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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527175/chorea-and-orofaciolingual-dystonia-in-a-40-year-old-male
#1
Lulup Kumar Sahoo, Kali Prasanna Swain, Ashok Kumar Mallick, Geeta Mohanty, Maheswar Samanta, Srikanta Kumar Sahoo
Neuroacanthocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders which result in progressive neurodegeneration, predominantly of the basal ganglia, and erythrocyte acanthocytosis. We report a case of neuroacanthocytosis with typical phenotype of choreoacanthocytosis. A 40 year male presented with features of chorea with orofaciolingual dystonia producing eating and speech difficulties. There were features of self mutilation in form of lip and tongue biting. Peripheral blood smear examination revealed acanthocytes in our patient...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527161/prognostic-indicators-of-response-to-plasmapheresis-in-patients-of-guillain-barre-syndrome
#2
H B Prasad, R T Borse, A N Avate, Assistant Professor In Medicine Palasdeokar
INTRODUCTION: Plasmapheresis is an important modality for the treatment of GBS. Moreover the response to this treatment modality is not same in all cases. We therefore studied the various prognostic indicators of response to plasmapheresis in patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 patients were included in the study. Thorough clinical examination was done. Nerve conduction was done to find out the type of neuropathy. All were then given plasmapheresis...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527111/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-linear-ordered-collagen-scaffold-improves-functional-recovery-after-completely-transected-spinal-cord-injury-in-canine
#3
Sufang Han, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Huan Zhao, Bin Wang, Zhixue Qiu, Zhi Li, Xin Mei, Bai Xu, Caixia Fan, Bing Chen, Jin Han, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi, Jianwu Dai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major challenge in the clinic. In this study, we sought to examine the synergistic effects of linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) and human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) when transplanted into completely transected beagle dogs. After 36 weeks observation, we found that LOCS+hPMSCs implants promoted better hindlimb locomotor recovery than was observed in the non-treatment (control) group and LOCS group. Histological analysis showed that the regenerated tissue after treatment was well integrated with the host tissue, and dramatically reduced the volume of cystic and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expression...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526658/nonclinical-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-first-biosimilar-insulin-glargine-drug-product-basaglar-%C3%A2-abasaglar-%C3%A2-approved-in-the-european-union
#4
Richard A Byrd, Rebecca A Owens, Jamie L Blackbourne, David E Coutant, Mark W Farmen, M Dodson Michael, Julie S Moyers, A Eric Schultze, Michael K Sievert, Niraj K Tripathi, John L Vahle
Basaglar(®)/Abasaglar(®) (Lilly insulin glargine [LY IGlar]) is a long-acting human insulin analogue drug product granted marketing authorisation as a biosimilar to Lantus(®) (Sanofi insulin glargine [SA IGlar]) by the European Medicines Agency. We assessed the similarity of LY IGlar to the reference drug product, European Union-sourced SA IGlar (EU-SA IGlar), using nonclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. No biologically relevant differences were observed for receptor binding affinity at either the insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, or in assays of functional or de novo lipogenic activity...
May 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524762/exosomes-promote-restoration-after-an-experimental-animal-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio López, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Exosomes are gaining importance because they show great promise in therapeutic applications for several diseases. Particularly in stroke, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy work as paracrine effectors responsible for promoting neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery. Adult male rats were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV; 24 h after surgery, MSC-derived exosomes were administered through the tail vein. The rats were euthanized at 7 or 28 days after treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#7
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#8
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523763/proton-mr-spectroscopy-of-lesion-evolution-in-multiple-sclerosis-steady-state-metabolism-and-its-relationship-to-conventional-imaging
#9
Ivan I Kirov, Shu Liu, Assaf Tal, William E Wu, Matthew S Davitz, James S Babb, Henry Rusinek, Joseph Herbert, Oded Gonen
Although MRI assessment of white matter lesions is essential for the clinical management of multiple sclerosis, the processes leading to the formation of lesions and underlying their subsequent MRI appearance are incompletely understood. We used proton MR spectroscopy to study the evolution of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) in pre-lesional tissue, persistent and transient new lesions, as well as in chronic lesions, and related the results to quantitative MRI measures of T1-hypointensity and T2-volume...
May 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523551/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Jaime M Franco, Soledad Lopez, Juan Miguel Gomez-Zumaquero, Maria Magdalena Leal-Lasarte, Diana E Caballero-Hernandez, Marta Cejudo-Guillén, David Pozo
Despite being clinically described 150 years ago, the mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis have not yet been fully understood. Studies in both animal models of ALS and human patients reveal a plethora of alterations such as increased glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, redox stress, increased apoptosis, defective axonal transport, protein-misfolding events, mitochondrial impairment and sustained unregulated immune responses. Regardless of being sporadic or familiar ALS, the final outcome at the cellular level is the death of upper and lower motor neurons, and once diagnosed, ALS is typically lethal within the next 5 years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523235/effects-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-versus-oral-levodopa-carbidopa-on-b-vitamin-levels-and-neuropathy
#11
Sebastian Loens, Elena Chorbadzhieva, Alexandra Kleimann, Dirk Dressler, Christoph Schrader
OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible interactions between levodopa therapy and plasma levels of B vitamins in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) in the context of either oral levodopa therapy or levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG). Secondly, to determine the prevalence of neuropathy and its relation to plasma levels of B vitamins and homocysteine. METHODS: Medication doses, neurographies, and serum levels of pyridoxine, cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine of eight LCIG and 13 orally treated advanced IPD patients matched for age, Hoehn & Yahr stage, and UPRDS III were collected...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#12
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522768/a-model-for-in-vivo-analysis-of-sudomotor-sympathetic-c-fiber-activation-and-human-sweat-gland-output
#13
Gary W Mack
Quantitative assessment of small fiber peripheral neuropathy often involves an evaluation of the interaction between the C-fiber sudomotor nerve and local sweat rate (SR). Typically, some sort of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) is performed to aid in diagnosing small fiber dysfunction. The currently used QSART demonstrates only moderate test-retest reliability and therefore limits its usefulness in tracking small fiber dysfunction. A new experimental model to examine small C-fiber function in the skin using intradermal electrical stimulation and simultaneous monitoring of SR is proposed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522736/myelin-associated-glycoprotein-mag-inhibits-schwann-cell-migration-and-induces-their-death
#14
Nagarathnamma Chaudhry, Corinne Bachelin, Violetta Zujovic, Melissa Hilaire, Katherine T Baldwin, Rose M Follis, Roman Giger, Bruce D Carter, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren, Marie T Filbin
Remyelination of central nervous system (CNS) axons by Schwann cells (SC) is not efficient, in part due to their poor migration into the adult CNS. Although it is known that migrating SC avoid white matter tracts, the molecular mechanisms underlying this exclusion has never been elucidated. We now demonstrate that myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a well-known inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, inhibits rat SC migration and induces their death via γ secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (also known as p75 cleavage)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#15
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#16
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#17
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522263/serum-concentrations-of-the-axonal-injury-marker-neurofilament-light-protein-are-not-influenced-by-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#18
Marie Kalm, Martina Boström, Åsa Sandelius, Yohanna Eriksson, C Joakim Ek, Kaj Blennow, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Henrik Zetterberg
A blood biomarker to monitor individual susceptibility to neuronal injury from cranial radiotherapy could potentially help to individualize radiation treatment and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of late effects. An important feature of such a blood biomarker is that its concentration is not confounded by varying degrees of release from the brain into the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated serum neurofilament light protein (NFL) concentrations in 21-day old mice following a single dose of cranial irradiation (8 Gy)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521265/optimizing-the-electrodiagnostic-accuracy-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-subtypes-criteria-sets-and-sparse-linear-discriminant-analysis
#19
Antonino Uncini, Luigi Ippoliti, Nortina Shahrizaila, Yukari Sekiguchi, Satoshi Kuwabara
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes at first study. METHODS: The reference electrodiagnosis was obtained in 53 demyelinating and 45 axonal GBS patients on the basis of two serial studies and results of anti-ganglioside antibodies assay. We retrospectively employed sparse linear discriminant analysis (LDA), two existing electrodiagnostic criteria sets (Hadden et al., 1998; Rajabally et al., 2015) and one we propose that additionally evaluates duration of motor responses, sural sparing pattern and defines reversible conduction failure (RCF) in motor and sensory nerves at second study...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521142/non-nuclear-pool-of-splicing-factor-sfpq-regulates-axonal-transcripts-required-for-normal-motor-development
#20
Swapna Thomas-Jinu, Patricia M Gordon, Triona Fielding, Richard Taylor, Bradley N Smith, Victoria Snowden, Eric Blanc, Caroline Vance, Simon Topp, Chun-Hao Wong, Holger Bielen, Kelly L Williams, Emily P McCann, Garth A Nicholson, Alejandro Pan-Vazquez, Archa H Fox, Charles S Bond, William S Talbot, Ian P Blair, Christopher E Shaw, Corinne Houart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Neuron
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