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Shuyan Zhao, Bohui Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Tiankun Liang, Meng Chen, Liping Yang, Jingping Lv, Lifen Liu
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is commonly known as the active ingredient of sulfluramid. It can be degraded to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in biota and environment. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed with N-EtFOSA to examine the bioaccumulation, elimination and metabolism of N-EtFOSA by the earthworms after in vivo and in vitro exposure. N-EtFOSA could be biodegraded in quartz sands to perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS. In the in vivo tests, in addition to parent N-EtFOSA, three metabolites, including perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), FOSA and PFOS also accumulated in earthworms as a result of N-EtFOSA biotransformation, with FOSA as the predominant metabolite...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huong Nguyen, Cemil Kerimoglu, Mehdi Pirouz, Linh Pham, Kamila A Kiszka, Godwin Sokpor, M Sadman Sakib, Joachim Rosenbusch, Ulrike Teichmann, Rho H Seong, Anastassia Stoykova, Andre Fischer, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
During early cortical development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide symmetrically to expand the progenitor pool, whereas, in later stages, NSCs divide asymmetrically to self-renew and produce other cell types. The timely switch from such proliferative to differentiative division critically determines progenitor and neuron numbers. However, the mechanisms that limit proliferative division in late cortical development are not fully understood. Here, we show that the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes restrict proliferative competence and promote neuronal differentiation in late corticogenesis...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Xin-Yu Bai, Yuan-Gui Liu, Wu Song, Ying-Ying Li, Dong-Shun Hou, Hao-Ming Luo, Ping Liu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antitumour property of tetrandrine by inducing autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells, and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The antitumour activity of tetrandrine was assessed through MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and microscopic examination of cellular morphology. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by staining with Rh-123. Induction of autophagy was monitored by transmission electron microscopy observation, using GFP-LC3 transfection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Robert G Poston, Carissa J Dunn, Pushpita Sarkar, Ramendra N Saha
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a pervasive class of brominated flame retardants that are present in the environment at particularly high levels, especially in the United States. Their environmental stability, propensity for bioaccumulation, and known potential for neurotoxicity has evoked interest regarding their effects on the developing nervous system. Exposure to PBDEs has been strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the details of their mechanistic roles in such disorders are incompletely understood...
January 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Wenxiu Liu, Wei He, Jingyi Wu, Ning Qin, Qishuang He, Fuliu Xu
Residual levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in seven species of aquatic animals were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The distribution, composition, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of PFAAs and their effect factors were studied. The results showed that: 1) Wet weight concentrations of 17 PFAAs in the aquatic animals ranged from 1.77 to 38.65 ng/g, with a mean value of 12.71 ± 9.21 ng/g. PFOS was the predominant contaminant (4.57 ± 4.57 ng/g, 6.76%-46.25%), followed by PFDA (1...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chao Zhao, Yong Mei, Xufeng Chen, Lei Jiang, Yunfei Jiang, Xu Song, Hang Xiao, Jun Wang, Jingsong Zhang
Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that can induce severe neurotoxicity. Cardiovascular injury caused by METH has recently gained increasing attention; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. As autophagy has been shown to be associated with cell injury, the association between autophagy and METH-mediated cell apoptosis was investigated in the present study. METH treatment significantly increased the expression of two key autophagy proteins, i.e., Beclin-1 and LC3-II, in the cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2...
May 12, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Cristina Lúcia Silveira Sisinno, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Worldwide, various guidelines and directives for human health and the environment aim to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission. Forest ecosystems are natural sinks of this element, transferring it from the atmosphere to litter and soil. Millipedes play an important role in litter/soil and may be negatively affected by contamination. As a pioneering contribution to ecotoxicological test guidelines with millipedes in litter, the present study evaluated food preference of millipedes and mercury toxicity, to prevent interference of food types in toxicity responses...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zong Wei, Eiji Yoshihara, Nanhai He, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Antonio F M Pinto, Timothy Huddy, Yuhao Wang, Brittany Ross, Gabriela Estepa, Yang Dai, Ning Ding, Mara H Sherman, Sungsoon Fang, Xuan Zhao, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
A primary cause of disease progression in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β cell dysfunction due to inflammatory stress and insulin resistance. However, preventing β cell exhaustion under diabetic conditions is a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we identify the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a key modulator of inflammation and β cell survival. Alternative recognition of an acetylated lysine in VDR by bromodomain proteins BRD7 and BRD9 directs association to PBAF and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Cell
Jenifer Barrie, Adam Haque, David Andrew Evans
AIM: Extralevator abdominoperineal resection (ELAP) may be complicated by perineal wound healing problems and herniation. We report a consecutive series of 38 such patients with selective use of a fasciocutaneous V-Y buttock advancement flap (BAF). METHOD: Data were collected on a series of patients undergoing ELAP for rectal malignancy between August 2011 and July 2017. Demographics, management and outcomes were recorded prospectively. Perineal wound problems were considered 'major' if they required packing, otherwise being classed as 'minor'...
May 12, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Kei Fukuda, Akihiko Okuda, Kosuke Yusa, Yoichi Shinkai
In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), expression of provirus and endogenous retroelements is epigenetically repressed. Although many cellular factors involved in retroelement silencing have been identified, the complete molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR screen to advance our understanding of retroelement silencing in mESCs. The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based retroviral vector MSCV-GFP, which is repressed by the SETDB1/KAP1 pathway in mESCs was used as a reporter provirus and we identified more than 80 genes involved in this process...
May 4, 2018: Genome Research
Sisi Liu, Tadiyose-Girma Bekele, Hongxia Zhao, Xiyun Cai, Jingwen Chen
Information about bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of antibiotics in wild marine fish is still limited. In the present study, tissue levels, bioaccumulation and distribution patterns of 9 sulfonamide (SA), trimethoprim (TMP), 5 fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 4 macrolide (ML) antibiotics were investigated in gill, muscle, kidney, and liver tissues of seven wild fish species collected from Laizhou Bay, North China in 2016. All the 19 antibiotics were detected in these fish tissues with the total concentrations ranging from 22ng/g dry weight (dw) to 500ng/g dw...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kaiwen Guo, Ramon A Martinez, Genevieve Plant, Lukasz Maksymiuk, Brian Janiszewski, Michael J Freeman, Robert L Maynard, Mohammed N Islam, Fred L Terry, Robert Bedford, Ricky Gibson, Francois Chenard, Stephane Chatigny, Agustin I Ifarraguerri
We generate a supercontinuum (SC) spectrum ranging from 1.57 μm to 12 μm (20 dB bandwidth) with a soft glass fiber cascade consisting of ZrF 4 - BaF 2 - LaF 3 - AlF 3 - NaF fiber, As 2 S 3 fiber, and As 2 Se 3 fiber pumped by a nanosecond thulium master oscillator power amplifier system. The highest on-time average power generated is 417 mW at 33% duty cycle. We observe a near-diffraction-limit beam quality across the wavelength range from 3 μm to 12 μm, even though the As 2 Se 3 fiber is multimode below 12 μm...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
C Coelho, C Foret, C Bazin, L Leduc, M Hammada, M Inácio, J P Bedell
Soils and sediments are susceptible to anthropogenic contamination with Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs) and it can present some risks to ecosystems and human health. The levels of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were assessed in soils (C, G, K, L) from Estarreja (Portugal) and sediments from a stormwater basin in Lyon (DJG), a harbour (LDB) and a Rhône river site (TRS) (France). An ecotoxicological study was performed with Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) to infer about potential transfer risks to the soil invertebrates...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Till Holsten, Susanne Bens, Florian Oyen, Karolina Nemes, Martin Hasselblatt, Uwe Kordes, Reiner Siebert, Michael C Frühwald, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Ulrich Schüller
Germline variants that affect function are found in seven genes of the BAF chromatin-remodeling complex. They are linked to a broad range of diseases that, according to the gene affected, range from non-syndromic or syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders to low-grade tumors and malignancies. In the current meta-analysis, we evaluate genetic and clinical data from more than 400 families and 577 patients affected by BAF germline alterations. We focus on SMARCB1, including 43 unpublished patients from the EU-RHAB registry and our institution...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Han Qu, Ruixue Ma, Bin Wang, Jian Yang, Lei Duan, Gang Yu
In present study, we investigated the enantioselective behaviors of the chiral antidepressant venlafaxine and its metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (M. anguillicaudatus), as well as effects of microplastic on toxicity, distribution and metabolism through a 40-day co-exposure. The contents of SOD and MDA in loach liver elevated when the loach was exposed to venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. Moreover, co-exposure with microplastic might lead to more adverse effect against loach...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hirokazu Usui, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Hiroshi Kaku, Kayoko Maehara, Kenichiro Hata, Makio Shozu
Ovarian mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) originate from post-meiotic germ cells. Conventional methods such as karyotyping or short tandem repeat-polymorphism analysis may be used to better classify MCTs, although such data would be insufficient. The aim of this study was to elucidate the origin of ovarian MCTs using B allele-frequency (BAF) plots of single nucleotide polymorphism array data. MCTs can be classified in terms of the zygosity of the centromeres and distal chromosome regions. We evaluated the zygosity of all chromosomes from 38 MCT specimens using BAF plot data...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Emine Altuntaş, Jeffrey Ammon, Sidney B Cahn, David DeMille
Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects in atoms and molecules arise from Z^{0} boson exchange between electrons and the nucleus, and from the magnetic interaction between electrons and the parity-violating nuclear anapole moment. We demonstrate measurements of NSD-PV that use an enhancement of the effect in diatomic molecules, here using the test system ^{138}Ba^{19}F. Our sensitivity surpasses that of any previous atomic parity violation measurement. We show that systematic errors can be suppressed to at least the level of the present statistical sensitivity...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hernán Ricardo Hadad, María de Las Mercedes Mufarrege, Gisela Alfonsina Di Luca, María Alejandra Maine
The aim of this work was to study Cr, Ni, Zn, and P bioaccumulation in different compartments of Typha domingensis plants and sediment in a free-water surface constructed wetland for the treatment of a metallurgical effluent for 5 years. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory. To increase metal tolerance, its transport from belowground to aboveground tissues is reduced, being metal concentrations in the roots and rhizomes significantly higher than in the aerial and submerged parts of leaves. Regarding belowground tissues, metals were retained in the roots, while P was mainly accumulated in rhizomes...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fiorina Piantedosi, George Y Chen, Tanya M Monro, David G Lancaster
Ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide lasers can lead to highly efficient and compact optical devices. This Letter reports an average lasing efficiency of 65%±2.5% from a multi-waveguide 2.5 mol. % ytterbium-doped ZrF 4 - BaF 2 - LaF 3 - AlF 3 - NaF (Yb:ZBLAN) chip in an extended-cavity configuration. A maximum output power of 750 mW with a lasing efficiency of 68% is also achieved. A monolithic end-coupled configuration reached a maximum output power of 784 mW with a lasing efficiency of 70%. The lasing wavelength is tuned from 1001 to 1045 nm in a Littrow configured cavity...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Shuoshuo Wang, Elizabeth Stoops, Unnikannan Cp, Barak Markus, Adriana Reuveny, Elly Ordan, Talila Volk
Nuclear mechanotransduction has been implicated in the control of chromatin organization; however, its impact on functional contractile myofibers is unclear. We found that deleting components of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex in Drosophila melanogaster larval muscles abolishes the controlled and synchronized DNA endoreplication, typical of nuclei across myofibers, resulting in increased and variable DNA content in myonuclei of individual myofibers. Moreover, perturbation of LINC-independent mechanical input after knockdown of β-Integrin in larval muscles similarly led to increased DNA content in myonuclei...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
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