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Axonal pathfind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913619/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nf2-merlin-molecule-nfm-1-non-autonomously-regulates-neuroblast-migration-and-interacts-genetically-with-the-guidance-cue-slt-1-slit
#1
Matthew P Josephson, Rana Aliani, Megan L Norris, Matthew E Ochs, Mahekta Gujar, Erik A Lundquist
During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871938/the-role-of-gpi-anchored-axonal-glycoproteins-in-neural-development-and-neurological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Gianfranco Gennarini, Antonella Bizzoca, Sabrina Picocci, Daniela Puzzo, Patrizia Corsi, Andrew J W Furley
This review article focuses on the Contactin (CNTN) subset of the Immunoglobulin supergene family (IgC2/FNIII molecules), whose components share structural properties (the association of Immunoglobulin type C2 with Fibronectin type III domains), as well as a general role in cell contact formation and axonal growth control. IgC2/FNIII molecules include 6 highly related components (CNTN 1-6), associated with the cell membrane via a Glycosyl Phosphatidyl Inositol (GPI)-containing lipid tail. Contactin 1 and Contactin 2 share ~50 (49...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819291/isl1-based-lim-complexes-control-slit2-transcription-in-developing-cranial-motor-neurons
#3
Kyung-Tai Kim, Namhee Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Hojae Lee, Hannah N Gruner, Peter Gergics, Chungoo Park, Grant S Mastick, Hae-Chul Park, Mi-Ryoung Song
LIM-homeodomain (HD) transcription factors form a multimeric complex and assign neuronal subtype identities, as demonstrated by the hexameric ISL1-LHX3 complex which gives rise to somatic motor (SM) neurons. However, the roles of combinatorial LIM code in motor neuron diversification and their subsequent differentiation is much less well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ISL1 controls postmitotic cranial branchiomotor (BM) neurons including the positioning of the cell bodies and peripheral axon pathfinding...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787870/characterizing-semaphorin-mediated-effects-on-sensory-and-motor-axon-pathfinding-and-connectivity-during-embryonic-development
#4
Rosa Eva Huettl, Andrea B Huber
How are precise connectivity to peripheral targets and corresponding sensory-motor networks established during developmental innervation of the vertebrate extremities? The formation of functional sensory-motor circuits requires highly appropriate temporal and spatial regulation of axon growth which is achieved through the combination of different molecular mechanisms such as communication between heterotypic fiber systems, axon-environment, or axon-glia interactions that ensure proper fasciculation and accurate pathfinding to distal targets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752071/neuronal-development-forcing-axon-pathfinding
#5
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733818/expression-patterns-of-extracellular-matrix-proteins-during-posterior-commissure-development
#6
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722035/regulation-of-neuronal-gene-expression-by-local-axonal-translation
#7
Lulu I T Korsak, Molly E Mitchell, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
RNA localization is a key mechanism in the regulation of protein expression. In neurons, this includes the axonal transport of select mRNAs based on the recognition of axonal localization motifs in these RNAs by RNA binding proteins. Bioinformatic analyses of axonal RNAs suggest that selective inclusion of such localization motifs in mature mRNAs is one mechanism controlling the composition of the axonal transcriptome. The subsequent translation of axonal transcripts in response to specific stimuli provides precise spatiotemporal control of the axonal proteome...
March 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643431/mechanosensing-is-critical-for-axon-growth-in-the-developing-brain
#8
David E Koser, Amelia J Thompson, Sarah K Foster, Asha Dwivedy, Eva K Pillai, Graham K Sheridan, Hanno Svoboda, Matheus Viana, Luciano da F Costa, Jochen Guck, Christine E Holt, Kristian Franze
During nervous system development, neurons extend axons along well-defined pathways. The current understanding of axon pathfinding is based mainly on chemical signaling. However, growing neurons interact not only chemically but also mechanically with their environment. Here we identify mechanical signals as important regulators of axon pathfinding. In vitro, substrate stiffness determined growth patterns of Xenopus retinal ganglion cell axons. In vivo atomic force microscopy revealed a noticeable pattern of stiffness gradients in the embryonic brain...
September 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637927/differential-ligand-regulation-of-plexb-signaling-in-motor-neuron-axon-guidance-in-drosophila
#9
Seyun Roh, Da-Som Yang, Sangyun Jeong
Plexins (Plexs) are a large family of phylogenetically conserved guidance receptors that bind specifically to semaphorins (Semas), another large family of guidance molecules. In the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS), the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b both act as ligands for PlexB, but mediate mutually independent and opposite functions (repulsive and attractive guidance, respectively). PlexB is also known to regulate motor axon guidance in the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587945/bcl-2-bcl-xl-and-p-akt-are-involved-in-neuroprotective-effects-of-transcription-factor-brn3b-in-an-ocular-hypertension-rat-model-of-glaucoma
#10
Nitasha R Phatak, Dorota L Stankowska, Raghu R Krishnamoorthy
PURPOSE: Brn3b is a class IV POU domain transcription factor that plays an important role in the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), RGC survival, and particularly axon growth and pathfinding. Our previous study demonstrated that recombinant adenoassociated virus serotype 2 (rAAV-2)-mediated overexpression of Brn3b in RGCs promoted neuroprotection in a rodent model of glaucoma. However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of RGCs in rats overexpressing Brn3b in animal models of glaucoma remain largely unknown...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586289/developmental-and-regulatory-functions-of-na-channel-non-pore-forming-%C3%AE-subunits
#11
J J Winters, L L Isom
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) isolated from mammalian neurons are heterotrimeric complexes containing one pore-forming α subunit and two non-pore-forming β subunits. In excitable cells, VGSCs are responsible for the initiation of action potentials. VGSC β subunits are type I topology glycoproteins, containing an extracellular amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) domain with homology to many neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), a single transmembrane segment, and an intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain...
2016: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460512/spatial-temperature-gradients-guide-axonal-outgrowth
#12
Bryan Black, Vivek Vishwakarma, Kamal Dhakal, Samik Bhattarai, Prabhakar Pradhan, Ankur Jain, Young-Tae Kim, Samarendra Mohanty
Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452696/plexins-function-in-epithelial-repair-in-both-drosophila-and-zebrafish
#13
Sa Kan Yoo, Heath G Pascoe, Telmo Pereira, Shu Kondo, Antonio Jacinto, Xuewu Zhang, Iswar K Hariharan
In most multicellular organisms, homeostasis is contingent upon maintaining epithelial integrity. When unanticipated insults breach epithelial barriers, dormant programmes of tissue repair are immediately activated. However, many of the mechanisms that repair damaged epithelia remain poorly characterized. Here we describe a role for Plexin A (PlexA), a protein with particularly well-characterized roles in axonal pathfinding, in the healing of damaged epithelia in Drosophila. Semaphorins, which are PlexA ligands, also regulate tissue repair...
July 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385015/imp2-axonal-localization-rna-interactome-and-function-in-the-development-of-axon-trajectories
#14
Nicolas Preitner, Jie Quan, Xinmin Li, Finn C Nielsen, John G Flanagan
RNA-based regulatory mechanisms play important roles in the development and plasticity of neural circuits and neurological disease. Developing axons provide a model well suited to the study of RNA-based regulation, and contain specific subsets of mRNAs that are locally translated and have roles in axon pathfinding. However, the RNA-binding proteins involved in axon pathfinding, and their corresponding mRNA targets, are still largely unknown. Here we find that the RNA-binding protein IMP2 (Igf2bp2) is strikingly enriched in developing axon tracts, including in spinal commissural axons...
August 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295627/transmembrane-semaphorins-multimodal-signaling-cues-in-development-and-cancer
#15
Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Luca Tamagnone
Semaphorins constitute a large family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins that provide guidance cues for axon pathfinding and cell migration. Although initially discovered as repelling cues for axons in nervous system, they have been found to regulate cell adhesion and motility, angiogenesis, immune function and tumor progression. Notably, semaphorins are bifunctional cues and for instance can mediate both repulsive and attractive functions in different contexts. While many studies focused so far on the function of secreted family members, class 1 semaphorins in invertebrates and class 4, 5 and 6 in vertebrate species comprise around 14 transmembrane semaphorin molecules with emerging functional relevance...
June 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277800/%C3%AE-1-c121w-is-down-but-not-out-epilepsy-associated-scn1b-c121w-results-in-a-deleterious-gain-of-function
#16
Larisa C Kruger, Heather A O'Malley, Jacob M Hull, Amanda Kleeman, Gustavo A Patino, Lori L Isom
UNLABELLED: Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) β subunits signal through multiple pathways on multiple time scales. In addition to modulating sodium and potassium currents, β subunits play nonconducting roles as cell adhesion molecules, which allow them to function in cell-cell communication, neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth, neuronal pathfinding, and axonal fasciculation. Mutations in SCN1B, encoding VGSC β1 and β1B, are associated with epilepsy. Autosomal-dominant SCN1B-C121W, the first epilepsy-associated VGSC mutation identified, results in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273796/mechanical-elongation-of-astrocyte-processes-to-create-living-scaffolds-for-nervous-system-regeneration
#17
Kritika S Katiyar, Carla C Winter, Laura A Struzyna, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Following brain injury or neurodegenerative disease, successful regeneration requires orchestrated migration of neurons and reformation of long-distance communication fibres, or axons. Such extensive regeneration does not occur in the mature brain; however, during embryonic development, pathways formed by glial cells extend several millimeters (mm) to create 'living scaffolds' for targeted neural cell migration and axonal pathfinding. Techniques to recapitulate long process outgrowth in glial cells have proven elusive, preventing the exploitation of this developmental mechanism for regeneration...
June 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240594/human-robo1-regulates-white-matter-structure-in-corpus-callosum
#18
Fahimeh Darki, Satu Massinen, Elina Salmela, Hans Matsson, Myriam Peyrard-Janvid, Torkel Klingberg, Juha Kere
The axon guidance receptor, Robo1, controls the pathfinding of callosal axons in mice. To determine whether the orthologous ROBO1 gene is involved in callosal development also in humans, we studied polymorphisms in the ROBO1 gene and variation in the white matter structure in the corpus callosum using both structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. We found that five polymorphisms in the regulatory region of ROBO1 were associated with white matter density in the posterior part of the corpus callosum pathways...
May 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223325/nova2-mediated-rna-regulation-is-required-for-axonal-pathfinding-during-development
#19
Yuhki Saito, Soledad Miranda-Rottmann, Matteo Ruggiu, Christopher Y Park, John J Fak, Ru Zhong, Jeremy S Duncan, Brian A Fabella, Harald J Junge, Zhe Chen, Roberto Araya, Bernd Fritzsch, A J Hudspeth, Robert B Darnell
The neuron specific RNA-binding proteins NOVA1 and NOVA2 are highly homologous alternative splicing regulators. NOVA proteins regulate at least 700 alternative splicing events in vivo, yet relatively little is known about the biologic consequences of NOVA action and in particular about functional differences between NOVA1 and NOVA2. Transcriptome-wide searches for isoform-specific functions, using NOVA1 and NOVA2 specific HITS-CLIP and RNA-seq data from mouse cortex lacking either NOVA isoform, reveals that NOVA2 uniquely regulates alternative splicing events of a series of axon guidance related genes during cortical development...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185837/dscr1-is-required-for-both-axonal-growth-cone-extension-and-steering
#20
Wei Wang, Asit Rai, Eun-Mi Hur, Zeev Smilansky, Karen T Chang, Kyung-Tai Min
Local information processing in the growth cone is essential for correct wiring of the nervous system. As an axon navigates through the developing nervous system, the growth cone responds to extrinsic guidance cues by coordinating axon outgrowth with growth cone steering. It has become increasingly clear that axon extension requires proper actin polymerization dynamics, whereas growth cone steering involves local protein synthesis. However, molecular components integrating these two processes have not been identified...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
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