, Sandrine Kurdykowski, Marianne Lorenzato, Anthony Rusciani, Dominique Ploton, Laurent Duca, Hélène Bobichon
During melanoma tumour growth, cancerous cells are exposed to the immediate surrounding the micro- and macro environment, which is largely modified through the degradation of the extracellular matrix by fibroblast-derived metalloproteinases. Among the degradation products, (VGVAPG)3, an elastin peptide is known to stimulate the proliferation of both fibroblasts and cancerous cells by binding to the elastin-binding receptor and activating the MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway. As this process strongly modifies mRNA synthesis, we investigated its effect on the relative three-dimensional organisation of the major partners of the mRNA splicing machinery: promyelocytic nuclear bodies (PML-NBs ) and splicing component 35 speckles (SC35) of normal fibroblasts and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells...
March 2015: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
F E Lecouvet, J N Talbot, C Messiou, P Bourguet, Y Liu, N M de Souza
Assessment of the response to treatment of metastases is crucial in daily oncological practice and clinical trials. For soft tissue metastases, this is done using computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using validated response evaluation criteria. Bone metastases, which frequently represent the only site of metastases, are an exception in response assessment systems, because of the nature of the fixed bony defects, their complexity, which ranges from sclerotic to osteolytic and because of the lack of sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution of the previously available bone imaging methods, mainly bone scintigraphy...
October 2014: European Journal of Cancer
Keith W Vance, Chris P Ponting
Several nuclear localised intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been ascribed regulatory roles in transcriptional control and their number is growing rapidly. Initially, these transcripts were shown to function locally, near their sites of synthesis, by regulating the expression of neighbouring genes. More recently, lncRNAs have been demonstrated to interact with chromatin at several thousand different locations across multiple chromosomes and to modulate large-scale gene expression programs. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in targeting lncRNAs to distal binding sites remain poorly understood, the spatial organisation of the genome may have a role in specifying lncRNA function...
August 2014: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Grit Ebert, Anne Steininger, Robert Weißmann, Vivien Boldt, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Jana Grune, Stefan Badelt, Melanie Heßler, Matthias Peiser, Manuel Hitzler, Lars R Jensen, Ines Müller, Hao Hu, Peter F Arndt, Andreas W Kuss, Katrin Tebel, Reinhard Ullmann
BACKGROUND: Segmental duplications (SDs) are not evenly distributed along chromosomes. The reasons for this biased susceptibility to SD insertion are poorly understood. Accumulation of SDs is associated with increased genomic instability, which can lead to structural variants and genomic disorders such as the Williams-Beuren syndrome. Despite these adverse effects, SDs have become fixed in the human genome. Focusing on chromosome 7, which is particularly rich in interstitial SDs, we have investigated the distribution of SDs in the context of evolution and the three dimensional organisation of the chromosome in order to gain insights into the mutual relationship of SDs and chromatin topology...
2014: BMC Genomics
Christoph Koke, Takuma Kanesaki, Jörg Grosshans, Ulrich S Schwarz, Carina M Dunlop
Syncytial embryos develop through cycles of nuclear division and rearrangement within a common cytoplasm. A paradigm example is Drosophila melanogaster in which nuclei form an ordered array in the embryo surface over cell cycles 10-13. This ordering process is assumed to be essential for subsequent cellularisation. Using quantitative tissue analysis, it has previously been shown that the regrowth of actin and microtubule networks after nuclear division generates reordering forces that counteract its disordering effect (Kanesaki et al...
October 21, 2014: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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