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Xiangyang Yao, Binyu Lu, Chaotian Lü, Qin Bai, Dazhong Yan, Yanli Wu, Zibing Hong, Hui Xu
The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of solanesol and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammation. Solanesol induced HO-1 expression both at the level of mRNA and proteins, resulting in increased HO-1 activity. Solanesol treatment enhanced the level of the phosphorylated form, nuclear translocation, ARE-binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. p38 and Akt contributed to ARE-driven HO-1 expression...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
Pingping Zhu, Yanying Wang, Jiayi Wu, Guanling Huang, Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Ying Du, Guangxia Gao, Yong Tian, Lei He, Zusen Fan
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to the high rate of recurrence and heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biology of hepatic CSCs remains largely undefined. Through analysis of transcriptome microarray data, we identify a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called lncBRM, which is highly expressed in liver CSCs and HCC tumours. LncBRM is required for the self-renewal maintenance of liver CSCs and tumour initiation. In liver CSCs, lncBRM associates with BRM to initiate the BRG1/BRM switch and the BRG1-embedded BAF complex triggers activation of YAP1 signalling...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
Julia Talvitie, Anna Mikola, Outi Setälä, Mari Heinonen, Arto Koistinen
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can offer a solution to reduce the point source input of microlitter and microplastics into the environment. To evaluate the contributing processes for microlitter removal, the removal of microlitter from wastewater during different treatment steps of mechanical, chemical and biological treatment (activated sludge) and biologically active filter (BAF) in a large (population equivalent 800 000) advanced WWTP was examined. Most of the microlitter was removed already during the pre-treatment and activated sludge treatment further decreased the microlitter concentration...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
Peter J Bosch, Leah C Fuller, Carolyn M Sleeth, Joshua A Weiner
BACKGROUND: The proper spatial and temporal regulation of dorsal telencephalic progenitor behavior is a prerequisite for the formation of the highly-organized, six-layered cerebral cortex. Premature differentiation of cells, disruption of cell cycle timing, excessive apoptosis, and/or incorrect neuronal migration signals can have devastating effects, resulting in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders involving microcephaly and/or lissencephaly. Though genes encoding many key players in cortical development have been identified, our understanding remains incomplete...
November 21, 2016: Neural Development
Byongsun Lee, Tae-Hee Lee, Jaekyung Shim
Emerin is an inner nuclear membrane protein that is involved in maintaining the mechanical integrity of the nuclear membrane. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of emerin in the regulation of gene expression; however, its precise function remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that emerin downregulated genes downstream of Notch signaling, which are activated exclusively by the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Deletion mutant experiments revealed that the transmembrane domain of emerin is important for the inhibition of Notch signaling...
November 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Edu Inam, Felicia Ibanga, Joseph Essien
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1)...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lars Skov Dalgaard, Mette Nørgaard, Johan Vestergaard Povlsen, Orla Morrissey, Bente Jespersen, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Lars J Østergaard, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are common complications in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Little is known about incidence rates of bacteremia and fungemia (BAF) in KTRs. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we used medical and administrative registries to identify episodes of BAF among KTRs in the Central Denmark and North Denmark Regions during 1995-2010. KTRs were followed from the date of their first transplantation to the earliest of BAF, graft loss, death, emigration or 31 December 2010...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Chihiro Takami, Kohgaku Eguchi, Tetsuya Hori, Tomoyuki Takahashi
Glutamate leaks out of synaptic vesicles when trans-vesicular proton gradient is dissipated in isolated vesicle preparations. In the nerve terminal, however, it is controversial whether glutamate can leak out of vesicles. To address this issue, we abolished vesicular glutamate uptake by washing out presynaptic cytosolic glutamate in whole-cell dialysis, or by blocking vacuolar ATPase using bafilomycin A1 (Baf), at the calyx of Held in mice brainstem slices. Presynaptic glutamate washout or Baf application reduced the mean amplitude and frequency of spontaneous miniature (m) EPSCs and mean amplitude of EPSCs evoked every 10 min...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Irene Navarro, Adrián de la Torre, Paloma Sanz, Miguel Ángel Porcel, Javier Pro, Gregoria Carbonell, María de Los Ángeles Martínez
The bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was examined in three horticultural crops and earthworms. Two species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), were grown in field soil amended with a single application of biosolids (at agronomic rate for nitrogen), to represent the scenario using commercial biosolids as fertilizer, and the third crop, corn (Zea mays) was grown in spiked soil (~50mg PFOS/kg soil, ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil and a mixture of both, ~50mg PFOS and ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil) to represent a worst-case scenario...
January 2017: Environmental Research
Amiya Kumar Ghosh, Theresa Mau, Martin O'Brien, Sanjay Garg, Raymond Yung
Adipose tissue dysfunction in aging is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases. We propose that impaired protein homeostasis due to compromised lysosomal degradation (micro-autophagy) might promote aberrant ER stress response and inflammation in aging adipose tissue. Using C57BL/6 mouse model, we demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from old (18-20 months) mice have reduced expression of autophagy markers as compared to the younger (4-6 months) cohort...
October 24, 2016: Aging
Changyong Wu, Yuexi Zhou, Yi Wang, Mingkun Guo
Two sets of BAF - ozonation systems, with (System-A) and without (System-B) Fe(2+) dosing into BAF, were used for organic micropollutants (OMPs) and phosphorus removal in the advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent. Pilot scale study showed that when the influent COD, TP and TSS were 73.0, 1.40 and 24.6mgL(-1), the effluent COD, TP and TSS were 48.9, 0.32, 7.78mgL(-1) for System-A with the ozone and Fe(2+) dosage of 25mgL(-1) and 0.08mmolL(-1), and 60.2, 1.16, 6.44mgL(-1) for System-B with the ozone dosage of 25mgL(-1)...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yanping Wang, Jin Li, Thomas F Kolon, Alicia Olivant Fisher, T Ernesto Figueroa, Ahmad H BaniHani, Jennifer A Hagerty, Ricardo Gonzalez, Paul H Noh, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Kisha R Harden, Debra J Abrams, Deborah Stabley, Cecilia E Kim, Katia Sol-Church, Hakon Hakonarson, Marcella Devoto, Julia Spencer Barthold
BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV) is a potential contributing factor to many genetic diseases. Here we investigated the potential association of CNV with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, the most common male congenital genitourinary defect, in a Caucasian population. METHODS: Genome wide genotyping were performed in 559 cases and 1772 controls (Group 1) using Illumina HumanHap550 v1, HumanHap550 v3 or Human610-Quad platforms and in 353 cases and 1149 controls (Group 2) using the Illumina Human OmniExpress 12v1 or Human OmniExpress 12v1-1...
October 21, 2016: BMC Urology
Liwen Qiang, Meng Chen, Ling-Yan Zhu, Wei Wu, Qiang Wang
As one of the most popular carbon-based nano-materials, graphene oxide (GO) has the potential to be released in aquatic environment and interact with some coexistent organic pollutants, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which is an emerging persistent organic pollutant. In this study, the adsorption of PFOS on GO in presence of fulvic acid (FA), the impacts of GO and FA on PFOS toxicokinetics in carp (Cyprinus carpio), and in vitro digestion behaviors were examined. The results indicated that PFOS could be strongly adsorbed on GO with a Freundlich affinity coefficient KF of 580 ± 205 (mg/g)/(mg/L)n, while the adsorption was suppressed by FA due to competitive adsorption...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yunqiao Zhou, Tieyu Wang, Zhaoze Jiang, Xiaoxiao Kong, Qifeng Li, Yajun Sun, Pei Wang, Zhaoyang Liu
In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments (in different seasons) from the Qing River were investigated. The highest concentration of PFASs in water (207.59 ng L(-1)) was found in summer. The composition of PFASs in water changed with time, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant compound in spring and summer, while long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), started to increase in autumn and winter...
October 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Shivika S Gupta, Matthew R Zeglinski, Sunil G Rattan, Natalie M Landry, Saeid Ghavami, Jeffrey T Wigle, Thomas Klonisch, Andrew J Halayko, Ian M C Dixon
The incidence of heart failure with concomitant cardiac fibrosis is very high in developed countries. Fibroblast activation in heart is causal to cardiac fibrosis as they convert to hypersynthetic cardiac myofibroblasts. There is no known treatment for cardiac fibrosis. Myofibroblasts contribute to the inappropriate remodeling of the myocardial interstitium, which leads to reduced cardiac function and ultimately heart failure. Elevated levels of autophagy have been linked to stress-induced ventricular remodeling and other cardiac diseases...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Soheila Rezaitabar, Abbas Esmaili Sari, Nader Bahramifar, Zohreh Ramezanpour
This study was conducted to determine Microcystin LR concentration in the aquatic ecosystem of the Anzali wetland in Iran. Extraction and detection of MC-LR from the water and fish samples was conducted by the SPE and HPLC-UV apparatus. Our results showed that among toxic cyanobacteria, Anabaena was the dominant genera during the study period. The results indicated that MC-LR content in water ranged from 0.18 to 3.02μg/L in dissolved fraction and undetectable level to 1.13μg/L in cellular fraction, in all three seasons...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marja L Boström, Gustaf Ugge, Jan Åke Jönsson, Olof Berglund
Although reports of pharmaceutical bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are increasing, less is known about trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. In the present study, we tested the bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of sertraline and fluoxetine, two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently detected in aquatic environments, by exposing constructed aquatic food chains under controlled laboratory conditions. Both of these ionizable, weak base pharmaceuticals, showed lower bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with increasing trophic level, i...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tao Lu, Jumei Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Yibing Ma, Erik Smolders, Nanwen Zhu
The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Slađana Č Alagić, Snežana B Tošić, Mile D Dimitrijević, Jelena V Petrović, Dragana V Medić
The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Bobo Guo, Deqi Jiao, Jing Wang, Kai Lei, Chunye Lin
In order to study element accumulation and trophic transfer in the food web, sixteen benthic invertebrate species and nine fish species were collected from the Daliao River estuary for analysis of toxic elements and nitrogen stable isotope in the muscle tissue. The concentrations ranged between 1.44-17.98, 0.01-9.30, 0.17-36.15, 0.7-145.4, 0.01-0.33, 0.14-14.88, 0.10-2.51, 0.02-0.14, and 19.3-221.1mgkg(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in the benthic invertebrates than in fish, whereas Hg and Sb were significantly lower...
September 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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