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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694336/a-role-for-the-gdap1-gene-in-the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-charcot%C3%A2-marie%C3%A2-tooth-disease
#1
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Andrzej Kochański
In 2002 a series of mutations in the GDAP1 gene were reported in patients suffering from Charcot‑Marie‑Tooth disease manifesting as early-onset, progressive distal‑muscle wasting and weakness. The molecular etiology of Charcot‑Marie‑Tooth ‑GDAP1 disease has been elucidated but its pathogenesis remains unclear, especially given the seemingly contradictory function of the GDAP1 protein. Expression of GDAP1 is observed almost exclusively in neuronal cells, however, the GDAP1 protein is present in mitochondria, where it plays a role in fission, a ubiquitous process occurring in all cells...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694292/the-effect-of-plan-type-and-comprehensive-medication-reviews-on-high-risk-medication-use
#2
Armando Silva Almodovar, David Rhys Axon, Ashley M Coleman, Terri Warholak, Milap C Nahata
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a star rating system using performance outcome measures to assess Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) and Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) providers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between 2 performance outcome measures for Medicare insurance providers, comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), and high-risk medication use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included Medicare Part C and Part D performance data from the 2014 and 2015 calendar years...
May 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694280/model-based-deconstruction-of-cortical-evoked-potentials-generated-by-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#3
Karthik Kumaravelu, Chintan S Oza, Christina E Behrend, Warren M Grill
Parkinson's disease is associated with altered neural activity in the motor cortex. High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity. However, the anatomical pathways responsible for STN DBS mediated cortical modulation remain unclear. Cortical evoked potentials (cEP) generated by STN DBS reflect the response of cortex to subcortical stimulation, and the goal was to determine the neural origin of cEP using a two-step approach...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693500/impact-of-intranasal-application-of-nerve-growth-factor-on-the-olfactory-epithelium-in-rats-with-chemically-induced-diabetes
#4
Sidika Yalim, Kenan Dağlıoğlu, Gülfidan Coskun, Sait Polat
Recent studies suggest that nerve growth factor (NGF) protects olfactory cells and axons from injury in vitro. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetic group without NGF, and diabetic with NGF. Intranasal NGF (6 µg/day) was administered over a 5-day period. At the end of 30 days, the olfactory epithelium (OE) of NGF-applied diabetic rats regenerated, the epithelium thickness was significantly higher, and caspase-3 expression was not significantly different from the control...
April 25, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692804/regulation-of-central-nervous-system-myelination-in-higher-brain-functions
#5
REVIEW
Mara Nickel, Chen Gu
The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692711/adult-born-periglomerular-cells-of-odorant-receptor-specific-glomeruli
#6
Anna-Maria Maier, Heinz Breer, Jörg Strotmann
The OR37 subsystem is characterized by a variety of unique features. The odorant receptors (ORs) of this subfamily are selectively tuned to specific ligands which are supposed to play a role in social communication. OR37 expressing sensory neurons project their axons to a single receptor specific glomerulus per bulb which have been shown to be unusually stable in size and to possess a distinct repertoire of periglomerular cells. Since the neuronal network surrounding glomeruli is typically modified by the integration of adult born neurons, in this study it was investigated whether the number of adult born cells might be different for OR37 glomeruli compared to other OR-specific glomeruli...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690938/neuropsychological-recovery-trajectories-in-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-patient-characteristics-and-diffuse-axonal-injury-erratum
#7
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Junghoon Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690927/effects-of-transcranial-led-therapy-on-the-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-diffuse-axonal-injury-due-to-severe-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Renato Amaro Zângaro, Ana Maria Costa Carneiro, Iuri Santana Neville, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate or regenerate tissue. It was discovered that near-infrared wavelengths (800-900 nm) and red (600 nm) light-emitting diodes (LED) are able to penetrate through the scalp and skull and have the potential to improve the subnormal cellular activity of compromised brain tissue. Different experimental and clinical studies were performed to test LED therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) with promising results...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690837/neutralization-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-following-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-attenuates-the-loss-of-mature-oligodendrocytes
#9
Johanna Flygt, Karsten Ruscher, Amanda Norberg, Anis Mir, Hermann Gram, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in injury to the components of the white matter tracts, causing post-injury cognitive deficits. The myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are vulnerable to TBI although may plausibly be replaced by proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of the complex inflammatory response, and when neutralized in experimental TBI behavioral outcome was improved. To evaluate the role of IL-1β on OL cell death and OPC proliferation, 116 adult male mice subjected to sham injury or the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model of traumatic axonal injury, were analyzed at 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690824/performance-evaluation-of-a-multiplex-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-four-clinically-relevant-tbi-biomarkers
#10
Frederick Kofi Korley, John K Yue, David Wilson, Kevin Hrusovsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrasta, Adam R Ferguson, Esther Lim Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Kevin K W Wang, Alex Valadka, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous pathology affecting multiple cells and tissue types in the brain. It is likely that assessment of such complexity will require simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular biomarkers in a single sample of biological fluid. We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and total tau in plasma samples obtained from 107 subjects enrolled in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) Study using the Quanterix Simoa 4-Plex assay...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689424/conditional-deletion-of-id2-or-notch1-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-does-not-ameliorate-disease-outcome-in-sod1-g93a-mice
#11
Caroline Eykens, Annelies Nonneman, Cathy Jensen, Antonio Iavarone, Philip Van Damme, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Wim Robberecht
Oligodendrocytes are essential for structural and trophic support of motor axons. Their impairment has been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells fail to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and thereby jeopardize the health of motor neurons. Here, we report that oligodendrocytic ablation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) or Notch receptor 1 (Notch1), 2 negative master modulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, fails to alleviate oligodendrocyte dysfunction or alter disease outcome in a murine model of ALS...
April 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689307/sensory-threshold-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-fosters-motor-imagery-performance
#12
Tiffany Corbet, Iñaki Iturrate, Michael Pereira, Serafeim Perdikis, José Del R Millán
Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern...
April 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689097/characterization-of-transglutaminase-2-activity-inhibitors-in-monocytes-in-vitro-and-their-effect-in-a-mouse-model-for-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Navina L Chrobok, John G J M Bol, Cornelis A Jongenelen, John J P Brevé, Said El Alaoui, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Benjamin Drukarch, Anne-Marie van Dam
The neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is pathologically characterized by the massive influx of immune cells into the central nervous system. This contributes to demyelination and axonal damage which causes symptoms such as motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The migration of leukocytes from the blood vessel is orchestrated by a multitude of factors whose determination is essential in reducing cellular influx in MS patients and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. The here studied enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) is present intracellularly, on the cell surface and extracellularly...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688812/nitration-of-microtubules-blocks-axonal-mitochondrial-transport-in-a-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Morgan G Stykel, Kayla Humphries, Mathew P Kirby, Chris Czaniecki, Tinya Wang, Tammy Ryan, Vladimir Bamm, Scott D Ryan
Neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aberrant mitochondrial function in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. An association has been reported between PD onset and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including the agrochemicals paraquat (PQ), maneb (MB), and rotenone (Rot). Here, with the use of a patient-derived stem cell model of PD, allowing comparison of DA neurons harboring a mutation in the α-synuclein (α-syn) gene ( SNCA-A53T) against isogenic, mutation-corrected controls, we describe a novel mechanism whereby NO, generated from SNCA-A53T mutant neurons exposed to Rot or PQ/MB, inhibits anterograde mitochondrial transport through nitration of α-tubulin (α-Tub)...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688489/protective-role-of-the-lipid-phosphatase-fig4-in-the-adult-nervous-system
#15
Yevgeniya A Mironova, Jing-Ping Lin, Ashley Kalinski, Lucas Huffman, Guy M Lenk, Leif A Havton, Miriam H Meisler, Roman J Giger
The signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI(3,5)P2, functions in vesicular trafficking through the endo-lysosomal compartment. Cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2 are regulated by an enzyme complex comprised of the kinase PIKFYVE, the phosphatase FIG4, and the scaffold protein VAC14. Mutations of human FIG4 cause inherited disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, polymicrogyria with epilepsy, and Yunis-Varón syndrome. Constitutive Fig4-/- mice exhibit intention tremor, spongiform degeneration of neural tissue, hypomyelination, and juvenile lethality...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688408/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-fibrinogen-in-marmoset-and-human-inflammatory-demyelination
#16
Nathanael J Lee, Seung-Kwon Ha, Pascal Sati, Martina Absinta, Nicholas J Luciano, Jennifer A Lefeuvre, Matthew K Schindler, Emily C Leibovitch, Jae Kyu Ryu, Mark A Petersen, Afonso C Silva, Steven Jacobson, Katerina Akassoglou, Daniel S Reich
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although it has been extensively studied, the proximate trigger of the immune response remains uncertain. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset recapitulates many radiological and pathological features of focal multiple sclerosis lesions in the cerebral white matter, unlike traditional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents. This provides an opportunity to investigate how lesions form as well as the relative timing of factors involved in lesion pathogenesis, especially during early stages of the disease...
April 20, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688272/cellular-plasticity-in-the-adult-murine-piriform-cortex-continuous-maturation-of-dormant-precursors-into-excitatory-neurons
#17
Peter Rotheneichner, Maria Belles, Bruno Benedetti, Richard König, Dominik Dannehl, Christina Kreutzer, Pia Zaunmair, Maren Engelhardt, Ludwig Aigner, Juan Nacher, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Neurogenesis in the healthy adult murine brain is based on proliferation and integration of stem/progenitor cells and is thought to be restricted to 2 neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, cells expressing the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) and the polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule reside in layer II of the piriform cortex. Apparently, these cells progressively disappear along the course of ageing, while their fate and function remain unclear...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688171/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-enhances-corticospinal-synaptic-plasticity-in-humans
#18
Lasse Christiansen, M A Urbin, Gordon S Mitchell, Monica A Perez
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) enhances voluntary motor output in humans with central nervous system damage. The neural mechanisms contributing to these beneficial effects are unknown. We examined corticospinal function by evaluating motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons and the activity in intracortical circuits in a finger muscle before and after 30 min of AIH or sham AIH. We found that the amplitude of cortically and subcortically elicited MEPs increased for 75 min after AIH but not sham AIH while intracortical activity remained unchanged...
April 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687564/clinical-spectrum-and-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-chronic-polyneuropathy-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
M S Panduranga, Deepti Vibha, Kameshwar Prasad, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla
Chronic polyneuropathy is a disabling condition of the peripheral nerves, characterized by symmetrical sensory motor symptoms and signs. There is paucity of studies on the etiological spectrum of polyneuropathy and its impact on quality of life. The present cross sectional study in a referral based tertiary care center in North India found diabetic neuropathy as the commonest cause (25.5%) amongst 212 patients with chronic polyneuropathy. Idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy was present in 14.2% patients. Leprosy presenting as confluent mononeuritis multiplex constituted 11...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687307/up-regulation-of-cdc37-contributes-to-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-migration-after-sciatic-nerve-crush
#20
Yuxi Liu, Shuyao Wang, Dazhi Ding, Zhaohui Yu, Weiwei Sun, Youhua Wang
Cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37), a molecular chaperone takes part in a series of cellular processes including cell signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell motility, oncogenesis and malignant progression. It can not only recruit immature protein kinases to HSP90 but also work alone. Cdc37 was reported to be associated with neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, axon guidance and myelination. However, the roles of Cdc37 on Schwann cells (SC) after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) remain unknown...
April 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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