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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036361/chronic-pain-and-neuropathy-following-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#1
Lise Ventzel, Caspar S Madsen, Páll Karlsson, Hatice Tankisi, Baris Isak, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders B Jensen, Anni R Jensen, Troels S Jensen, Nanna B Finnerup
Objective: To determine symptoms and characteristics of chronic sensory neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin and docetaxel, including patterns of somatosensory abnormalities, pain descriptors, and psychological functioning. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: A chronic pain research center. Subjects: Thirty-eight patients with chronic peripheral pain and/or dysesthesia following chemotherapy...
September 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035751/intercellular-transfer-of-pathogenic-%C3%AE-synuclein-by-extracellular-vesicles-is-induced-by-the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxynonenal
#2
Shi Zhang, Erez Eitan, Tsung-Yu Wu, Mark P Mattson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by accumulations of toxic α-synuclein aggregates in vulnerable neuronal populations in the brainstem, midbrain, and cerebral cortex. Recent findings suggest that α-synuclein pathology can be propagated transneuronally, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Advances in the genetics of rare early-onset familial PD indicate that increased production and/or reduced autophagic clearance of α-synuclein can cause PD. The cause of the most common late-onset PD is unclear, but may involve metabolic compromise and oxidative stress upstream of α-synuclein accumulation...
September 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035722/multiple-complex-somatosensory-systems-in-mature-rat-molars-defined-by-immunohistochemistry
#3
Margaret R Byers, Leanne M Cornel
OBJECTIVE: Intradental sensory receptors trigger painful sensations and unperceived mechanosensitivity, but the receptor bases for those functions are only partly defined. We present new evidence here concerning complex endings of myelinated axons in rat molars. DESIGN: We sectioned mature rat jaws in sagittal and transverse planes to analyze neural immunoreactivity (IR) for parvalbumin, peripherin, neurofilament protein, neurotrophin receptors, synaptophysin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), or mas-related g-protein-receptor-d (Mrgprd)...
September 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034884/generation-of-six-multiple-sclerosis-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#4
L Miquel-Serra, A Duarri, Y Muñoz, B Kuebler, B Aran, C Costa, M Martí, M Comabella, S Malhotra, X Montalban, A Veiga, A Raya
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to gliosis, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal death. The MS disease aetiology is unknown, though a polymorphism of the TNFRSF1A gene, rs1800693, is known to confer an increased risk for MS. Using retroviral delivery of reprogramming transgenes, we generated six MS patient-specific iPSC lines with two distinct genotypes, CC or TT, of the polymorphism rs1800693. iPSC lines had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency genes and differentiated into the three germ layers...
October 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034586/avoiding-internal-capsule-stimulation-with-a-new-eight-channel-steering-deep-brain-stimulation-lead
#5
Kees J van Dijk, Rens Verhagen, Lo J Bour, Ciska Heida, Peter H Veltink
OBJECTIVE: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. APPROACH: The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells...
October 15, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034508/ulk4-deficiency-leads-to-hypomyelination-in-mice
#6
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Zhenlong Guan, Xiaohong Qian, Peter Dockery, Una Fitzgerald, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Brain nerve fibers are insulated by myelin which is produced by oligodendrocytes. Defects in myelination are increasingly recognized as a common pathology underlying neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are associated with deletions of the Unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4) gene. Key transcription factors have been identified for oligodendrogenesis, but little is known about their associated regulators. Here we report that Ulk4 acts as a key regulator of myelination. Myelination is reduced by half in the Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) hypomorph brain, whereas expression of axonal marker genes Tubb3, Nefh, Nefl and Nefm remains unaltered...
October 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034487/the-role-of-spontaneous-neurotransmission-in-synapse-and-circuit-development
#7
REVIEW
Laura C Andreae, Juan Burrone
In the past, the spontaneous release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has been thought of as a side effect of evoked release, with little functional significance. As our understanding of the process of spontaneous release has increased over time, this notion has gradually changed. In this review, we focus on the importance of this form of release during neuronal development, a time of extreme levels of plasticity that includes the growth of dendrites and axons as well as the formation of new synaptic contacts...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034286/data-of-indirect-immunofluorescence-labeling-of-the-mouse-brain-sections-with-sera-from-sle-and-ms-patients
#8
Ayse Ilksen Colpak, Banu Balci-Peynircioglu, Alp Can, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Sevda Lule, Umut Kalyoncu, Turgay Dalkara
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Behcet Disease serum is immunoreactive to neurofilament medium which share common epitopes to bacterial HSP-65, a putative trigger" (Lule et a. 2017) [1]. The immunoreactivity to self-antigens is well characterized for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (Magro Checa et al., 2013) [2]. Indirect immunofluorescence labeling of the mouse tissue sections with patient sera has recently been popular to discover novel epitopes and gain mechanistic insight to diseases with dysregulated immunity (Lennon et al...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033800/stimulation-of-cortico-subthalamic-projections-amplifies-resting-motor-circuit-activity-and-leads-to-increased-locomotion-in-dopamine-depleted-mice
#9
Teresa H Sanders
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN-DBS enables similar improved motor function, including increased movement speed (reduced bradykinesia), in the 6-OHDA dopamine-depletion mouse model of PD. Previous analyses of electrophysiological recordings from STN and motor cortex (M1) have explored signaling changes that correspond to PD and amelioration of PD symptoms. The most common results show an increase in beta frequency power during 'off' states and a reduction in beta during 'on' states...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#10
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033188/ppp1cc-is-associated-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-proliferation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#11
Xiaojuan Liu, Shen Huang, Chun Liu, Xia Liu, Yuntian Shen, Zhiming Cui
Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) contribute to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying reactive astrocyte and microglia proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of PPP1CC following SCI are still unknown. In this study, an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats was established to investigate the potential role of PPP1CC during the pathological process of SCI...
September 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032842/making-dopamine-connections-in-adolescence
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Hoops, Cecilia Flores
A dramatic maturational process ongoing in adolescence is prefrontal cortex development, including its dopamine innervation. Dopamine axons grow from the striatum to the prefrontal cortex, the only known case of long-distance axon growth during adolescence. This is coordinated by the Netrin-1 guidance cue receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), which in turn controls the intrinsic development of the prefrontal cortex itself. Stimulant drugs in adolescence alter DCC in dopamine neurons and, in turn prefrontal cortex maturation, impacting cognitive abilities...
October 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032776/neuropsychological-recovery-trajectories-in-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-patient-characteristics-and-diffuse-axonal-injury
#13
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Junghoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to elucidate the influence of demographic and neuropathological moderators on the longitudinal trajectory neuropsychological functions during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to examining demographic moderators such as age and education, we included a measure of whole-brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and examined measures of processing speed (PS), executive function (EF), and verbal learning (VL) separately...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032126/weekly-follow-up-of-acute-lesions-in-three-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients-using-mr-spectroscopy-and-diffusion
#14
Gabriel Kocevar, Claudio Stamile, Salem Hannoun, Jean-Amédée Roch, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Sandra Vukusic, François Cotton, Dominique Sappey-Marinier
OBJECT: Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation, including inflammation, demyelination/remyelination and axonal damage, and their temporal evolution are still not clearly understood. To this end, three acute white matter lesions were monitored using a weekly multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three untreated patients with early relapsing-remitting MS and one healthy control subject were followed weekly for two months...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032027/peripheral-neuropathy-and-hindlimb-paralysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-adipocyte-specific-knockout-of-lkb1
#15
Yan Xiong, Jessica C Page, Naagarajan Narayanan, Chao Wang, Zhihao Jia, Feng Yue, Xine Shi, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Meng Deng, Riyi Shi, Tizhong Shan, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
Brown adipose tissues (BAT) burn lipids to generate heat through uncoupled respiration, thus representing a powerful target to counteract lipid accumulation and obesity. The tumor suppressor liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) is a key regulator of cellular energy metabolism; and adipocyte-specific knockout of Lkb1 (Ad-Lkb1 KO) leads to the expansion of BAT, improvements in systemic metabolism and resistance to obesity in young mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that the Ad-Lkb1 KO mice develop hindlimb paralysis at mid-age...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031941/the-travel-diaries-of-tetanus-and-botulinum-neurotoxins
#16
Sunaina Surana, Andrew P Tosolini, Ione F G Meyer, Alexander D Fellows, Sergey S Novoselov, Giampietro Schiavo
Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed to: i) their specificity for essential components of the neurotransmitter release machinery present at vertebrate synapses, and ii) their high-affinity targeting to motor neurons by binding to polysialogangliosides and protein receptors. Comprising the clostridial neurotoxin family, TeNT and BoNTs engage distinct surface receptors and intracellular sorting pathways in neurons...
October 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031834/dysregulation-of-neurotrophin-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease-and-of-alzheimer-disease-in-down-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Xu-Qiao Chen, Mariko Sawa, William C Mobley
Neurotrophic factors, including the members of the neurotrophin family, play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Trophic factor signals must be transmitted over long distances from axons and dendrites to the cell bodies of neurons. A mode of signaling well suited to the challenge of robust long distance signaling is the signaling endosome. We review the biology of signaling endosomes and the "signaling endosome hypothesis". Evidence for disruption of signaling endosome function in disorders of the nervous system is also reviewed...
October 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031405/life-span-resolved-nanotoxicology-enables-identification-of-age-associated-neuromuscular-vulnerabilities-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Annette Piechulek, Anna von Mikecz
At present, the majority of investigations concerning nanotoxicology in the nematode C. elegans address short-term effects. While this approach allows for the identification of uptake pathways, exposition and acute toxicity, nanoparticle-organism interactions that manifest later in the adult life of C. elegans are missed. Here we show that a microhabitat composed of liquid S-medium and live bacteria in microtiter wells prolongs C. elegans longevity and is optimally suited to monitor chronic eNP-effects over the entire life span (about 34 days) of the nematode...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030922/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-axon-development-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
George M Smith, Gianluca Gallo
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo transport, fission and fusion. The three main functions of mitochondria are to generate ATP, buffer cytosolic calcium and generate reactive oxygen species. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are either primary targets for neurological disease states and nervous system injury, or are major contributors to the ensuing pathologies. However, the roles of mitochondria in the development and regeneration of axons have just begun to be elucidated. Advances in the understanding of the functional roles of mitochondria in neurons had been largely impeded by insufficient knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial transport, stalling, fission/fusion and a paucity of approaches to image and analyze mitochondria in living axons at the level of the single mitochondrion...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030921/development-of-short-range-white-matter-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#20
Adeoye A Oyefiade, Stephanie Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Conrad Rockel, Kamila U Szulc, Nadia Scantlebury, Alexandra Decker, Jaleel Jefferson, Simon Spichak, Donald J Mabbott
Neural communication is facilitated by intricate networks of white matter (WM) comprised of both long and short range connections. The maturation of long range WM connections has been extensively characterized, with projection, commissural, and association tracts showing unique trajectories with age. There, however, remains a limited understanding of age-related changes occurring within short range WM connections, or U-fibers. These connections are important for local connectivity within lobes and facilitate regional cortical function and greater network economy...
October 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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