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Axonal pathfind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#1
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894005/varicose-and-cheerio-collaborate-with-pebble-to-mediate-semaphorin-1a-reverse-signaling-in-drosophila
#2
Sangyun Jeong, Da-Som Yang, Young Gi Hong, Sarah P Mitchell, Matthew P Brown, Alex L Kolodkin
The transmembrane semaphorin Sema-1a acts as both a ligand and a receptor to regulate axon-axon repulsion during neural development. Pebble (Pbl), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mediates Sema-1a reverse signaling through association with the N-terminal region of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization. Here, we uncover two additional Sema-1a interacting proteins, varicose (Vari) and cheerio (Cher), each with neuronal functions required for motor axon pathfinding...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807781/engrailed-controls-epaxial-hypaxial-muscle-innervation-and-the-establishment-of-vertebrate-three-dimensional-mobility
#3
Mohi U Ahmed, Ashish K Maurya, Louise Cheng, Erika C Jorge, Frank R Schubert, Pascal Maire, M Albert Basson, Philip W Ingham, Susanne Dietrich
Chordates are characterised by contractile muscle on either side of the body that promotes movement by side-to-side undulation. In the lineage leading to modern jawed vertebrates (crown group gnathostomes), this system was refined: body muscle became segregated into distinct dorsal (epaxial) and ventral (hypaxial) components that are separately innervated by the medial and hypaxial motors column, respectively, via the dorsal and ventral ramus of the spinal nerves. This allows full three-dimensional mobility, which in turn was a key factor in their evolutionary success...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765051/how-does-calcium-interact-with-the-cytoskeleton-to-regulate-growth-cone-motility-during-axon-pathfinding
#4
REVIEW
Robert J Gasperini, Macarena Pavez, Adrian C Thompson, Camilla B Mitchell, Holly Hardy, Kaylene M Young, John K Chilton, Lisa Foa
The precision with which neurons form connections is crucial for the normal development and function of the nervous system. The development of neuronal circuitry in the nervous system is accomplished by axon pathfinding: a process where growth cones guide axons through the embryonic environment to connect with their appropriate synaptic partners to form functional circuits. Despite intense efforts over many years to understand how this process is regulated, the complete repertoire of molecular mechanisms that govern the growth cone cytoskeleton and hence motility, remain unresolved...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654041/visualization-of-the-axonal-projection-pattern-of-embryonic-motor-neurons-in-drosophila
#5
Sangyun Jeong
The establishment of functional neuromuscular circuits relies on precise connections between developing motor axons and target muscles. Motor neurons extend growth cones to navigate along specific pathways by responding to a large number of axon guidance cues that emanate from the surrounding extracellular environment. Growth cone target recognition also plays a critical role in neuromuscular specificity. This work presents a standard immunohistochemistry protocol to visualize motor neuron projections of late stage-16 Drosophila melanogaster embryos...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638718/substance-p-nk1-receptor-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum-during-postnatal-development
#6
Paolo Barbaresi, Emanuela Mensà, Guendalina Bastioli, Salvatore Amoroso
INTRODUCTION: The expression of substance P (SP) receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1) was studied in the rat corpus callosum (cc) from postnatal day 0 (the first 24 hr from birth, P0) to P30. METHODS: We used immunocytochemistry to study the presence of intracallosal NK1-immunopositive neurons (NK1IP-n) during cc development. RESULTS: NK1IP-n first appeared on P5. Their number increased significantly between P5 and P10, it remained almost constant between P10 and P15, then declined slightly until P30...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614915/identification-of-an-enhancer-critical-for-the-ephirn-a5-gene-expression-in-the-posterior-region-of-the-mesencephalon
#7
Eunjeong Park, Hyuna Noh, Soochul Park
Ephrin-A5 has been implicated in the regulation of brain morphogenesis and axon pathfinding. In this study, we used bacterial homologous recombination to express a LacZ reporter in various ephrin-A5 BAC clones to identify elements that regulate ephrin-A5 gene expression during mesencephalon development. We found that there is mesencephalon-specific enhancer activity localized to a specific +25.0 kb to +30.5 kb genomic region in the first intron of ephrin-A5. Further comparative genomic analysis indicated that two evolutionary conserved regions, ECR1 and ECR2, were present within this 5...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#8
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542923/the-polysialic-acid-mimetics-idarubicin-and-irinotecan-stimulate-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-and-signal-via-protein-kinase-c
#9
Gabriele Loers, Steven Astafiev, Yuliya Hapiak, Vedangana Saini, Bibhudatta Mishra, Sheraz Gul, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner, Thomas Theis
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536298/papers-of-note-in-nature545-7654
#10
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight plant growth responses to nutrients; axonal pathfinding; an unexpected source of tumor niche cells; photosensation in the fly brain; the selectivity of GPCRs for specific G proteins; balancing mTORC signaling; and a connection between gut microbes and brain vasculature malformations.
May 23, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#11
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching, and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1-repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469554/physiological-functions-of-the-%C3%AE-site-amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving-enzyme-1-and-2
#12
REVIEW
Riqiang Yan
BACE1 was discovered as the β-secretase for initiating the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the β-secretase site, while its close homology BACE2 cleaves APP within the β-amyloid (Aβ) domain region and shows distinct cleavage preferences in vivo. Inhibition of BACE1 proteolytic activity has been confirmed to decrease Aβ generation and amyloid deposition, and thus specific inhibition of BACE1 by small molecules is a current focus for Alzheimer's disease therapy. While BACE1 inhibitors are being tested in advanced clinical trials, knowledge regarding the properties and physiological functions of BACE is highly important and this review summarizes advancements in BACE1 research over the past several years...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#13
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#14
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430358/regulation-of-axon-arborization-pattern-in-the-developing-chick-ciliary-ganglion-possible-involvement-of-caspase-3
#15
Hidetaka Katow, Teppei Kanaya, Tomohisa Ogawa, Ryo Egawa, Hiromu Yawo
During a certain critical period in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, axonal branches and synapses are massively reorganized to form mature connections. In this process, neurons search their appropriate targets, expanding and/or retracting their axons. Recent work suggested that the caspase superfamily regulates the axon morphology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase 3, which is one of the major executioners in apoptotic cell death, is involved in regulating the axon arborization...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#16
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320840/k-channel-kv3-4-is-essential-for-axon-growth-by-limiting-the-influx-of-ca-2-into-growth-cones
#17
Chia-Yi Huang, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chau-Fu Cheng, Ting-Yun Yen, Chieh-Ju Chen, Meei-Ling Tsaur
Membrane excitability in the axonal growth cones of embryonic neurons influences axon growth. Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are key factors in controlling membrane excitability, but whether they regulate axon growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Kv3.4 is expressed in the axonal growth cones of embryonic spinal commissural neurons, motoneurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, and callosal projection neurons during axon growth. Our in vitro (cultured dorsal spinal neurons of chick embryos) and in vivo (developing chick spinal commissural axons and rat callosal axons) findings demonstrate that knockdown of Kv3...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236973/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-and-phosphatases-in-neuronal-wiring-insights-from-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Carlos Oliva, Bassem A Hassan
Tyrosine phosphorylation is at the crossroads of many signaling pathways. Brain wiring is not an exception, and several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and tyrosine receptor phosphates (RPTPs) have been involved in this process. Considerable work has been done on RTKs, and for many of them, detailed molecular mechanisms and functions in several systems have been characterized. In contrast, RPTPs have been studied considerably less and little is known about their ligands and substrates. In both families, we find redundancy between different members to accomplish particular wiring patterns...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#19
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Duc Tri Lam, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202041/the-microtubule-plus-end-tracking-protein-tacc3-promotes-persistent-axon-outgrowth-and-mediates-responses-to-axon-guidance-signals-during-development
#20
Burcu Erdogan, Garrett M Cammarata, Eric J Lee, Benjamin C Pratt, Andrew F Francl, Erin L Rutherford, Laura Anne Lowery
BACKGROUND: Formation of precise neuronal connections requires proper axon guidance. Microtubules (MTs) of the growth cone provide a critical driving force during navigation of the growing ends of axons. Pioneer MTs and their plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are thought to play integrative roles during this navigation. TACC3 is a + TIP that we have previously implicated in regulating MT dynamics within axons. However, the role of TACC3 in axon guidance has not been previously explored...
February 15, 2017: Neural Development
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