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Oxidative stress,inflammation,atherosclerosis,stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842356/impact-of-micrornas-on-ischemic-stroke-from-pre-to-post-disease
#1
REVIEW
Guangwen Li, Kahlilia C Morris-Blanco, Mary S Lopez, Tuo Yang, Haiping Zhao, Raghu Vemuganti, Yumin Luo
Stroke is the number one cause of neurological dysfunction in adults and has a heavy socioeconomic burden worldwide. The etiological origins of ischemic stroke and resulting pathological processes are mediated by a multifaceted cascade of molecular mechanisms that are in part modulated by posttranscriptional activity. Accumulating evidence has revealed a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential mediators of posttranscriptional gene silencing in both the physiology of brain development and pathology of ischemic stroke...
August 24, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721154/obesity-and-inflammation-the-linking-mechanism-and-the-complications
#2
Mohammed S Ellulu, Ismail Patimah, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Asmah Rahmat, Yehia Abed
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#3
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417216/pathogenic-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Brain injury following stroke results from a complex series of pathophysiological events including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Moreover, there is a mechanistic link between brain ischemia, innate and adaptive immune cells, intracranial atherosclerosis, and also the gut microbiota in modifying the cerebral responses to ischemic insult. There are very few treatments for stroke injuries, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the diverse cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke and that are responsible for neuronal death...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249219/psoriasis-like-inflammation-leads-to-renal-dysfunction-via-upregulation-of-nadph-oxidases-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#5
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq A Ansari, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Moureq R Alotaibi, Abdulaziz M S AlSaad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Psoriatic patients have systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension myocardial infarction, and stroke. Psoriasis has also been shown to be associated with kidney disease in several studies. Both disorders also have strong component of oxidative stress which usually emanates from NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, whether psoriatic inflammation leads to renal oxidative stress and dysfunction remains unexplored...
May 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191513/dietary-cholesterol-and-egg-yolk-should-be-avoided-by-patients-at-risk-of-vascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
J David Spence
Recent recommendations that limits to dietary cholesterol be dropped were probably heavily influenced by propaganda from the egg industry. After conviction for false advertising, the industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince the public, physicians, and policy makers that dietary cholesterol and egg yolk are harmless. However, there are good reasons for longstanding recommendations that dietary cholesterol be limited to <200 mg/ day in persons at risk of vascular disease. It is seldom understood that this essentially means all people in developed countries who expect to attain an advanced age...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149843/gamma-glutamyl-transferase-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Gjin Ndrepepa, Adnan Kastrati
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102478/influence-of-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#8
REVIEW
Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva
BACKGROUND: Inflammation markers have been associated with cardiovascular diseases including atrial fibrillation. This arrhythmia is the most frequent, with an incidence of 38/1000 person-years. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of this study are to discuss the association between inflammation, atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation and its clinical implications. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and inflammation is a triggering factor of atherosclerotic plaque rupture...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059114/cigarette-smoke-extract-profoundly-suppresses-tnf%C3%AE-mediated-proinflammatory-gene-expression-through-upregulation-of-atf3-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#9
Jack E Teasdale, Georgina G J Hazell, Alasdair M G Peachey, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Charles C T Hindmarch, Tristan R McKay, Mark Bond, Andrew C Newby, Stephen J White
Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766082/exercise-does-not-protect-against-peripheral-and-central-effects-of-a-high-cholesterol-diet-given-ad-libitum-in-old-apoe-mice
#10
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066292/circulating-endothelial-microparticles-a-key-hallmark-of-atherosclerosis-progression
#11
REVIEW
Keshav Raj Paudel, Nisha Panth, Dong-Wook Kim
The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs) described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm) vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004027/better-prognosis-in-overweight-obese-coronary-heart-disease-patients-with-high-plasma-levels-of-leptin
#12
Luminita Animarie Vida Simiti, Irina Todor, Mirela Anca Stoia, Cerasela Mihaela Goidescu, Florin Petru Anton, Anca Daniela Farcas
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The involvement of leptin in atherosclerosis is very complex, including inflammation, the oxidative stress and thrombosis. Leptin has atherogenic and also antiatherogenic actions. In obesity elevated leptin levels are not sufficient to prevent disturbances of energy balance, suggesting that obese people are leptin resistant. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between baseline plasma levels of leptin and the incidence of new ischemic events in patients with CHD...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904258/air-particulate-matter-and-cardiovascular-disease-the-epidemiological-biomedical-and-clinical-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Yixing Du, Xiaohan Xu, Ming Chu, Yan Guo, Junhong Wang
Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation...
January 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878282/the-association-of-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-biomarkers-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-us-population
#14
Omayma Alshaarawy, Hosam A Elbaz, Michael E Andrew
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent atmospheric pollutants produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. Pre-clinical and occupational studies have reported a positive association of PAHs with oxidative stress, inflammation and subsequent development of atherosclerosis, a major underlying risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current study is to estimate the association between levels of PAH biomarkers and CVD in a national representative sample of United States (US) adults...
April 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605517/severity-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-copd
#15
Neşe Dursunoglu, Dursun Dursunoglu, Ali İhsan Yıldız, Burcu Uludag, Zahide Namlı Alaçam, Ahmet Sarıçopur
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has many comorbidities such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress play a significant role in CAD and COPD. We analysed that impact of COPD on intensity and severity of coronary artery lesions on the angiogram in the groups of patients with COPD according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades updated in 2015. METHODS: The study included 102 COPD patients and 80 randomly selected subjects without any pulmonary disease who underwent coronary angiography...
November 25, 2015: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542505/soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-the-risk-for-incident-heart-failure-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mariana Lazo, Marc K Halushka, Lu Shen, Nisa Maruthur, Casey M Rebholz, Andreea M Rawlings, Ron C Hoogeveen, Tina E Brinkley, Christie M Ballantyne, Brad C Astor, Elizabeth Selvin
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals suggest that circulating soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) decrease oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. The association between sRAGE and incident heart failure has not been systematically examined in a prospective study. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of a subsample of 1,086 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who attended visit 2 (1990-1992) without a history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or heart failure and with measured plasma sRAGE levels...
November 2015: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510435/the-role-of-nadph-oxidase-in-vascular-disease-hypertension-atherosclerosis-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Stephen P Gray, Karin A M Jandeleit-Dahm
The family of NADPH oxidase (Nox) proteins plays an integral role in the homeostatic functions of the cell, including gene expression, cell migration, proliferation, senescence and inflammation. There are currently 4 isoforms (Nox1, 2, 4 and 5) that are expressed across all cell types of the vascular system and play an important role in many physiological processes such as endothelial function, vascular tone and angiogenesis. The balance between Nox derived reactive oxygen species production and their elimination by dismutase enzymes is a critical finely tuned process...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441842/mineralocorticoid-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Mary E Moss, Iris Z Jaffe
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature that causes significant morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Landmark clinical trials revealed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists improve outcomes in cardiovascular patients. Conversely, enhanced MR activation by the hormone aldosterone is associated with increased risk of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the role of aldosterone and the MR in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis as it proceeds from risk factor-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation to plaque formation, progression, and ultimately rupture with thrombosis, the cause of acute ischemia...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322175/inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Kazim Husain, Wilfredo Hernandez, Rais A Ansari, Leon Ferder
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with cardiovascular dysfunction including myocardial infarction, unstable angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke and peripheral thromboses. It has been predicted that atherosclerosis will be the primary cause of death in the world by 2020. Atherogenesis is initiated by endothelial injury due to oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome...
August 26, 2015: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277384/resveratrol-neuroprotection-in-stroke-and-traumatic-cns-injury
#20
REVIEW
Mary S Lopez, Robert J Dempsey, Raghu Vemuganti
Resveratrol, a stilbene formed in many plants in response to various stressors, elicits multiple beneficial effects in vertebrates. Particularly, resveratrol was shown to have therapeutic properties in cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol-induced benefits are modulated by multiple synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Despite the lack of a definitive mechanism, both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol can induce a neuroprotective state when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury to the CNS...
October 2015: Neurochemistry International
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