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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432143/focal-local-field-potential-lfp-signature-of-the-single-axon-monosynaptic-thalamocortical-connection
#1
Espen Hagen, Janne C Fossum, Klas H Pettersen, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow, Gaute T Einevolla
Recent years have seen a resurgence in use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments the cortical LFP is measured by means of multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well-established forward-modeling scheme, we investigate the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer 4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432142/structural-similarities-between-neuregulin-1-3-isoforms-determine-their-subcellular-distribution-and-signaling-mode-in-central-neurons
#2
Detlef Vullhorst, Tanveer Ahmad, Irina Karavanova, Carolyn Keating, Andres Buonanno
The Neuregulin (NRG) family of ErbB ligands is comprised of numerous variants originating from the use of different genes, alternative promoters and splice variants. NRGs have generally been thought to be transported to axons and presynaptic terminals where they signal via ErbB3/4 receptors in paracrine or juxtacrine mode. However, we recently demonstrated that unprocessed pro-NRG2 accumulates on cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and that NMDAR activity is required for shedding of its ectodomain by metalloproteinases...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431576/enhanced-neuroinvasion-by-smaller-soluble-prions
#3
Cyrus Bett, Jessica Lawrence, Timothy D Kurt, Christina Orru, Patricia Aguilar-Calvo, Anthony E Kincaid, Witold K Surewicz, Byron Caughey, Chengbiao Wu, Christina J Sigurdson
Infectious prion aggregates can propagate from extraneural sites into the brain with remarkable efficiency, likely transported via peripheral nerves. Yet not all prions spread into the brain, and the physical properties of a prion that is capable of transit within neurons remain unclear. We hypothesized that small, diffusible aggregates spread into the CNS via peripheral nerves. Here we used a structurally diverse panel of prion strains to analyze how the prion conformation impacts transit into the brain. Two prion strains form fibrils visible ultrastructurally in the brain in situ, whereas three strains form diffuse, subfibrillar prion deposits and no visible fibrils...
April 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430358/regulation-of-axon-arborization-pattern-in-the-developing-chick-ciliary-ganglion-possible-involvement-of-caspase-3
#4
Hidetaka Katow, Teppei Kanaya, Tomohisa Ogawa, Ryo Egawa, Hiromu Yawo
During a certain critical period in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, axonal branches and synapses are massively reorganized to form mature connections. In this process, neurons search their appropriate targets, expanding and/or retracting their axons. Recent work suggested that the caspase superfamily regulates the axon morphology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase 3, which is one of the major executioners in apoptotic cell death, is involved in regulating the axon arborization...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#5
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428739/high-salt-intake-augments-excitability-of-pvn-neurons-in-rats-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-store
#6
Robert A Larson, Andrew D Chapp, Le Gui, Michael J Huber, Zixi Jack Cheng, Zhiying Shan, Qing-Hui Chen
High salt (HS) intake sensitizes central autonomic circuitry leading to sympathoexcitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of PVN endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store function would augment PVN neuronal excitability and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We further hypothesized that a 2% (NaCl) HS diet for 5 weeks would reduce ER Ca(2+) store function and increase excitability of PVN neurons with axon projections to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) identified by retrograde label...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428485/pathological-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-tissues-of-ddy-mice-with-street-rabies-virus-1088-strain
#7
Kazunori Kimitsuki, Kentaro Yamada, Nozomi Shiwa, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Nishizono, Chun-Ho Park
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426968/map2-defines-a-pre-axonal-filtering-zone-to-regulate-kif1-versus-kif5-dependent-cargo-transport-in-sensory-neurons
#8
Laura F Gumy, Eugene A Katrukha, Ilya Grigoriev, Dick Jaarsma, Lukas C Kapitein, Anna Akhmanova, Casper C Hoogenraad
Polarized cargo transport is essential for neuronal function. However, the minimal basic components required for selective cargo sorting and distribution in neurons remain elusive. We found that in sensory neurons the axon initial segment is largely absent and that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) defines the cargo-filtering zone in the proximal axon. Here, MAP2 directs axonal cargo entry by coordinating the activities of molecular motors. We show that distinct kinesins differentially regulate cargo velocity: kinesin-3 drives fast axonal cargo trafficking, while kinesin-1 slows down axonal cargo transport...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#9
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426954/neuronal-polarity-map2-shifts-secretory-vesicles-into-high-gear-for-long-haul-transport-down-the-axon
#10
Luís F Ribeiro, Joris de Wit
Accurate control of polarized cargo trafficking is essential for neuronal function. In this issue of Neuron, Gumy et al. (2017) show that MAP2 defines a pre-axonal filtering zone and controls axonal cargo transport by influencing the activities of distinct kinesin motors.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426953/methylock-dna-demethylation-is-the-epigenetic-key-to-axon-regeneration
#11
Scarlett J Barker, Li-Huei Tsai
In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2017) reveal a role for active DNA demethylation in allowing axon regeneration to occur in the mature nervous system following axonal injury.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426667/bioenergetic-status-modulates-motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-pathogenesis-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#12
Penelope J Boyd, Wen-Yo Tu, Hannah K Shorrock, Ewout J N Groen, Roderick N Carter, Rachael A Powis, Sophie R Thomson, Derek Thomson, Laura C Graham, Anna A L Motyl, Thomas M Wishart, J Robin Highley, Nicholas M Morton, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker, Paul R Heath, Thomas H Gillingwater
Degeneration and loss of lower motor neurons is the major pathological hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), resulting from low levels of ubiquitously-expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. One remarkable, yet unresolved, feature of SMA is that not all motor neurons are equally affected, with some populations displaying a robust resistance to the disease. Here, we demonstrate that selective vulnerability of distinct motor neuron pools arises from fundamental modifications to their basal molecular profiles...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426158/a-novel-technique-for-decellularization-of-allogenic-nerves-and-in-vivo-study-of-their-use-for-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction
#13
F Boriani, N Fazio, C Fotia, L Savarino, N Nicoli Aldini, L Martini, N Zini, M Bernardini, N Baldini
Autografts represent the gold standard for peripheral nerve reconstruction but their limited availability, the discrepancy of nerve caliber and long surgical times are drawbacks. Allografts have therefore become a valid alternative option. In particular, acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) rather than fresh allografts do not need immunosuppression and appear to be safe and effective based on recent studies. An innovative method was conceived to obtain ANAs, so as to speed up nerve decellularization, without compromising nerve architecture, and without breaking the asepsis chain...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#14
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424595/gray-matter-atrophy-is-primarily-related-to-demyelination-of-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-study
#15
Eszter Tóth, Nikoletta Szabó, Gergõ Csete, András Király, Péter Faragó, Tamás Spisák, Krisztina Bencsik, László Vécsei, Zsigmond T Kincses
Objective: Cortical pathology, periventricular demyelination, and lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are related (Hypothesis 1). Factors in the cerebrospinal fluid close to these compartments could possibly drive the parallel processes. Alternatively, the cortical atrophy could be caused by remote axonal transection (Hypothesis 2). Since MRI can differentiate between demyelination and axon loss, we used this imaging modality to investigate the correlation between the pattern of diffusion parameter changes in the periventricular- and deep white matter and the gray matter atrophy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424590/geometrical-determinants-of-neuronal-actin-waves
#16
Caterina Tomba, Céline Braïni, Ghislain Bugnicourt, Floriane Cohen, Benjamin M Friedrich, Nir S Gov, Catherine Villard
Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424571/metabolic-vulnerability-in-the-neurodegenerative-disease-glaucoma
#17
REVIEW
Denise M Inman, Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid
Axons can be several orders of magnitude longer than neural somas, presenting logistical difficulties in cargo trafficking and structural maintenance. Keeping the axon compartment well supplied with energy also presents a considerable challenge; even seemingly subtle modifications of metabolism can result in functional deficits and degeneration. Axons require a great deal of energy, up to 70% of all energy used by a neuron, just to maintain the resting membrane potential. Axonal energy, in the form of ATP, is generated primarily through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424485/in-vivo-dynamics-of-aav-mediated-gene-delivery-to-sensory-neurons-of-the-trigeminal-ganglia
#18
Chung H Dang, Martine Aubert, Harshana S De Silva Feelixge, Kurt Diem, Michelle A Loprieno, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Daniel Stone, Keith R Jerome
The ability to genetically manipulate trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons would be useful in the study of the craniofacial nervous system and latent alphaherpesvirus infections. We investigated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene delivery to the TG after intradermal whiskerpad delivery in mice. We demonstrated that AAV vectors of serotypes 1, 7, 8, and 9 trafficked from the whiskerpad into TG neurons and expressed transgenes within cell bodies and axons of sensory neurons in all three branches of the TG...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424304/giant-axonal-neuropathy-alters-the-structure-of-keratin-intermediate-filaments-in-human-hair
#19
Asfia Soomro, Richard J Alsop, Atsuko Negishi, Laurent Kreplak, Douglas Fudge, Edward R Kuczmarski, Robert D Goldman, Maikel C Rheinstädter
Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#20
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
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