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Oxidative stress, atherosclerosis,inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#1
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429343/post-prandial-effects-of-hazelnut-enriched-high-fat-meal-on-ldl-oxidative-status-oxidative-and-inflammatory-gene-expression-of-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-trial
#2
L Di Renzo, G Merra, R Botta, P Gualtieri, A Manzo, M A Perrone, M Mazza, S Cascapera, A De Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate the immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low-density lipoproteins oxidation (ox-LDL) via induction of antioxidant enzymes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The clinical study was a randomized and cross-over trial, conducted through the CONSORT flowchart...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427390/advanced-glycation-end-products-decreases-expression-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-through-oxidative-stress-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#3
Xiaomei Ren, Liqun Ren, Qin Wei, Hua Shao, Long Chen, Naifeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are elevated under diabetic conditions and associated with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation in humans. It has been demonstrated that AGEs evoke oxidative and inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Here, we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms by which AGEs exacerbate the endothelial dysfunction in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs)...
April 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417216/pathogenic-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Brain injury following stroke results from a complex series of pathophysiological events including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Moreover, there is a mechanistic link between brain ischemia, innate and adaptive immune cells, intracranial atherosclerosis, and also the gut microbiota in modifying the cerebral responses to ischemic insult. There are very few treatments for stroke injuries, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the diverse cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke and that are responsible for neuronal death...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411233/vasculopathy-in-the-setting-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-the-roles-of-protein-bound-uremic-toxins
#5
Jingbin Guo, Lu Lu, Yue Hua, Kevin Huang, Ian Wang, Li Huang, Qiang Fu, Aihua Chen, Paul Chan, Huimin Fan, Zhong-Min Liu, Bing Hui Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often leads to and accelerates the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), whilst CVD also causes kidney dysfunction. This bidirectional interaction leads to the development of a complex syndrome known as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). CRS not only involves both the heart and the kidney, but also the vascular system through a vast array of contributing factors. In addition to hemodynamic, neuro-hormonal, mechanical and biochemical factors, the non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are also key contributing factors that have been demonstrated through in vitro, in vivo and clinical observations...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405672/glucagon-like-peptide-1-related-peptides-increase-nitric-oxide-effects-to-reduce-platelet-activation
#6
Cristina Barale, Simona Buracco, Franco Cavalot, Chiara Frascaroli, Angelo Guerrasio, Isabella Russo
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is object of intensive investigation for not only its metabolic effects but also the protective vascular actions. Since platelets exert a primary role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation and vascular complications, we investigated whether GLP-1 directly influences platelet reactivity. For this purpose, in platelets from 72 healthy volunteers we evaluated GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression and the effects of a 15-minute incubation with the native form GLP-1(7-36), the N-terminally truncated form GLP-1(9-36) and the GLP-1 analogue Liraglutide (100 nmol/l) on: i) aggregation induced by collagen or arachidonic acid (AA); ii) platelet function under shear stress; iii) cGMP and cAMP synthesis and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)-induced Vasodilator-Stimulated-Phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation; iv) activation of the signalling molecules Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3-K)/Akt and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)/ERK-1/2; and v) oxidative stress...
April 13, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403739/hydrogen-peroxide-and-lipopolysaccharide-differentially-affect-the-expression-of-micrornas-10a-33a-21-221-in-endothelial-cells-before-and-after-coculture-with-monocytes
#7
Atefe Ghamar Talepoor, Mehdi Kalani, Alamtaj Samsami Dahaghani, Mehrnoosh Doroudchi
Inflammation and oxidative stress are important risk factors affecting various cells in the formation of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) are regulators of inflammation and atherogenesis. The expressions of endothelial cell (EC)-specific miR-10a and miR-21 and monocyte-specific miR-33a and miR-221 were investigated using coculture of the ECs and monocytes upon exposure to H2O2 as an oxidative stressor, and endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a microbial stressor. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (or monocytes) were cocultured in M199 complete medium and were incubated with LPS (20 ng/mL) or H2O2 (1%) for 8 hours at 37°C...
March 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387565/the-therapeutic-potential-of-piceatannol-a-natural-stilbene-in-metabolic-diseases-a-review
#8
Jonathan Kershaw, Kee-Hong Kim
Metabolic disease comprises a set of risk factors highly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is a consequence of central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, obesity increases the risk of the development of metabolic disease due to ectopic fat deposition, low-grade inflammation, and systemic energy disorders caused by dysregulated adipose tissue function. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic stilbene found in various fruits and vegetables and has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386305/a-fermented-whole-grain-prevents-lipopolysaccharides-induced-dysfunction-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#9
Laura Giusti, Morena Gabriele, Giuseppe Penno, Monia Garofolo, Vincenzo Longo, Stefano Del Prato, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Pucci
Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374780/inhibition-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-attenuates-atherosclerosis-via-decreasing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Lintao Wang, Zhouqing Huang, Weijian Huang, Xuemei Chen, Peiren Shan, Peng Zhong, Zia Khan, Jingying Wang, Qilu Fang, Guang Liang, Yi Wang
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370894/antrodia-camphorata-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-induced-ros-production-dna-damage-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#11
Hsin-Ling Yang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Wei-Jung Peng, Chee-Shan Chen, Mei-Ling Li, Li-Sung Hsu, Jiunn-Wang Liao, You-Cheng Hseu
Cigarette smoke exposure activates several cellular mechanisms predisposing to atherosclerosis, including oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and vascular inflammation. Antrodia camphorata, a renowned medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has been investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties in cigarette smoke extracts (CSE)-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and ApoE-deficient mice. Fermented culture broth of Antrodia camphorata (AC, 200-800 µg/mL) possesses effective antioxidant activity against CSE-induced ROS production...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352306/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Ping Wu, Fangyuan Jia, Bao Zhang, Peiying Zhang
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise because of chronic inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one such disease where the risk for CVD and eventual heart failure is increased considerably. The incidence of IBD, which refers to both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has been on the increase in several countries and is a potential risk factor for CVD. Although IBD can potentially cause venous thromboembolism, its significance in arterial stiffening, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction is only being realized now and it is currently under debate...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345767/nlrp3-inflammasome-its-regulation-and-involvement-in-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Zahra Hoseini, Fatemeh Sepahvand, Bahman Rashidi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Aria Masoudifar, Hamed Mirzaei
Inflammasomes are intracellular complexes involved in the innate immunity that convert proIL-1β and proIL-18 to mature forms and initiate pyroptosis via cleaving procaspase-1. The most well-known inflammasome is NLRP3. Several studies have indicated a decisive and important role of NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β, IL-18, and pyroptosis in atherosclerosis. Modern hypotheses introduce atherosclerosis as an inflammatory/lipid-based disease and NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered as a link between lipid metabolism and inflammation because crystalline cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) (two abundant components in atherosclerotic plaques) activate NLRP3 inflammasome...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333382/regulation-and-function-of-extracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-visfatin
#14
Federico Carbone, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Matteo Casula, Michele Cea, Fiammetta Monacelli, Irene Caffa, Santina Bruzzone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Alessio Nencioni
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an adipokine-enzyme, which was described as to play bioactivities both in the intracellular and in the extracellular environment. However, while the functions of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) are well known, much less is known on extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT), also called visfatin or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor. iNAMPT catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the NAD+ biosynthesis pathway from nicotinamide. Its inhibition severely reduces intracellular NAD+ levels, achieving anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331061/an-intracellular-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-isoform-induces-tubular-regulated-necrosis-implications-for-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Carla S Ceron, Celine Baligand, Sunil K Joshi, Shaynah Wanga, Patrick M Cowley, Joy P Walker, Sang Heon Song, Rajeev Mahimkar, Anthony J Baker, Robert L Raffai, Zhen J Wang, David H Lovett
Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes severe morbidity, mortality, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mortality is particularly marked in the elderly and with pre-existing CKD. Oxidative stress is a common theme in models of AKI induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We recently characterized an intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) induced by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternate promoter in the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. This generates an N-terminal truncated MMP-2 isoform (NTT-MMP-2) that is intracellular and associated with mitochondria...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294976/vitamins-and-microelement-bioavailability-in-different-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Magdalena Jankowska, Bolesław Rutkowski, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients-specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements-in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities of micronutrient resources in CKD develop for several reasons. Dietary restrictions and anorexia lead to an insufficient micronutrient intake, while diuretics use and renal replacement therapy lead to their excessive losses...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254384/excessive-intake-of-trans-fatty-acid-accelerates-atherosclerosis-through-promoting-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-hyperlipidemia
#17
Tomoko Monguchi, Tetsuya Hara, Minoru Hasokawa, Hideto Nakajima, Kenta Mori, Ryuji Toh, Yasuhiro Irino, Tatsuro Ishida, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Masakazu Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that trans fatty acids (TFAs) are a risk for coronary artery disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the proatherogenic effect of TFA has not been completely elucidated. To obtain better understanding of the impact of TFA on vascular diseases, this study investigated the effect of TFA on oxidative stress using a mouse model of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were fed with diet containing 0...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249219/psoriasis-like-inflammation-leads-to-renal-dysfunction-via-upregulation-of-nadph-oxidases-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#18
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq A Ansari, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Moureq R Alotaibi, Abdulaziz M S AlSaad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Psoriatic patients have systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension myocardial infarction, and stroke. Psoriasis has also been shown to be associated with kidney disease in several studies. Both disorders also have strong component of oxidative stress which usually emanates from NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, whether psoriatic inflammation leads to renal oxidative stress and dysfunction remains unexplored...
February 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245785/vascular-consequences-of-aldosterone-excess-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism
#19
Sophocles Chrissobolis
Aldosterone binds to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) on renal epithelial cells to regulate sodium and water reabsorption, and therefore blood pressure. Recently, the actions of aldosterone outside the kidney have been extensively investigated, with numerous reports of aldosterone having detrimental actions, including in the vasculature. Notably, elevated aldosterone levels are an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and in addition to causing an increase in blood pressure, aldosterone can have blood pressure-dependent and -independent effects commonly manifested in the vasculature in cardiovascular diseases, including vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, remodeling, stiffening, and plaque formation...
February 28, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243806/influence-of-erythrocyte-membrane-stability-in-atherosclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Mario da Silva Garrote-Filho, Morun Bernardino-Neto, Nilson Penha-Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. RECENT FINDINGS: Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus...
April 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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