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Axonal pathfind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#1
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141179/formation-of-longitudinal-axon-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
REVIEW
Harald Hutter
The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest longitudinal axon tract, the ventral nerve cord (VNC)...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#3
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
November 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#4
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099309/the-autophagy-inducing-kinases-ulk1-and-ulk2-regulate-axon-guidance-in-the-developing-mouse-forebrain-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#5
Bo Wang, Rekha Iyengar, Xiujie Li-Harms, Joung Hyuck Joo, Christopher Wright, Alfonso Lavado, Linda Horner, Mao Yang, Jun-Lin Guan, Sharon Frase, Douglas R Green, Xinwei Cao, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) and ULK2, Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-51, and Drosophila melanogaster Atg1 are serine/threonine kinases that regulate flux through the autophagy pathway in response to various types of cellular stress. C. elegans UNC-51 and D. melanogaster Atg1 also promote axonal growth and defasciculation; disruption of these genes results in defective axon guidance in invertebrates. Although disrupting ULK1/2 function impairs normal neurite outgrowth in vitro, the role of ULK1 and ULK2 in the developing brain remains poorly characterized...
November 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097190/control-of-nerve-cord-formation-by-engrailed-and-gooseberry-neuro-a-multi-step-coordinated-process
#6
Nathalie Bonneaud, Sophie Layalle, Sophie Colomb, Christophe Jourdan, Alain Ghysen, Dany Severac, Christelle Dantec, Nicolas Nègre, Florence Maschat
One way to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the construction of a nervous system is to identify the downstream effectors of major regulatory proteins. We previously showed that Engrailed (EN) and Gooseberry-Neuro (GsbN) transcription factors act in partnership to drive the formation of posterior commissures in the central nervous system of Drosophila. In this report, we identified genes regulated by both EN and GsbN through chromatin immunoprecipitation ("ChIP on chip") and transcriptome experiments, combined to a genetic screen relied to the gene dose titration method...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059194/role-of-neuropilin-1-semaphorin-3a-signaling-in-the-functional-and-morphological-integrity-of-the-cochlea
#7
Pezhman Salehi, Marshall X Ge, Usha Gundimeda, Leah Michelle Baum, Homero Lael Cantu, Joel Lavinsky, Litao Tao, Anthony Myint, Charlene Cruz, Juemei Wang, Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Carolina Abdala, Matthew William Kelley, Takahiro Ohyama, Thomas Matthew Coate, Rick A Friedman
Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) encodes the transmembrane cellular receptor neuropilin-1, which is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal development and was within the peak SNP interval on chromosome 8 in our prior GWAS study on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in mice. In this study, we generated and characterized an inner ear-specific Nrp1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line because Nrp1 constitutive knockouts are embryonic lethal. In situ hybridization demonstrated weak Nrp1 mRNA expression late in embryonic cochlear development, but increased expression in early postnatal stages when cochlear hair cell innervation patterns have been shown to mature...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038237/the-gain-of-function-integrin-%C3%AE-3-pro33-variant-alters-the-serotonin-system-in-the-mouse-brain
#8
Michael R Dohn, Christopher G Kooker, Lisa Bastarache, Tammy Jessen, Capria Rinaldi, Seth Varney, Matthew D Mazalouskas, Hope Pan, Kendra H Oliver, Digna R Velez Edwards, James S Sutcliffe, Joshua C Denny, Ana M D Carneiro
Engagement of integrins by the extracellular matrix initiates signaling cascades that drive a variety of cellular functions, including neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding in the brain. Multiple lines of evidence link the ITGB3 gene encoding the integrin β3 subunit with the serotonin (5-HT) system, likely via its modulation of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). The ITGB3 coding polymorphism Leu33Pro (rs5918, Pl(A2)) produces hyperactive αvβ3 receptors that influence whole blood 5-HT levels and may influence risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018333/cadherin-13-deficiency-increases-dorsal-raphe-5-ht-neuron-density-and-prefrontal-cortex-innervation-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Andrea Forero, Olga Rivero, Sina Wäldchen, Hsing-Ping Ku, Dominik P Kiser, Yvonne Gärtner, Laura S Pennington, Jonas Waider, Patricia Gaspar, Charline Jansch, Frank Edenhofer, Thérèse J Resink, Robert Blum, Markus Sauer, Klaus-Peter Lesch
Background: During early prenatal stages of brain development, serotonin (5-HT)-specific neurons migrate through somal translocation to form the raphe nuclei and subsequently begin to project to their target regions. The rostral cluster of cells, comprising the median and dorsal raphe (DR), innervates anterior regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex. Differential analysis of the mouse 5-HT system transcriptome identified enrichment of cell adhesion molecules in 5-HT neurons of the DR. One of these molecules, cadherin-13 (Cdh13) has been shown to play a role in cell migration, axon pathfinding, and synaptogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953094/combined-use-of-in-ovo-electroporation-and-cultured-neurons-for-gene-function-analysis-of-embryogenesis-in-the-chicken-optic-tectum
#10
Ciqing Yang, Xiaoying Li, Qiuling Li, Bichao Zhang, Han Li, Juntang Lin
Chicken embryos are used widely in the fields of developmental biology and neurobiology. The chicken embryo also serves as a model to analyze gene expression and function using in ovo electroporation. Plasmids may be injected into the spinal cord or tectum of the chicken central nervous system by microinjection for electroporation. Here, we developed a novel method that combines in ovo electroporation and neuronal culturing to study gene function in the chicken tectum during embryo development. Our method can be used to study in-vivo and in-vitro exogenous genes' function...
December 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#11
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894005/varicose-and-cheerio-collaborate-with-pebble-to-mediate-semaphorin-1a-reverse-signaling-in-drosophila
#12
Sangyun Jeong, Da-Som Yang, Young Gi Hong, Sarah P Mitchell, Matthew P Brown, Alex L Kolodkin
The transmembrane semaphorin Sema-1a acts as both a ligand and a receptor to regulate axon-axon repulsion during neural development. Pebble (Pbl), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mediates Sema-1a reverse signaling through association with the N-terminal region of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization. Here, we uncover two additional Sema-1a interacting proteins, varicose (Vari) and cheerio (Cher), each with neuronal functions required for motor axon pathfinding...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807781/engrailed-controls-epaxial-hypaxial-muscle-innervation-and-the-establishment-of-vertebrate-three-dimensional-mobility
#13
Mohi U Ahmed, Ashish K Maurya, Louise Cheng, Erika C Jorge, Frank R Schubert, Pascal Maire, M Albert Basson, Philip W Ingham, Susanne Dietrich
Chordates are characterised by contractile muscle on either side of the body that promotes movement by side-to-side undulation. In the lineage leading to modern jawed vertebrates (crown group gnathostomes), this system was refined: body muscle became segregated into distinct dorsal (epaxial) and ventral (hypaxial) components that are separately innervated by the medial and hypaxial motors column, respectively, via the dorsal and ventral ramus of the spinal nerves. This allows full three-dimensional mobility, which in turn was a key factor in their evolutionary success...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765051/how-does-calcium-interact-with-the-cytoskeleton-to-regulate-growth-cone-motility-during-axon-pathfinding
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Gasperini, Macarena Pavez, Adrian C Thompson, Camilla B Mitchell, Holly Hardy, Kaylene M Young, John K Chilton, Lisa Foa
The precision with which neurons form connections is crucial for the normal development and function of the nervous system. The development of neuronal circuitry in the nervous system is accomplished by axon pathfinding: a process where growth cones guide axons through the embryonic environment to connect with their appropriate synaptic partners to form functional circuits. Despite intense efforts over many years to understand how this process is regulated, the complete repertoire of molecular mechanisms that govern the growth cone cytoskeleton and hence motility, remain unresolved...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654041/visualization-of-the-axonal-projection-pattern-of-embryonic-motor-neurons-in-drosophila
#15
Sangyun Jeong
The establishment of functional neuromuscular circuits relies on precise connections between developing motor axons and target muscles. Motor neurons extend growth cones to navigate along specific pathways by responding to a large number of axon guidance cues that emanate from the surrounding extracellular environment. Growth cone target recognition also plays a critical role in neuromuscular specificity. This work presents a standard immunohistochemistry protocol to visualize motor neuron projections of late stage-16 Drosophila melanogaster embryos...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638718/substance-p-nk1-receptor-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum-during-postnatal-development
#16
Paolo Barbaresi, Emanuela Mensà, Guendalina Bastioli, Salvatore Amoroso
INTRODUCTION: The expression of substance P (SP) receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1) was studied in the rat corpus callosum (cc) from postnatal day 0 (the first 24 hr from birth, P0) to P30. METHODS: We used immunocytochemistry to study the presence of intracallosal NK1-immunopositive neurons (NK1IP-n) during cc development. RESULTS: NK1IP-n first appeared on P5. Their number increased significantly between P5 and P10, it remained almost constant between P10 and P15, then declined slightly until P30...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614915/identification-of-an-enhancer-critical-for-the-ephirn-a5-gene-expression-in-the-posterior-region-of-the-mesencephalon
#17
Eunjeong Park, Hyuna Noh, Soochul Park
Ephrin-A5 has been implicated in the regulation of brain morphogenesis and axon pathfinding. In this study, we used bacterial homologous recombination to express a LacZ reporter in various ephrin-A5 BAC clones to identify elements that regulate ephrin-A5 gene expression during mesencephalon development. We found that there is mesencephalon-specific enhancer activity localized to a specific +25.0 kb to +30.5 kb genomic region in the first intron of ephrin-A5. Further comparative genomic analysis indicated that two evolutionary conserved regions, ECR1 and ECR2, were present within this 5...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#18
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542923/the-polysialic-acid-mimetics-idarubicin-and-irinotecan-stimulate-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-and-signal-via-protein-kinase-c
#19
Gabriele Loers, Steven Astafiev, Yuliya Hapiak, Vedangana Saini, Bibhudatta Mishra, Sheraz Gul, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner, Thomas Theis
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536298/papers-of-note-in-nature545-7654
#20
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight plant growth responses to nutrients; axonal pathfinding; an unexpected source of tumor niche cells; photosensation in the fly brain; the selectivity of GPCRs for specific G proteins; balancing mTORC signaling; and a connection between gut microbes and brain vasculature malformations.
May 23, 2017: Science Signaling
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