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Axonal pathfind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202041/the-microtubule-plus-end-tracking-protein-tacc3-promotes-persistent-axon-outgrowth-and-mediates-responses-to-axon-guidance-signals-during-development
#1
Burcu Erdogan, Garrett M Cammarata, Eric J Lee, Benjamin C Pratt, Andrew F Francl, Erin L Rutherford, Laura Anne Lowery
BACKGROUND: Formation of precise neuronal connections requires proper axon guidance. Microtubules (MTs) of the growth cone provide a critical driving force during navigation of the growing ends of axons. Pioneer MTs and their plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are thought to play integrative roles during this navigation. TACC3 is a + TIP that we have previously implicated in regulating MT dynamics within axons. However, the role of TACC3 in axon guidance has not been previously explored...
February 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163913/where-does-axon-guidance-lead-us
#2
REVIEW
Esther Stoeckli
During neural circuit formation, axons need to navigate to their target cells in a complex, constantly changing environment. Although we most likely have identified most axon guidance cues and their receptors, we still cannot explain the molecular background of pathfinding for any subpopulation of axons. We lack mechanistic insight into the regulation of interactions between guidance receptors and their ligands. Recent developments in the field of axon guidance suggest that the regulation of surface expression of guidance receptors comprises transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms, such as trafficking of vesicles with specific cargos, protein-protein interactions, and specific proteolysis of guidance receptors...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147273/mir-182-regulates-slit2-mediated-axon-guidance-by-modulating-the-local-translation-of-a-specific-mrna
#3
Anaïs Bellon, Archana Iyer, Simone Bridi, Flora C Y Lee, Cesaré Ovando-Vázquez, Eloina Corradi, Sara Longhi, Michela Roccuzzo, Stephanie Strohbuecker, Sindhu Naik, Peter Sarkies, Eric Miska, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Christine E Holt, Marie-Laure Baudet
During brain wiring, cue-induced axon behaviors such as directional steering and branching are aided by localized mRNA translation. Different guidance cues elicit translation of subsets of mRNAs that differentially regulate the cytoskeleton, yet little is understood about how specific mRNAs are selected for translation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical translational regulators that act through a sequence-specific mechanism. Here, we investigate the local role of miRNAs in mRNA-specific translation during pathfinding of Xenopus laevis retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137836/dscam-promotes-axon-fasciculation-and-growth-in-the-developing-optic-pathway
#4
Freyja M Bruce, Samantha Brown, Jonathan N Smith, Peter G Fuerst, Lynda Erskine
Although many aspects of optic pathway development are beginning to be understood, the mechanisms promoting the growth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons toward visual targets remain largely unknown. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) is expressed by mouse RGCs shortly after they differentiate at embryonic day 12 and is essential for multiple aspects of postnatal visual system development. Here we show that Dscam is also required during embryonic development for the fasciculation and growth of RGC axons...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095612/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-system-to-study-cytoskeletal-dynamics-during-axon-pathfinding
#5
REVIEW
Paula G Slater, Laurie Hayrapetian, Laura Anne Lowery
The model system, Xenopus laevis, has been used in innumerable research studies and has contributed to the understanding of multiple cytoskeletal components, including actin, microtubules, and neurofilaments, during axon pathfinding. Xenopus developmental stages have been widely characterized, and the Xenopus genome has been sequenced, allowing gene expression modifications through exogenous molecules. Xenopus cell cultures are ideal for long periods of live imaging because they are easily obtained and maintained, and they do not require special culture conditions...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089851/neuregulin-1-mutant-mice-indicate-motor-and-sensory-deficits-indeed-few-references-for-schizophrenia-endophenotype-model
#6
Silvia Schneider, Katja Götz, Carmen Birchmeier, Herbert Schwegler, Thomas Roskoden
Neuregulins (Nrg) are a gene family that binds to tyrosine kinase receptors of the ErbB family. The protein of Nrg1 is to be involved in heart formation, migration of neurons, axonal pathfinding and synaptic function. A relation between Nrg1 and schizophrenia is assumed. Chronic impairment in schizophrenia is characterized by different positive and negative symptoms. Detectable markers of this disease in human and in animal models are activity, social behavior and sensory processing. In this study we compared heterozygous Nrg1 mutant mice in behavior and quantification of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons with wild type-like littermates...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044206/collapsin-response-mediator-protein-2-high-resolution-crystal-structure-sheds-light-on-small-molecule-binding-post-translational-modifications-and-conformational-flexibility
#7
Matti Myllykoski, Anne Baumann, Kenneth Hensley, Petri Kursula
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is a neuronal protein involved in axonal pathfinding. Intense research is focusing on its role in various neurological diseases. Despite a wealth of studies, not much is known about the molecular mechanisms of CRMP-2 function in vivo. The detailed structure-function relationships of CRMP-2 have also largely remained unknown, in part due to the fact that the available crystal structures lack the C-terminal tail, which is known to be a target for many post-translational modifications and protein interactions...
January 2, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038945/role-of-the-adhesion-molecule-f3-contactin-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#8
REVIEW
Walter Gulisano, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033651/axons-get-ahead-insights-into-axon-guidance-and-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#9
REVIEW
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973564/chondroitinase-c-selectively-degrades-chondroitin-sulfate-glycosaminoglycans-that-inhibit-axonal-growth-within-the-endoneurium-of-peripheral-nerve
#10
James B Graham, David Muir
The success of peripheral nerve regeneration is highly dependent on the regrowth of axons within the endoneurial basal lamina tubes that promote target-oriented pathfinding and appropriate reinnervation. Restoration of nerve continuity at this structural level after nerve transection injury by direct repair and nerve grafting remains a major surgical challenge. Recently, biological approaches that alter the balance of growth inhibitors and promoters in nerve have shown promise to improve appropriate axonal regeneration and recovery of peripheral nerve function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955617/planar-cell-polarity-genes-frizzled3a-vangl2-and-scribble-are-required-for-spinal-commissural-axon-guidance
#11
Simon D Sun, Ashley M Purdy, Gregory S Walsh
BACKGROUND: A fundamental feature of early nervous system development is the guidance of axonal projections to their targets in order to assemble neural circuits that control behavior. Spinal commissural neurons are an attractive model to investigate the multiple guidance cues that control growth cone navigation both pre- and post-midline crossing, as well as along both the dorsal-ventral (D-V) and anterior-posterior (A-P) axes. Accumulating evidence suggests that guidance of spinal commissural axons along the A-P axis is dependent on components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway...
December 12, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935475/thalamo-cortical-axons-regulate-the-radial-dispersion-of-neocortical-gabaergic-interneurons
#12
Sabrina Zechel, Yasushi Nakagawa, Carlos F Ibáñez
Neocortical GABAergic interneuron migration and thalamo-cortical axon (TCA) pathfinding follow similar trajectories and timing, suggesting they may be interdependent. The mechanisms that regulate the radial dispersion of neocortical interneurons are incompletely understood. Here we report that disruption of TCA innervation, or TCA-derived glutamate, affected the laminar distribution of GABAergic interneurons in mouse neocortex, resulting in abnormal accumulation in deep layers of interneurons that failed to switch from tangential to radial orientation...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920266/variability-of-ponto-cerebellar-fibers-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-diverse-brain-malformations
#13
Nancy K Rollins, Timothy N Booth, Maria H Chahrour
To describe pontine axonal anomalies across diverse brain malformations. Institutional review board-approved review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic testing of 31 children with brain malformations and abnormal pons by diffusion tensor imaging. Anomalous dorsal pontocerebellar tracts were seen in mid-hindbrain anomalies and in diffuse malformations of cortical development including lissencephaly, gyral disorganization with dysplastic basal ganglia, presumed congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3, and in callosal agenesis without malformations of cortical development...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913619/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nf2-merlin-molecule-nfm-1-nonautonomously-regulates-neuroblast-migration-and-interacts-genetically-with-the-guidance-cue-slt-1-slit
#14
Matthew P Josephson, Rana Aliani, Megan L Norris, Matthew E Ochs, Mahekta Gujar, Erik A Lundquist
During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871938/the-role-of-gpi-anchored-axonal-glycoproteins-in-neural-development-and-neurological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Gianfranco Gennarini, Antonella Bizzoca, Sabrina Picocci, Daniela Puzzo, Patrizia Corsi, Andrew J W Furley
This review article focuses on the Contactin (CNTN) subset of the Immunoglobulin supergene family (IgC2/FNIII molecules), whose components share structural properties (the association of Immunoglobulin type C2 with Fibronectin type III domains), as well as a general role in cell contact formation and axonal growth control. IgC2/FNIII molecules include 6 highly related components (CNTN 1-6), associated with the cell membrane via a Glycosyl Phosphatidyl Inositol (GPI)-containing lipid tail. Contactin 1 and Contactin 2 share ~50 (49...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819291/isl1-based-lim-complexes-control-slit2-transcription-in-developing-cranial-motor-neurons
#16
Kyung-Tai Kim, Namhee Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Hojae Lee, Hannah N Gruner, Peter Gergics, Chungoo Park, Grant S Mastick, Hae-Chul Park, Mi-Ryoung Song
LIM-homeodomain (HD) transcription factors form a multimeric complex and assign neuronal subtype identities, as demonstrated by the hexameric ISL1-LHX3 complex which gives rise to somatic motor (SM) neurons. However, the roles of combinatorial LIM code in motor neuron diversification and their subsequent differentiation is much less well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ISL1 controls postmitotic cranial branchiomotor (BM) neurons including the positioning of the cell bodies and peripheral axon pathfinding...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787870/characterizing-semaphorin-mediated-effects-on-sensory-and-motor-axon-pathfinding-and-connectivity-during-embryonic-development
#17
Rosa Eva Huettl, Andrea B Huber
How are precise connectivity to peripheral targets and corresponding sensory-motor networks established during developmental innervation of the vertebrate extremities? The formation of functional sensory-motor circuits requires highly appropriate temporal and spatial regulation of axon growth which is achieved through the combination of different molecular mechanisms such as communication between heterotypic fiber systems, axon-environment, or axon-glia interactions that ensure proper fasciculation and accurate pathfinding to distal targets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752071/neuronal-development-forcing-axon-pathfinding
#18
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733818/expression-patterns-of-extracellular-matrix-proteins-during-posterior-commissure-development
#19
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722035/regulation-of-neuronal-gene-expression-by-local-axonal-translation
#20
Lulu I T Korsak, Molly E Mitchell, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
RNA localization is a key mechanism in the regulation of protein expression. In neurons, this includes the axonal transport of select mRNAs based on the recognition of axonal localization motifs in these RNAs by RNA binding proteins. Bioinformatic analyses of axonal RNAs suggest that selective inclusion of such localization motifs in mature mRNAs is one mechanism controlling the composition of the axonal transcriptome. The subsequent translation of axonal transcripts in response to specific stimuli provides precise spatiotemporal control of the axonal proteome...
March 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
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