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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352930/an-efficient-approach-to-prepare-sulfated-polysaccharide-and-evaluation-of-anti-tumor-activities-in-vitro
#1
Junlong Wang, Aijuan Bao, Xinhua Meng, Hongyun Guo, Yongdong Zhang, Yali Zhao, Weibao Kong, Junyu Liang, Jian Yao, Ji Zhang
Use of microwave radiation is one of the most potential techniques in polysaccharide derivatives synthesis due to its advantages such as higher yields, milder reaction conditions and shorter reaction times. This study was aimed at producing sulfated polysaccharides by microwave irradiation using polar reagents and solvent. Six sulfated Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide derivatives (SPAS) were obtained by using chlorosulfuric acid/pyridine method in the reaction duration range of 15-300 min at a fixed microwave power of 100W...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352629/an-in-silico-comparative-dosimetric-study-of-postmastectomy-locoregional-irradiation-using-intensity-modulated-vs-3-dimensional-conventional-radiotherapy
#2
Pooja Khullar, Charu Garg, Sujit Nath Sinha, Inderjit Kaur, Niloy Ranjan Datta
An in silico dosimetric evaluation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) vs 3-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) treatment plans in postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to the chest wall and regional lymphatics was conducted. Twenty-five consecutive patients with breast cancer referred for locoregional PMRT, stages T2-4 with N1-3, were planned to receive 50 Gy in 25 fractions with IMRT. Additionally, a 3D-CRT plan was generated using identical contours for the clinical target volumes (CTV), planning target volumes (PTV), and organs at risk (OAR)...
January 15, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352608/differences-in-lung-injury-after-imrt-or-proton-therapy-assessed-by-18fdg-pet-imaging
#3
Nadya Shusharina, Zhongxing Liao, Radhe Mohan, Amy Liu, Andrzej Niemierko, Noah Choi, Thomas Bortfeld
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare lung injury among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with IMRT or proton therapy as revealed by 18F-FDG post-treatment uptake and to determine factors predictive for clinically symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 83 patients treated with IMRT or proton therapy, planning CT and follow up 18F-FDG PET-CT were analyzed. Post-treatment PET-CT was aligned with planning CT to establish a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between PET and planning dose images...
January 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#4
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351198/superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-gc4419-enhances-the-oxidation-of-pharmacological-ascorbate-and-its-anticancer-effects-in-an-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#5
Collin D Heer, Andrew B Davis, David B Riffe, Brett A Wagner, Kelly C Falls, Bryan G Allen, Garry R Buettner, Robert A Beardsley, Dennis P Riley, Douglas R Spitz
Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH-) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer effects via metal-catalyzed oxidation to form H₂O₂. Mn(III)-porphyrins possessing superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity have been shown to increase the rate of oxidation of AscH-, enhancing the anti-tumor effects of AscH- in several cancer types...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350189/detection-of-thoracic-vascular-structures-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-a-systematic-assessment-of-prominence-peak-analysis-of-impedance-changes
#6
Karin Henriette Wodack, Sarah Buehler, Sarah A Nishimoto, Michael F Graessler, Christoph R Behem, Andreas Daniel Waldmann, Beat Mueller, Stephan H Böhm, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Florian Thürk, Alexander Maerz, Constantin J C Trepte, Daniel A Reuter
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive and radiation free bedside monitoring technology, primarily used to monitor lung function. First experimental data shows that the descending aorta can be detected at different thoracic heights and might allow the assessment of central hemodynamics, i.e. stroke volume and pulse transit time. Approach: First, the feasibility of localizing small non-conductive objects within a saline phantom model was evaluated. Second, this result was utilized for the detection of the aorta by EIT in ten anesthetized pigs in with comparison to thoracic computer tomography (CT)...
January 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349760/advancements-and-personalization-of-breast-cancer-treatment-strategies-in-radiation-therapy
#7
Meena S Moran
Significant technologic advances in radiation treatment delivery now allow for more personalized delivery considerations which incorporate individual patient characteristics (such as tumor location and patient anatomy) and more precise delivery in the breast conservation or post-mastectomy setting. The combined advancements with other treatment modalities (i.e., systemic therapy, surgical management) have had direct effects on local-regional management and outcomes such that currently, local-regional relapses after definitive treatment for localized disease are now rarely experienced...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349604/quality-of-training-in-radiation-oncology-in-germany-where-do-we-stand-results-from-a%C3%A2-2016-2017-survey-performed-by-the-working-group-young-degro-of-the-german-society-of-radiation-oncology-degro
#8
C T Dietzel, K Jablonska, M Niyazi, T Gauer, N Ebert, C Ostheimer, D Krug
PURPOSE: To evaluate the current situation of young radiation oncologists in Germany with regard to the contents and quality of training and level of knowledge, as well as their working conditions and professional satisfaction. METHODS: From June 2016 to February 2017, a survey was conducted by the young DEGRO (yDEGRO) using an online platform. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items examining a broad range of aspects influencing residency. There were 96 completed questionnaires RESULTS: 83% of participants stated to be very or mostly pleased with their residency training...
January 18, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348293/defining-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-radiation-oncologist-s-perspective
#9
Irfan Ahmad, Kundan Singh Chufal, Sumant Gupta, Chandi Prasad Bhatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347981/radiation-induced-pulmonary-gene-expression-changes-are-attenuated-by-the-ctgf-antibody-pamrevlumab
#10
Mark D Sternlicht, Ute Wirkner, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Ramon Lopez Perez, Alexandra Tietz, Kenneth E Lipson, Todd W Seeley, Peter E Huber
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a delayed side effect of radiation therapy (RT). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) promotes the development of fibrosis in multiple settings, including pulmonary radiation injury. METHODS: To better understand the cellular interactions involved in RT-induced lung injury and the role of CTGF in these responses, microarray expression profiling was performed on lungs of irradiated and non-irradiated mice, including mice treated with the anti-CTGF antibody pamrevlumab (FG-3019)...
January 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347839/brain-metastases-epidemiology-in-a-tunisian-population-trends-and-outcome
#11
Mehdi Benna, Nesrine Mejri, Manel Mabrouk, Houda El Benna, Soumaya Labidi, Nouha Daoud, Hamouda Boussen
AIM: We reported anatomo-clinical features of brain metastases (BMs) collected in a Tunisian medical oncology department. PATIENTS & METHODS: We retrospectively identified all cases of BM within a cohort of 7055 patients, treated for a histologically confirmed nonhematological cancer between 2000 and 2016. Data about age, sex and primary tumor were collected. RESULTS: Incidence was 1.9% and mean age was 54 years with a 1.24 sex ratio. BMs were symptomatic in 73...
January 19, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346116/4d-computed-tomography-scans-for-conformal-thoracic-treatment-planning-is-a-single-scan-sufficient-to-capture-thoracic-tumor-motion
#12
Yolanda D Tseng, Landon Wootton, Matthew Nyflot, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Ramesh Rengan, Charles Bloch, George Sandison, Sara St James
Four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans are routinely used in radiation therapy to determine the internal treatment volume for targets that are moving (e.g. lung tumors). The use of these studies has allowed clinicians to create target volumes based upon the motion of the tumor during the imaging study. The purpose of this work is to determine if a target volume based on a single 4DCT scan at simulation is sufficient to capture thoracic motion. Phantom studies were performed to determine expected differences between volumes contoured on 4DCT scans and those on the evaluation CT scans (slow scans)...
January 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343723/pharmacological-targeting-of-bet-proteins-attenuates-radiation-induced-lung-fibrosis
#13
Jian Wang, Fangzheng Zhou, Zhenyu Li, Hong Mei, Ye Wang, Hong Ma, Liangliang Shi, Ai Huang, Tao Zhang, Zhenyu Lin, Gang Wu
Radiation-induced lung injury has restricted radiotherapy for thoracic cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 in a murine model of pulmonary damage. Chest computed tomography (CT) was performed in a rat model after 20 Gy radiation of the right thorax. And histological evaluation and protein expressions of irradiated tissue were analyzed to confirm the potential anti-fibrosis effect of JQ1 and its underlying mechanisms...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343206/line-enhanced-deformable-registration-of-pulmonary-computed-tomography-images-before-and-after-radiation-therapy-with-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#14
Martin King, William F Sensakovic, Peter Maxim, Maximilian Diehn, Billy W Loo, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: The deformable registration of pulmonary computed tomography images before and after radiation therapy is challenging due to anatomic changes from radiation fibrosis. We hypothesize that a line-enhanced registration algorithm can reduce landmark error over the entire lung, including the irradiated regions, when compared to an intensity-based deformable registration algorithm. MATERIALS: Two intensity-based B-spline deformable registration algorithms of pre-radiation therapy and post-radiation therapy images were compared...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339207/nicaraven-reduces-cancer-metastasis-to-irradiated-lungs-by-decreasing-ccl8-and-macrophage-recruitment
#15
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Yoshishige Urata, Shinji Goto, Tao-Sheng Li
Radiotherapy for cancer patients damages normal tissues, thereby inducing an inflammatory response and promoting cancer metastasis. We investigated whether nicaraven, a compound with radioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, could attenuate radiation-induced cancer metastasis to the lungs of mice. Nicaraven and amifostine, another commercial radioprotective agent, had limited effects on both the radiosensitivity of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro and radiation-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339047/the-impact-of-semilateral-decubitus-position-on-the-dose-volume-parameters-of-the-heart-and-lung-for-left-sided-breast-cancer-patients-a-comparative-dosimetric-study
#16
Azza Helal, Mohamed Farouk, Sherief H Gamie, Mahran Abdo, Lila Mosa, Amr Abdul Aziz
PURPOSE: When treating breast cancer with radiation therapy, the impact of treatment position on heart and lung dose-volume parameters (DVPs) is largely dependent on the maximal heart distance (MHD) and central lung distance (CLD). We evaluate how much heart and lung sparing can be achieved using the semilateral decubitus (SLD) position without and with breath hold compared with the standard supine position for left-sided breast cancer patients. A secondary aim was to investigate the impact of MHD and CLD on heart and lung DVPs...
December 2, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338744/new-insights-in-the-relative-radiobiological-effectiveness-of-proton-irradiation
#17
REVIEW
K Ilicic, S E Combs, T E Schmid
BACKGROUND: Proton radiotherapy is a form of charged particle therapy that is preferentially applied for the treatment of tumors positioned near to critical structures due to their physical characteristics, showing an inverted depth-dose profile. The sparing of normal tissue has additional advantages in the treatment of pediatric patients, in whom the risk of secondary cancers and late morbidity is significantly higher. Up to date, a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338734/comparing-the-benefits-of-chemoradiotherapy-and-chemotherapy-for-resectable-stage-iii-a-n2-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Yuqiao Chen, Xiong Peng, Yuan Zhou, Kun Xia, Wei Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Induction chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival of patients with stage III A/N2 (T1-3, N2, M0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), followed by resection, but the benefits of neoadjuvant radiotherapy still remain controversial. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of induction chemoradiotherapy over induction chemotherapy, in patients with resectable stage IIIA/N2 NSCLC...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337282/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-monolayer-and-spheroid-culture-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cells
#19
Christiane Gebhard, Ingrid Miller, Karin Hummel, Martina Neschi Née Ondrovics, Sarah Schlosser, Ingrid Walter
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor with high metastasis rate in the lungs and affects both humans and dogs in a similar way. Three-dimensional tumor cell cultures mimic the in vivo situation of micro-tumors and metastases and are therefore better experimental in vitro models than the often applied two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The aim of the present study was to perform comparative proteomics of standard monolayer cultures of canine osteosarcoma cells (D17) and three-dimensional spheroid cultures, to better characterize the 3D model before starting with experiments like migration assays...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336348/optimizing-highly-noncoplanar-vmat-trajectories-the-novo-method
#20
Marco Langhans, Jan Unkelbach, Thomas Bortfeld, David Craft
We introduce a new method called NoVo (Noncoplanar VMAT Optimization) to produce volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans with noncoplanar trajectories. While the use of noncoplanar beam arrangements for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and in particular high fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), is common, noncoplanar beam trajectories for VMAT are less common as the availability of treatment machines handling these is limited. For both IMRT and VMAT, the beam angle selection problem is highly nonconvex in nature, which is why automated beam angle selection procedures have not entered mainstream clinical usage...
January 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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