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Radiation and lungs

Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Florent Martinetti, Olaf Mercier, Samar Krhili, François-Georges Riet, Rodrigue Mbagui, Hanh To, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has become the standard treatment for peripheral medically non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous attempts of trials to compare SABR and surgery have failed and new randomized studies (SABRtooth, STABLEMATES, and VALOR) are ongoing. While predictive factors of relapse have been extensively studied in patients receiving surgery, there is scarce data on such putative factors in SABR patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze such predictive factors through a critical review of the literature...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Giulia R Mosele, Gianfilippo Caggiari, Roberto M Scarpa, Carlo Doria
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women. It comprises 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common site for metastasis from RCC is the lung (50% of patients), followed by the skeleton (20% to 50% of patients). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive series of 63 patients surgically treated for spinal metastases from RCC. The surgical treatment for spinal metastases varied in each patient. Factors influencing the choice of surgery included age, disease status, symptoms, morbidity of the patient, the location, the number of repetitive lesions and the existence of extra-osseous metastases...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Britta Langen, Nils Rudqvist, Khalil Helou, Eva B Forssell-Aronsson
INTRODUCTION: Targeted α-therapy is a promising treatment option for various types of malignant tumors. Radiolabeled cancer-seeking agents, however, undergo degradation resulting in a certain percentage of free radionuclide in the body. The radiohalogen (211)At accumulates in various tissues with specifically high uptake in the thyroid. When normal thyroid function is disturbed due to ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, deleterious effects can occur in tissues that depend on thyroid hormone (TH) regulation for normal physiological function...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sharon K Michelhaugh, Otto Muzik, Anthony R Guastella, Neil V Klinger, Lisa A Polin, Hancheng Cai, Yanchun Xin, Thomas J Mangner, Shaohui Zhang, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Mittal
: Abnormal tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases including cancers. α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan ((11)C-AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging demonstrated increased tryptophan uptake and trapping in epileptic foci and brain tumors, but the short half-life of (11)C limits its widespread clinical application. Recent in vitro studies suggested that the novel radiotracer 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tryptophan ((18)F-FETrp) may be useful to assess tryptophan metabolism via the KP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sebastien F Barre, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged using micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Hui Zhang, Shucai Zhang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality currently. Early diagnosis is crucial to the good prognosis of lung cancer. Evidence has shown that low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening can make the decline in the mortality of lung cancer. However, there are still many problems in the screening, such as, high false-positive rates, overdiagnosis and radiation exposure. As another non-invasive tumor screening method, blood-based tumor markers showed a high sensitivity and specificity in early diagnosis of lung cancer in recent years...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Laure Vieillevigne, Sandra Bessieres, Monia Ouali, Christel Lanaspeze
PURPOSE: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are frequently used for stereotactic body radiation therapy with various treatment modalities: conventional static fields, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or Rapid Arc (RA). The goal of this study was to obtain some criteria to enable a conscious choice of the employment of FFF beams and of the DCA or RA technique, depending on the PTV size. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 24 PTVs from 1.52cm(3) to 445.24cm(3) were studied in various sites: virtual phantom, lung and liver...
October 15, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Takahiro Wakasaki, Hirofumi Omori, Shintaro Sueyoshi, Fumihide Rikimaru, Satoshi Toh, Kenichi Taguchi, Yuichiro Higaki, Masaru Morita, Muneyuki Masuda
BACKGROUND: Advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas frequently develop distant metastases to limited organs, including the lungs, bone, mediastinal lymph nodes, brain, and liver. Peritoneal carcinomatosis as an initial distant metastasis from hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is quite rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man diagnosed with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and his clinical stage was determined as T2N2cM0. Notably, the right retropharyngeal lymph node surrounded more than half of the right internal carotid artery...
October 18, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Chen Zhan, Natalia Grundtvig, Bent Helmuth Klug
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that lung ultrasound is a good, radiation-free alternative to chest radiography in children with pneumonia. We investigated how bedside lung ultrasound performed by a pediatric resident compared with chest radiography in children with suspected pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective study comparing bedside lung ultrasound to chest radiography as the reference standard. Children aged 0 to 15 years with suspected pneumonia at a pediatric emergency department were included and underwent chest radiography and lung ultrasound...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Boris Sepesi, David C Rice, John V Heymach, Ara A Vaporciyan, Stephen G Swisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Jaroslaw T Hepel, Kara Lynne Leonard, Howard Safran, Thomas Ng, Angela Taber, Humera Khurshid, Ariel Birnbaum, David E Wazer, Thomas DiPetrillo
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost to primary and nodal disease after chemoradiation has potential to improve outcomes for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A dose escalation study was initiated to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients received chemoradiation to a dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and had primary and nodal volumes appropriate for SBRT boost (<120 cc and <60 cc, respectively)...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sheldon Greer, Tieran Han, Cristina Dieguez, Nicola McLean, Rafael Saer, Isildinha Reis, Joe Levi, Victor E Marquez
Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. . Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemo therapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U)...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Christina K Speirs, Todd A DeWees, Sana Rehman, Alerson Molotievschi, Maria A Velez, Daniel Mullen, Sandra Fergus, Marco Trovo, Jeffrey D Bradley, Cliff G Robinson
INTRODUCTION: In the randomized trial of standard vs high dose chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) (RTOG 0617), overall survival (OS) was worse in the high dose arm. While heart dose was suggested as a contributing factor, actionable parameters have not been established. We present an analysis of clinical and dosimetric parameters impacting OS in this patient population, focusing on heart dose. METHODS: Clinical data was collected on 416 patients with LA-NSLC treated at a single institution, with a subset of 333 available treatment plans re-contoured using RTOG normal tissue guidelines...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
O Leleu, M Auquier, O Carre, B Chauffert, A Dubreuil, V Petigny, B Trancart, P Berna, V Jounieaux
RATIONALE: This feasibility trial proposes to set up in the department of the Somme an annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose thoracic CT. It responds to the first objective of the third cancer plan and follows the publication of the results of the National Lung Screening Trial in 2011. METHODS: The method of this study is to use the existing networks among and between healthcare professionals and the departmental cancer screening structure. The inclusion criteria will be those of the National Lung Screening Trial...
October 12, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Alex Herskovic, Bhargava Chitti, Paul Christos, A Gabriella Wernicke, Bhupesh Parashar
OBJECTIVES: Limited work, either retrospective or prospective, has been done to investigate whether or not there is a cause-specific mortality (CSM) or all-cause mortality (ACM) benefit to adding surgery following neoadjuvant treatment for Stage IIIB NSCLC. METHODS: We extracted patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC from the Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database treated from 2004 to 2012 with either radiation alone or radiation followed by surgery...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Feng Liu, An Tai, Ergun Ahunbay, Elizabeth Gore, Candice Johnstone, X Allen Li
PURPOSE: To quantify interfractional independent motions between multiple primary targets in radiation therapy (RT) of lung cancer and to study the dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning method to account for these variations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-five on-treatment diagnostic-quality computed tomography (CT) scans acquired for 9 lung cancer patients treated with image-guided RT (IGRT) using a CT-on-rails (CTVision, Siemens) were analyzed. On each on-treatment CT set, contours of the targets (gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, or involved nodes), and organs at risk were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing...
September 2, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Jacob A Miller, Elizabeth E Bennett, Roy Xiao, Rupesh Kotecha, Samuel T Chao, Michael A Vogelbaum, Gene H Barnett, Lilyana Angelov, Erin S Murphy, Jennifer S Yu, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, John H Suh, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: The primary dose-limiting toxicity of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is radiation necrosis (RN), which occurs after approximately 5% to 10% of treatments. This adverse event may worsen neurologic deficits, increase the frequency and cost of imaging, and necessitate prolonged treatment with steroids or antiangiogenic agents. Previous investigations have primarily identified lesion size and dosimetric constraints as risk factors for RN in small populations. We hypothesized that disease histology, receptor status, and mutational status are associated with RN...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Zeinab Abou Yehia, George N Mikhaeel, Grace Smith, Chelsea C Pinnix, Sarah A Milgrom, Chad Tang, Wen Jiang, Michelle A Fanale, Yasuhiro Oki, JoAnn H Shank, Trisha Horace, Jay Reddy, Mani Akhtari, Jillian R Gunther, Tina Suki, Pamela K Allen, Shryll Turner, Osama Mawlawi, Bouthaina S Dabaja
PURPOSE: Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) is a well-known complication of treatment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We undertook the present study to investigate the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in the setting of BPT and to determine the need for delay or omission of radiation therapy (RT) in these patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 123 HL patients treated with ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) followed by RT to the chest from January 2009 to December 2014...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jenna Dean, Carmen J Hansen, Justin Westhuyzen, Brett Waller, Kirsty Turnbull, Maree Wood, Andrew Last
INTRODUCTION: Inverse-planned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IP-IMRT) has potential benefits over other techniques for tangential intact breast radiotherapy. Possible benefits include increased homogeneity, faster planning time, less inter-planner variability and lower doses to organs at risk (OAR). We therefore conducted a pilot study of previously treated intact breast patients to compare the current forward-planned 'field-in-field' technique (FP-IMRT) with an IP-IMRT alternative...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Vivek Verma, Valerie K Shostrom, Sameera S Kumar, Weining Zhen, Christopher L Hallemeier, Steve E Braunstein, John Holland, Matthew M Harkenrider, Adrian S Iskhanian, Hanmanth J Neboori, Salma K Jabbour, Albert Attia, Percy Lee, Fiori Alite, Joshua M Walker, John M Stahl, Kyle Wang, Brian S Bingham, Christina Hadzitheodorou, Roy H Decker, Ronald C McGarry, Charles B Simone
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the standard of care for patients with nonoperative, early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) measuring < 5 cm, but its use among patients with tumors measuring ≥5 cm is considerably less defined, with the existing literature limited to small, single-institution reports. The current multi-institutional study reported outcomes evaluating the largest such population reported to date. METHODS: Clinical/treatment characteristics, outcomes, toxicities, and patterns of failure were assessed in patients with primary NSCLC measuring ≥5 cm without evidence of distant/lymph node metastasis who underwent SBRT using ≤5 fractions...
October 14, 2016: Cancer
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