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Radiation and salivary gland

Patricia Guzman Rojas, Jignesh Parikh, Priya Vishnubhotla, Jeannette Vergeli-Rojas
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an infrequent cause of malignancy that accounts for 1% of all tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region. We present a 59-year-old woman with a past medical history of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left salivary gland treated with radiation and thoracotomy due to lung metastasis. Years after the onset of diagnosis, she presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. For this reason, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was done, revealing a liver mass in the right lobe, involving segments eight and five, concerning for malignancy...
January 18, 2018: Curēus
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Martina Baneckova, Abbas Agaimy, Simon Andreasen, Tomas Vanecek, Petr Steiner, David Slouka, Tomas Svoboda, Marketa Miesbauerova, Michael Michal, Alena Skálová
Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands. Moreover, ETV6-rearranged carcinomas with secretory features have been reported recently in the thyroid (with and without a history of radiation exposure), skin, and in very rare instances in the sinonasal tract. Here, we describe 2 cases of primary MASC in the sinonasal tract and provide a detailed clinical and histopathologic characterization of their morphology, immunohistochemical profile, and genetic background and highlight features allowing for its separation from its recently described molecular mimicker, ETV6-rearranged low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Mahdi Haghighatafshar, Mehrnaz Ghaedian, Zahra Etemadi, Seyed M Entezarmahdi, Tahereh Ghaedian
OBJECTIVE: Although different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pilocarpine, as a sialagogue drug on the radioiodine content of the salivary gland, and radioiodine-induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were referred for radioiodine therapy were randomized into pilocarpine and placebo groups...
March 6, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masashi Koto, Yusuke Demizu, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Hiroaki Suefuji, Tomoaki Okimoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Ryo Takagi, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kenji Nemoto, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
A retrospective multicenter study was conducted to assess the clinical outcomes of carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies (Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group [J-CROS] study: 1402 HN). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy in patients with major salivary gland carcinoma. Sixty-nine patients treated with carbon-ion radiotherapy at 4 Japanese institutions were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (48%) had adenoid cystic carcinomas, 10 (14%) had mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 26 (38%) had other disease types...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Science
Ambreen Khawar, Elisabeth Eppard, Jean Phlippe Sinnes, Frank Roesch, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Stefan Kürpig, Michael Meisenheimer, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Ralph A Bundschuh
AIM: [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 with 3.9-hour half-life, in vitro and in vivo characteristics similar to [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and possibility of delayed imaging after 24 hours or later, implies it to be advantageous than [ Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 for pretherapeutic dosimetric assessment for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (mCRPC) patients. In this study, we investigated biodistribution and radiation exposure to normal organs with [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 in mCRPC patients. METHODS: Five mCRPC patients (mean age, 69 years) enrolled for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 therapy were injected with 40-62 MBq [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 intravenously; Siemens Biograph 2 PET/CT system was used to acquire dynamic PET data (30 minutes) in list mode over the abdomen, followed by the collection of static PET/CT images (skull to mid-thigh) at 45 minutes, 2 and approximately 20 hours postinjection...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ilia Lozev, Sonya Ruseva, Ivan Pidakev, José Carlos Cardoso, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov, Ivan Terziev, Georgi Tchernev
Neoplasms of the major and minor salivary glands are morphologically and a clinically diverse group of neoplasms which lead the clinician to diagnostic and management challenges. This article aims to report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 83 - year - old woman who presented in the dermatology clinic with a tumour mass in the left auricular area. The patient complained of pain and abnormal bleeding of the mass. The lesion was examined, and surgical treatment was performed. A tumour was extirpated, and partial resection of both the parotid gland and the sternocleidomastoid muscle was done...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Christoph Becker, Jens Pfeiffer, Kitty Lange, Kilian Konrad Kenjiro Dahlem
PURPOSE: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in patients with major salivary gland carcinoma (MSGC). METHODS: 45 patients with MSGC completed the University of Washington Quality of Life (UWQOL) questionnaire. Results and factors influencing quality of life were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: 24 patients were male, 21 patients were female, and median age was 57 years. 33 patients presented with early stage (UICC stage I or II) cancer...
April 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
I M Bykov, E V Izhnina, E V Kochurova, N V Lapina
The radiation has an antitumor effect and causes radiation reactions and damage to surrounding tissues within the framework of combined antitumor treatment of patients with cancer of maxillofacial region. It also has an irreversible effect on the production of saliva by large and small salivary glands, and this must be taken into account when planning radiation therapy for this group of patients.
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
F Caglayan, I S Bayrakdar
Ultrasonography (USG) is a diagnostic method that the ultrasonic image is created by ultrahigh-frequency sound waves, which have an acoustic frequency above the threshold of human hearing. Compared to other medical imaging methods, USG has several advantages of being real time, portable, inexpensive, radiation free, and noninvasive. In the medicine, most of the USG applications are transcutaneous. However, intraoral USG has been a relatively rare application, it has recently been drawing more interest. Intraoral USG is also used in dentistry for examining the salivary glands and ducts, as well as the mouth floor, the buccal, labial, and palatal mucosa, the tongue, periodontal tissues, and periapical lesions...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Elliot Morse, Rance J T Fujiwara, Benjamin Judson, Saral Mehra
Objective To characterize treatment times in salivary cancer; associate treatment times with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics; and examine the association of treatment times and overall survival. Study Design Retrospective cohort. Setting Commission-on-Cancer Accredited Hospitals 2004-2013. Subjects and Methods In total, 5953 patients with salivary cancer included in the National Cancer Database were identified. For each treatment interval, patients in the fourth quartile ("prolonged") were compared to patients in the first and second quartiles ("not prolonged")...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Ankit Modh, Omar H Gayar, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Arnold C Paulino, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVES: To examine patient demographics, temporal and treatment trends, and survival outcomes of pediatric non-nasopharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using the National Cancer Database. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for pediatric patients (age 0-19 years) diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (including oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, and salivary glands) from 2004 to 2013. RESULTS: Of 159 patients identified, the majority had oral cavity SCC (55%)...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Harini Bagavant, Marta Trzeciak, Joanna Papinska, Indranil Biswas, Micah L Dunkleberger, Anna Sosnowska, Umesh S Deshmukh
Patients with Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease affecting the exocrine glands, develop salivary gland inflammation and have reduced saliva production. Similarly, saliva production is severely compromised in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancers. Rodent models, developed to mimic these clinical conditions, facilitate an understanding of the disease pathogenesis and allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the ability to accurately, reproducibly, and repeatedly measure salivary gland function in animal models is critical...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Raghupatil Junjappa, Mallikarjun Handigund, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Osamah S Malallah, Cristina M Aller Garcia, Gordon B Proctor, Ben Forbes, Paul G Royall
Radiotherapy is a life-saving treatment for head and neck cancers, but almost 100% of patients develop dry mouth (xerostomia) because of radiation-induced damage to their salivary glands. Patients with xerostomia suffer symptoms that severely affect their health as well as physical, social and emotional aspects of their life. The current management of xerostomia is the application of saliva substitutes or systemic delivery of saliva-stimulating cholinergic agents, including pilocarpine, cevimeline or bethanechol tablets...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Nor Shazrina Sulaiman, Yusuke Demizu, Masashi Koto, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Hiroaki Suefuji, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tatsuya Ohno, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Tomoaki Okimoto, Takashi Daimon, Kenji Nemoto, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes of carbon-ion radiation therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck at 4 active carbon-ion facilities in Japan. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 289 patients who underwent carbon-ion radiation therapy for histology-proven ACC of the head and neck at 4 institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014 were included in this study. RESULTS: Median patient age was 58 years (range, 12-83 years)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Gulshan Sunavala-Dossabhoy
Tousled and its homologs are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinases present in plants and animals. Human Tousled-like kinases, TLK1 and TLK2, are implicated in chromatin assembly during DNA replication, chromosome segregation during mitosis, as well as in DNA damage response and repair. They share a high degree of sequence similarity, but have few non-redundant functions. Our lab has studied TLK1, and found that it increases the resistance of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) damage through expedited double strand break (DSB) repair...
January 30, 2018: Oral Diseases
Maria Marcu, Mihaela Hedesiu, Benjamin Salmon, Ruben Pauwels, Andreas Stratis, Anne Caroline Costa Oenning, Mike E Cohen, Reinhilde Jacobs, Mihaela Baciut, Raluca Roman, Cristian Dinu, Horatiu Rotaru, Ioan Barbur
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of CBCT units and a wide variability of radiation doses have been reported in dentistry lately. AIM: To estimate the effective, cumulative, and organ absorbed doses in children exposed to CBCT over 2 years. DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted in children who underwent CBCT diagnostic imaging with the ProMax3D machine. Organ and effective doses were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using 5- and 8-year-old pediatric voxel phantoms...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Zhimin Wang, Yaohe Wang, Songling Wang, Li-Rong Zhang, Na Zhang, Zhenguo Cheng, Qingshi Liu, Kelly J Shields, Baoli Hu, Michael J Passineau
Ionizing radiation (IR) isthe primarytherapeutic tool to treat patients with cancerous lesions located in the head and neck. In many patients, IR results in irreversible and severe salivary gland dysfunction or xerostomia. Currently there are no effective treatment options to reduce the effects of xerostomia. More recently, salivary gland gene therapy utilizing the water-specific protein aquaporin 1 (AQP1) has been of great interest to potentially correct salivary dysfunction. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing along with the endogenous promoter of AQP1 within theHEK293 and MDCK cell lines...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Elaine Emmerson, Alison J May, Lionel Berthoin, Noel Cruz-Pacheco, Sara Nathan, Aaron J Mattingly, Jolie L Chang, William R Ryan, Aaron D Tward, Sarah M Knox
Salivary gland acinar cells are routinely destroyed during radiation treatment for head and neck cancer that results in a lifetime of hyposalivation and co-morbidities. A potential regenerative strategy for replacing injured tissue is the reactivation of endogenous stem cells by targeted therapeutics. However, the identity of these cells, whether they are capable of regenerating the tissue, and the mechanisms by which they are regulated are unknown. Using in vivo and ex vivo models, in combination with genetic lineage tracing and human tissue, we discover a SOX2+ stem cell population essential to acinar cell maintenance that is capable of replenishing acini after radiation...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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