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Inflammation,atherosclerosis,oxidative stress

Federico Moccetti, Craig C Weinkauf, Brian P Davidson, J Todd Belcik, Edmund R Marinelli, Evan Unger, Jonathan R Lindner
The aim of this study was to evaluate a panel of endothelium-targeted microbubble (MB) ultrasound contrast agents bearing small peptide ligands as a human-ready approach for molecular imaging of markers of high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. Small peptide ligands with established affinity for human P-selectin, VCAM-1, LOX-1 and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were conjugated to the surface of lipid-stabilized MBs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) molecular imaging of the thoracic aorta was performed in wild-type and gene-targeted mice with advanced atherosclerosis (DKO)...
March 13, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Wafa Kharroubi, Nadia Kaoubaa, Amira Zarrouk, Fathi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Gérard Lizard, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Nutritional choices, which include the source of dietary fatty acids (FA), have an important significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine on patients with CAD the relationships between Trans fatty acids (Trans FA) and different CAD associated parameters such as inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in addition to Gensini score as a vascular severity index. METHODS: Fatty acid profiles were established by gas chromatography from 111 CAD patients compared to 120 age-matched control group...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Peter Riško, Jan Pláteník, Richard Buchal, Jana Potočková, Pavel J Kraml
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increased iron level and the labile iron pool (LIP) in circulating monocytes are connected to a higher frequency of cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study investigates the relationship between LIP in circulating monocytes and markers of iron metabolism and atherosclerosis (inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and arterial elasticity) in long-term blood donors and non-donor volunteers. RESULTS: We found that donors had significantly higher LIP values than the control group (1...
March 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Tiago Pereira-da-Silva, Madalena Coutinho Cruz, Catarina Carrusca, Rui Cruz Ferreira, Patrícia Napoleão, Miguel Mota Carmo
AIMS: Atherosclerosis is associated with altered circulating microRNA profiles. It is yet unclear whether the expression of these potential biomarkers differs according to the location of atherosclerosis. We assessed whether atherosclerosis of different arterial territories, except the coronary, is associated with specific circulating microRNA profiles. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was carried out using a retrieval strategy including MESH and non-MSH terms...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Joaquim Rovira, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Noemí Cabré, Gerard Baiges-Gaya, Martí Nadal, Vicente Martín-Paredero, Jordi Camps, Jorge Joven, José L Domingo
Oxidative stress and inflammation are candidate mechanisms to explain the potential role of exposure to metals and reduced activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in age-related diseases. Both may be risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis. In the present study, inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to explore multiple trace elements, while in-house methods were employed to measure PON1-related variables in patients with lower extremity artery disease (LEAD). Healthy controls were matched for sex, age, body weight, and relevant genotype variants...
March 10, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Andrew L Durham, Mei Y Speer, Marta Scatena, Cecilia M Giachelli, Catherine M Shanahan
Vascular calcification is associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Calcification has been determined to be an active process driven in part by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) transdifferentiation within the vascular wall. Historically, VSMC phenotype switching has been viewed as binary, with the cells able to adopt a physiological contractile phenotype or an alternate 'synthetic' phenotype in response to injury. More recent work, including lineage tracing has however revealed that VSMCs are able to adopt a number of phenotypes, including calcific (osteogenic, chondrocytic, and osteoclastic), adipogenic, and macrophagic phenotypes...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Václav Holecek, Richard Rokyta
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most dangerous and least understood diseases with a pathophysiology that is still largely unknown. In this article we try to provide a pathophysiological explanation of the etiological, pathogenetic, and clinical aspects of ALS. After a description of the rather complicated classification of the disease, we continue with an evaluation of its clinical presentation. The bibliography reveals several suspect etiological factors including atherosclerosis, inflammation, tumors, cataracts, diabetes mellitus type 2, aging, and degeneration of the nervous system...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Zhen-Yu Yao, Wen-Bin Chen, Shan-Shan Shao, Shi-Zhan Ma, Chong-Bo Yang, Meng-Zhu Li, Jia-Jun Zhao, Ling Gao
Metabolic disorders are classified clinically as a complex and varied group of diseases including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Fat toxicity, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, which may change cellular functions, are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenetic progress of metabolic disorders. Recent studies have found that cells secrete nanoscale vesicles containing proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and membrane receptors, which mediate signal transduction and material transport to neighboring and distant cells...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Agata Stanek, Armand Cholewka, Tomasz Wielkoszyński, Ewa Romuk, Aleksander Sieroń
Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: We investigated the effect of WBC with subsequent kinesiotherapy on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis plaque in male AS patients (WBC group). To assess the disease activity, the BASDAI and BASFI were also calculated. The results from the WBC group were compared with results from the kinesiotherapy (KT) group...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Zhen An, Yuefei Jin, Juan Li, Wen Li, Weidong Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Ambient particulate matter (PM), a principal component of air pollutant, has been considered as a main culprit of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated particulate air pollution is positively associated with the development of CVDs. Short-term PM exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events while long-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent and can reduce life expectancy by a few years...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
John R Petrie, Tomasz J Guzik, Rhian M Touyz
Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are common comorbidities. Hypertension is twice as frequent in patients with diabetes compared with those who do not have diabetes. Moreover, patients with hypertension often exhibit insulin resistance and are at greater risk of diabetes developing than are normotensive individuals. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by hypertension. Accordingly, diabetes and hypertension are closely interlinked because of similar risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, arterial remodelling, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and obesity...
December 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Gregory D Sloop, Joseph J Weidman, John A St Cyr
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque, which develops from the organization of mural thrombi. These form in areas of slow blood flow, which develop because of flow separation created by changing vascular geometry and elevated blood viscosity. Many phenomena typically ascribed to inflammation or "chronic oxidative stress", such as the development of fatty streaks, "endothelial dysfunction," "vulnerable plaques," and the association of mild elevations of C-reactive protein and cytokines with atherothrombosis are better explained by hemorheologic and hemodynamic abnormalities, particularly elevated blood viscosity...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
Nur Amalina Amirullah, Nurhayati Zainal Abidin, Noorlidah Abdullah
Atherosclerosis is a complex pathology that involves several factors in its development, like oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Several drugs and therapeutic approaches have been developed to handle these aspects of atherosclerosis. However, some of these treatments can be costly and have undesirable side effects. Many constituents of mushrooms have been shown to have potential anti-atherosclerotic effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, the possible mechanisms in which they exert these effects have also been elucidated...
March 2018: Food Research International
Edenil Costa Aguilar, Josiane Fernandes da Silva, Juliana Maria Navia-Pelaez, Alda Jusceline Leonel, Lorrayne Gonçalves Lopes, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Lilian G Teixeira, Virginia Soares Lemos, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that sodium butyrate reduces obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in in vitro and in vivo models. Apo E-/- mice have high basal oxidative stress and naturally develop dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Because these disorders are present in obesity, the aim of this study was to determine whether Apo E-/- mice could be a more realistic model for studying obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: We evaluated the action of orally administered sodium butyrate on adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance using diet-induced obese Apo E-/- mice...
March 2018: Nutrition
Hassan Askari, Sulail Fatima Rajani, Mansour Poorebrahim, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Ehsan Raeis-Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Irisin is a hormone-like molecule mainly released by skeletal muscles in response to exercise. Irisin induces browning of the white adipose tissue and has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. Keeping its energy expenditure and metabolic properties in view, numerous studies have focused on its therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of irisin have received a great deal of attention of the scientific society...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Mojca Lunder, Miodrag Janic, Miso Sabovic
In diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance progressively lead to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Whereas the incidence of microvascular complications is closely related to tight glycaemic control, this does not apply to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia influences many interweaving molecular pathways that initially lead to increased oxidative stress, increased inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The latter represents the initial in both types of vascular complications; it represents the "obligatory damage" in microvascular complications development and only "introductory damage" in macrovascular complications development...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Yongqiang Li, Shuxin Shen, Shoukun Ding, Lixia Wang
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is triggered by lipid retention. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a novel target for therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) serves important roles in stress response and inflammation. The present study investigated whether TLR2 is involved in the activation of cholesterol efflux in macrophages by regulating the NF-κB pathway. The human monocytic THP-1 cell line and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell line were treated with 50 µg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 h in order to obtain macrophage foam cells...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Michelle A Erickson, Malika Winfield, Sachin Gajghate, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in flaxseed, is known for its beneficial effects in inflammation, oxidative stress, heart disease, tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. SDG might be an attractive natural compound that protects against neuroinflammation. Yet, there are no comprehensive studies to date investigating the effects of SDG on brain endothelium using relevant in vivo and in vitro models. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of orally administered SDG on neuroinflammatory responses using in vivo imaging of the brain microvasculature during systemic inflammation and aseptic encephalitis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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