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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142070/gfap-and-osmr-regulation-by-brg1-and-stat3-via-interchromosomal-gene-clustering-in-astrocytes
#1
Kenji Ito, Azumi Noguchi, Yuichi Uosaki, Testuya Taga, Hirokazu Arakawa, Takumi Takizawa
Long-range chromatin interactions between gene loci in the cell nucleus are important for many biological processes including transcriptional regulation. Previously, we demonstrated that several genes specifically cluster with the astrocyte-specific gene glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) during astrocyte differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms for gene clustering remain largely unknown. Here we show that brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor, and the transcription factor STAT3 are required for Gfap and Osmr clustering and enhanced expression through recruitment to STAT3 recognition sequences and that gene clustering occurs prior to transcriptional upregulation...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132471/-oridonin-inhibits-proliferation-of-jurkat-cells-via-the-down-regulation-of-brg1
#2
Zhen-Zhen Ye, Fei-Long Xue, Wen-Ping Ding, Xiang Kong, Yi-Na Shen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of oridonin on the human acute lymphocytic leukemia cell line Jurkat and its mechanism. METHODS: Jurkat cells were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 μmol/L) of oridonin for different lengths of time (24, 48, and 72 hours). The proliferation of Jurkat cells was analyzed by MTT assay. The changes in nuclear morphology were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy at 12 hours after treatment with various concentrations of oridonin...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126175/conventional-and-pioneer-modes-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-interaction-with-enhancer-chromatin-in-vivo
#3
Thomas A Johnson, Razvan V Chereji, Diana A Stavreva, Stephanie A Morris, Gordon L Hager, David J Clark
Glucocorticoid hormone plays a major role in metabolism and disease. The hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to a specific set of enhancers in different cell types, resulting in unique patterns of gene expression. We have addressed the role of chromatin structure in GR binding by mapping nucleosome positions in mouse adenocarcinoma cells. Before hormone treatment, GR-enhancers exist in one of three chromatin states: (i) Nucleosome-depleted enhancers that are DNase I-hypersensitive, associated with the Brg1 chromatin remodeler and flanked by nucleosomes incorporating histone H2A...
November 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109331/mkl1-mediates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-inflammatory-transcription-by-bridging-the-crosstalk-between-brg1-and-wdr5
#4
Wenping Xu, Quanyi Zhao, Min Wu, Mingming Fang, Yong Xu
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that can potently stimulate the synthesis of a range of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is underexplored. Here we report that the transcriptional modulator megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is associated with a histone H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Re-ChIP assay suggests that MKL1 interacts with and recruits WDR5, a component of the COMPASS complex responsible for H3K4 methylation, to the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages treated with TNF-α...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101221/%C3%AE-actin-dependent-global-chromatin-organization-and-gene-expression-programs-control-cellular-identity
#5
Xin Xie, Bader Almuzzaini, Nizar Drou, Stephan Kremb, Ayman Yousif, Ann-Kristin Östlund Farrants, Kristin Gunsalus, Piergiorgio Percipalle
During differentiation and development, cell fate and identity are established by waves of genetic reprogramming. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, during these events, dynamic chromatin reorganization is likely to ensure that multiple genes involved in the same cellular functions are coregulated, depending on the nuclear environment. In this study, using high-content screening of embryonic fibroblasts from a β-actin knockout (KO) mouse, we found major chromatin rearrangements and changes in histone modifications, such as methylated histone (H)3-lysine-(K)9...
November 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070872/baf53a-is-involved-in-survival-of-mouse-es-cells-which-can-be-compensated-by-baf53b
#6
Bo Zhu, Atsushi Ueda, Xiaohong Song, Shin-Ichi Horike, Takashi Yokota, Tadayuki Akagi
The human Baf (Brg1/Brm associated factor) complex, also known as the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, is involved in a variety of cellular processes. The pluripotency and self-renewal abilities are major characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells and are regulated by the ES cell-specific BAF (esBAF) complex. Baf53a is one of the subunits of the esBAF complex. Here, we found that Baf53a was expressed in undifferentiated ES cells and that it interacted with Oct3/4. Analyses of tetracycline-inducible Baf53a conditional knockout ES cells revealed that the undifferentiated markers, including Nanog and Oct3/4, were expressed in Baf53a-deficient ES cells; however, growth of the cells was repressed, and expression of p53, p21, and cleaved Caspase 3 was increased...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042984/bmi1-and-brg1-drive-myocardial-repair-by-regulating-cardiac-stem-cell-function-in-acute-rheumatic-heart-disease
#7
Pingxi Xiao, Kai Zhang, Zhiwen Tao, Niannian Liu, Bangshun Ge, Min Xu, Xinzheng Lu
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs due to the accumulation of complications associated with rheumatic fever, and it results in high morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases of RHD are diagnosed in the chronic stages, when treatment options are limited. A small reservoir of cardiac stem cells is responsible for maintaining cardiac homeostasis and repairing tissue damage. Understanding the role of cardiac stem cells and the various proteins responsible for their functions in different pathological stages of RHD is an important area of investigation...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973294/dysregulation-of-chromatin-remodelling-complexes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Michael Tibshirani, Beibei Zhao, Benoit J Gentil, Sandra Minotti, Christine Marques, Julia Keith, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Lorne Zinman, Caroline Rouaux, Janice Robertson, Heather D Durham
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with paralysis resulting from dysfunction and loss of motor neurons. A common neuropathological finding is attrition of motor neuron dendrites, which make central connections vital to motor control. The chromatin remodelling complex, neuronal Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1)-associated factor complex (nBAF), is critical for neuronal differentiation, dendritic extension and synaptic function. We have identified loss of the crucial nBAF subunits Brg1, Brg1-associated factor 53b and calcium responsive transactivator in cultured motor neurons expressing FUS or TAR-DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) mutants linked to familial ALS...
November 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961249/swi-snf-infobase-an-exclusive-information-portal-for-swi-snf-remodeling-complex-subunits
#9
Udayakumar Mani, Alagu Sankareswaran S, Arun Goutham R N, Suma Mohan S
Chromatin remodeling complexes facilitate the access of condensed genomic DNA during transcription, replication, and repair, by altering the histone-DNA contacts in the nucleosome structures. SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) family of ATP dependent chromatin remodeling complexes have been documented for their tumour suppressor function. Recent studies have reported the high frequency of cancer causing mutations in this protein family. There exist multiple subunits for this complex and can form context-dependent sub-complexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939766/casein-kinase-2-mediated-phosphorylation-of-brahma-related-gene-1-controls-myoblast-proliferation-and-contributes-to-swi-snf-complex-composition
#10
Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Brian T Nasipak, Amanda L Paskavitz, Dominic T Haokip, Jake M Schnabl, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Anthony N Imbalzano
Transcriptional regulation is modulated in part by chromatin-remodeling enzymes that control gene accessibility by altering chromatin compaction or nucleosome positioning. Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a catalytic subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes, is required for both myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and the control of Brg1 phosphorylation by calcineurin, PKCβ1, and p38 regulates the transition to differentiation. However, we hypothesized that Brg1 activity might be regulated by additional kinases...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903392/a-role-for-brg1-in-the-regulation-of-genes-required-for-development-of-the-lymphatic-system
#11
Ajeet Pratap Singh, Julie Foley, Arpit Tandon, Dhiral Phadke, H Karimi Kinyamu, Trevor K Archer
Lymphatic vasculature is an important part of the cardiovascular system with multiple functions, including regulation of the return of interstitial fluid (lymph) to the bloodstream, immune responses, and fat absorption. Consequently, lymphatic vasculature defects are involved in many pathological processes, including tumor metastasis and lymphedema. BRG1 is an important player in the developmental window when the lymphatic system is initiated. In the current study, we used tamoxifen inducible Rosa26CreERT2-BRG1(floxed/floxed) mice that allowed temporal analysis of the impact of BRG1 inactivation in the embryo...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899659/brg1-promotes-vegf-a-expression-and-angiogenesis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#12
Jingqin Lan, Haijie Li, Xuelai Luo, Junbo Hu, Guihua Wang
Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and progression in solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical and specific factors that stimulate both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Here, we report a novel role of BRG1, the core subunit of SWI/SNF family complexes, in angiogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that BRG1 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and decreased expression of BRG1 not only blocks cell proliferation but remarkably inhibits the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like structures...
November 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863138/5c-analysis-of-the-epidermal-differentiation-complex-locus-reveals-distinct-chromatin-interaction-networks-between-gene-rich-and-gene-poor-tads-in-skin-epithelial-cells
#13
Krzysztof Poterlowicz, Joanne L Yarker, Igor Malashchuk, Brian R Lajoie, Andrei N Mardaryev, Michal R Gdula, Andrey A Sharov, Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu, Vladimir A Botchkarev, Michael Y Fessing
Mammalian genomes contain several dozens of large (>0.5 Mbp) lineage-specific gene loci harbouring functionally related genes. However, spatial chromatin folding, organization of the enhancer-promoter networks and their relevance to Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) in these loci remain poorly understood. TADs are principle units of the genome folding and represents the DNA regions within which DNA interacts more frequently and less frequently across the TAD boundary. Here, we used Chromatin Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) technology to characterize spatial chromatin interaction network in the 3...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863077/undifferentiated-endometrial-carcinomas-show-frequent-loss-of-core-switch-sucrose-nonfermentable-complex-proteins
#14
Martin Köbel, Lien N Hoang, Basile Tessier-Cloutier, Bo Meng, Robert A Soslow, Colin J R Stewart, Cheng-Han Lee
Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial carcinoma that typically presents with advanced stage disease and rapid clinical progression. In contrast to dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma lacks a concurrent differentiated (typically low-grade endometrioid) carcinoma component, though the undifferentiated component of dedifferentiated carcinoma is similar histologically and immunophenotypically to pure undifferentiated carcinoma. We recently identified 3 mutually exclusive mechanisms of switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex inactivation (BRG1 inactivation, INI1 inactivation or ARID1A/ARID1B co-inactivation) that are associated with histologic dedifferentiation in the majority of dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844864/the-short-isoform-of-brd4-promotes-hiv-1-latency-by-engaging-repressive-swi-snf-chromatin-remodeling-complexes
#15
Ryan J Conrad, Parinaz Fozouni, Sean Thomas, Hendrik Sy, Qiang Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhou, Melanie Ott
BET proteins commonly activate cellular gene expression, yet inhibiting their recruitment paradoxically reactivates latent HIV-1 transcription. Here we identify the short isoform of BET family member BRD4 (BRD4S) as a corepressor of HIV-1 transcription. We found that BRD4S was enriched in chromatin fractions of latently infected T cells, and it was more rapidly displaced from chromatin upon BET inhibition than the long isoform. BET inhibition induced marked nucleosome remodeling at the latent HIV-1 promoter, which was dependent on the activity of BRG1-associated factors (BAF), an SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex with known repressive functions in HIV-1 transcription...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844694/cancer-specific-retargeting-of-baf-complexes-by-a-prion-like-domain
#16
Gaylor Boulay, Gabriel J Sandoval, Nicolo Riggi, Sowmya Iyer, Rémi Buisson, Beverly Naigles, Mary E Awad, Shruthi Rengarajan, Angela Volorio, Matthew J McBride, Liliane C Broye, Lee Zou, Ivan Stamenkovic, Cigall Kadoch, Miguel N Rivera
Alterations in transcriptional regulators can orchestrate oncogenic gene expression programs in cancer. Here, we show that the BRG1/BRM-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex, which is mutated in over 20% of human tumors, interacts with EWSR1, a member of a family of proteins with prion-like domains (PrLD) that are frequent partners in oncogenic fusions with transcription factors. In Ewing sarcoma, we find that the BAF complex is recruited by the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein to tumor-specific enhancers and contributes to target gene activation...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842672/downregulation-of-parp1-transcription-by-promoter-associated-e2f4-rbl2-hdac1-brm-complex-contributes-to-repression-of-pluripotency-stem-cell-factors-in-human-monocytes
#17
Wiśnik Ewelina, Płoszaj Tomasz, Robaszkiewicz Agnieszka
Differentiation of certain cell types is followed by a downregulation of PARP1 expression. We show that the reduction in the abundance of PARP1 in hematopoietic progenitor cells and monocytes is tightly controlled by the cell cycle. The differentiation-associated cell cycle exit induces E2F1 replacement with E2F4 at the PARP1 promoter and the assembly of an E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-BRM(SWI/SNF) repressor complex which deacetylates nucleosomes and compacts chromatin. In G1 arrested cells, PARP1 transcription is reduced by the recruitment of E2F1-RB1-HDAC1-EZH2(PRC2)-BRM/BRG1(SWI/SNF), which additionally trimethylates H3K27 and causes an even higher increase in nucleosome density...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801844/brg1-inhibits-e-cadherin-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells-and-disrupts-epithelial-integrity
#18
Ting Wang, Wenjing Zou, Chao Niu, Fengxia Ding, Yaping Wang, Shuang Cai, Hua Zhu, Daiyin Tian, Jihong Dai, Enmei Liu, Qing Lu, Zhou Fu, Lin Zou
Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1), a key chromatin remodeling factor, is associated with cell proliferation and migration in kidney and heart cells, but few reports have examined its role in airway epithelial cell. Airway epithelial injury, which is involved in the entire pathological process of asthma, is an important cause of recurrent asthma. Here, we studied the function of Brg1 in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model (lung-specific conditional Brg1 (Brg1(-/-)) knockdown mice) and human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells stably expressing Brg1 shRNA...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798861/overexpression-of-brg1-alleviates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-antioxidative-stress-effects
#19
Mian Ge, Chaojin Chen, Weifeng Yao, Shaoli Zhou, Fei Huang, Jun Cai, Ziqing Hei
AIM: To investigate whether overexpression of Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) can alleviate lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (HIR) and its precise mechanism. METHODS: Cytomegalovirus-transgenic Brg1-overexpressing (CMV-Brg1) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent HIR. Lung histology, oxidative injury markers, and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in the lung were assessed. The protein expression levels of Brg1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the lung were analyzed by Western blotting...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793308/genetic-analysis-of-the-candida-albicans-biofilm-transcription-factor-network-using-simple-and-complex-haploinsufficiency
#20
Virginia E Glazier, Thomas Murante, Daniel Murante, Kristy Koselny, Yuan Liu, Dongyeop Kim, Hyun Koo, Damian J Krysan
Biofilm formation by Candida albicans is a key aspect of its pathobiology and is regulated by an integrated network of transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Ndt80, Rob1, and Tec1). To understand the details of how the transcription factors function together to regulate biofilm formation, we used a systematic genetic interaction approach based on generating all possible double heterozygous mutants of the network genes and quantitatively analyzing the genetic interactions between them. Overall, the network is highly susceptible to genetic perturbation with the six network heterozygous mutants all showing alterations in biofilm formation (haploinsufficiency)...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
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