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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054972/endothelial-function-is-impaired-in-the-cutaneous-microcirculation-of-adults-with-psoriasis-through-reductions-in-nitric-oxide-dependent-vasodilation
#1
Billie K Alba, Jody L Greaney, Sara B Ferguson, Lacy M Alexander
Psoriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Deficits in conduit arterial function are evident in psoriatics, but potential impairments in microcirculatory endothelial function remain unclear. We hypothesized that cutaneous microvascular dysfunction would be detectable in otherwise healthy psoriatics. Two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in (non-lesional) forearm skin of 9 patients with moderate plaque psoriasis (3M, 6F; 39±5 yr; 16±2 %BSA) and 9 non-psoriatic controls (3M, 6F; 38±5 yr) for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer's (control) and 2) 10mM L-ascorbate (non-specific antioxidant)...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054907/secondary-aortoduodenal-fistula-and-the-unrecognised-herald-bleed
#2
Francesc Simó Alari, Esther Molina González, Israel Gutierrez, Aïcha Ahamdanech-Idrissi
A 65-year-old man with history of aortobifemoral surgery 4 years ago was admitted to hospital after sudden abdominal pain. Initially misdiagnosed as renal colic, he was treated with analgesics, and while on observation he started with haematemesis, rapidly responding to volume infusion. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed fresh blood in the stomach with no visible active bleeding. CT scan showed an important contrast extravasation from the aorta to the third duodenal portion, restarting haemodynamic instability and a cardiac arrest...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053849/a-network-meta-analysis-comparing-effects-of-various-antidepressant-classes-on-the-digit-symbol-substitution-test-dsst-as-a-measure-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Bernhard T Baune, Mélanie Brignone, Klaus Groes Larsen
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition that often includes cognitive dysfunction. A systematic literature review of studies and a network meta-analysis (NMA) were carried out to assess the relative effect of antidepressants on cognitive dysfunction in MDD. Methods: MEDLINE ®, Embase ®, Cochrane, CDSR, PsychINFO ® databases, clinical trial registries, and relevant conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of antidepressants/placebo on cognition...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053824/chemogenetic-locus-coeruleus-activation-restores-reversal-learning-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Jacki M Rorabaugh, Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Christian A Botz-Zapp, Vanessa M Fu, Natalie A Lembeck, Robert M Cohen, David Weinshenker
Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer's disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies...
September 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052401/-relaxation-effect-of-buddleoside-combined-with-luteolin-on-isolated-vessels-in-vivo-and-its-mechanism
#5
Yao Yang, Bo Chen, Kai-Lun Liang, Jie Su, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lv
To study the relaxation effect of buddleoside combined with luteolin on aortic rings in SD rats and its mechanism. The effect of buddleoside alone(7.5×10⁻⁶g•mL⁻¹), luteolin alone(7.5×10⁻⁶g•mL⁻¹) and the combination of buddleoside and luteolin(1∶4) on norepinephrine-induced contractility of complete, endothelium-denuded, and L-NAME and indomethacin-pretreated thoracic aorta in SD rats were observed in the in vitro ring tension test. Western blot was used to detect p-Akt and p-eNOS protein expressions in the thoracic aorta...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049533/association-of-antidepressant-medications-with-incident-type-2-diabetes-among-medicaid-insured-youths
#6
Mehmet Burcu, Julie M Zito, Daniel J Safer, Laurence S Magder, Susan dosReis, Fadia T Shaya, Geoffrey L Rosenthal
Importance: Antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of psychotropic medications among US youths. For adults, there is emerging evidence on the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in association with antidepressant use. However, little is known about the antidepressant treatment-emergent risk of type 2 diabetes among youths. Objective: To assess the association between antidepressant use and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in youths by antidepressant subclass and according to duration of use, cumulative dose, and average daily dose...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048739/pharmacotherapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-sand
#7
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Coenraad J Hattingh, Catherine M Kariuki, Sean A Tromp, Anton J van Balkom, Jonathan C Ipser, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Recognition is growing that social anxiety disorder (SAnD) is a chronic and disabling disorder, and data from early trials demonstrate that medication may be effective in its treatment. This systematic review is an update of an earlier review of pharmacotherapy of SAnD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder in adults and identify which factors (methodological or clinical) predict response to treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMDCTR-Studies and CCMDCTR-References) to 17 August 2015...
October 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047410/association-between-kidney-intracapsular-pressure-and-ultrasound-elastography
#8
Kianoush B Kashani, Shennen A Mao, Sami Safadi, Bruce P Amiot, Jaime M Glorioso, John C Lieske, Scott L Nyberg, Xiaoming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kidney congestion is a common pathophysiologic pathway of acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis and heart failure. There is no noninvasive tool to measure kidney intracapsular pressure (KIP) directly. METHODS: We evaluated the correlation of KIP with kidney elasticity measured by ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE). We directly measured transcatheter KIP in three pigs at baseline and after bolus infusion of normal saline, norepinephrine, vasopressin, dopamine, and fenoldopam; infiltration of 2-L peritoneal dialysis solution in the intra-abdominal space; and venous, arterial, and ureteral clamping...
October 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046149/schizophrenia-and-nicotine-dependence-what-psychopharmacological-treatment-options-are-available-for-the-duo-perturbationes
#9
Yoong Mei Theng, Suzaily Wahab, Noor Alaudin Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das
Nicotine dependence has progressively become a foremost community health interest in the both developed and developing nations due to the economic burden and health-related problem. Smoking was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison to the general population. Nicotine dependence is not only associated with public stress, but among patients with schizophrenia, smoking brings major challenges to the management. Nicotine may diminish the therapeutic efficacy of the bioavailability of the psychopharmacological agents in-vivo...
October 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042907/effects-of-puerarin-combined-with-conventional-therapy-on-ischemic-stroke
#10
Min Yuan, Guijiang Liu, Xiuqi Zheng, Pei Li, Jinghua Liu, Sujie Wang, Yibin Cao
This study evaluated the use of conventional therapy combined with puerarin on ischemic stroke. Eighty patients with ischemic stroke admitted to Tangshan Gongren Hospital from March 2014 to September 2015 were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was treated with conventional therapy. The observation group was treated with an additional puerarin injection of 400 mg/day. The patients in both groups were examined for clinical neurological signs and symptoms. The levels of biochemical markers as well as changes in hemorheology were measured after the intervention and compared among the groups...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#11
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040212/vasopressor-cumulative-dose-requirement-and-risk-of-early-death-during-septic-shock-an-analysis-from-the-episs-cohort
#12
Auguste Dargent, Maxime Nguyen, Isabelle Fournel, Abderrahmane Bourredjem, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles, Jean-Pierre Quenot
Septic shock is the primary cause of death in intensive care units, with about 20% of patients dying in the first 3 days. To design future trials focused on early mortality, we require knowledge of early indicators that can detect patients at high risk of early death from refractory septic shock.The aim of this study was to assess whether the cumulative dose of vasopressors (CDV), calculated as the cumulative dose of epinephrine + norepinephrine, is a predictor of early death (within 72 hours) attributable to refractory septic shock (EDASS)...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038736/down-but-not-out-the-consequences-of-pretangle-tau-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#13
REVIEW
Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, David Weinshenker, Jacki M Rorabaugh
Degeneration of locus coeruleus (LC) is an underappreciated hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LC is the main source of norepinephrine (NE) in the forebrain, and its degeneration is highly correlated with cognitive impairment and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tangle pathology. Hyperphosphorylated tau in the LC is among the first detectable AD-like neuropathology in the brain, and while the LC/NE system impacts multiple aspects of AD (e.g., cognition, neuropathology, and neuroinflammation), the functional consequences of hyperphosphorylated tau accrual on LC neurons are not known...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038253/conversion-of-norepinephrine-to-3-4-dihdroxymandelic-acid-in-escherichia-coli-requires-the-qsebc-quorum-sensing-system-and-the-fear-transcription-factor
#14
Sasikiran Pasupuleti, Nitesh Sule, Michael D Manson, Arul Jayaraman
The detection of norepinephrine (NE) as a chemoattractant by E. coli K-12 requires the combined action of the TynA monoamine oxidase and the FeaB aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase. These role is to convert NE into 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA), which is a potent chemoattractant sensed by the Tsr chemoreceptor. These two enzymes must be induced by prior exposure to NE, and cells that exposed to NE for the first time initially show minimal chemotaxis toward it. The induction of TynA and FeaB requires the QseC quorum-sensing histidine kinase, and the signaling cascade requires new protein synthesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038209/activation-and-inhibition-of-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-is-a-mechanism-that-links-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-with-that-of-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Milton Packer
The mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetes mellitus and heart failure are closely intertwined, such that worsening of one condition is frequently accompanied by worsening of the other; the degree of clinical acceleration is marked when the 2 coexist. Activation of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the heart and vasculature (NHE1 isoform) and the kidneys (NHE3 isoform) may serve as a common mechanism that links both disorders and may underlie their interplay. Insulin insensitivity and adipokine abnormalities (the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus) are characteristic features of heart failure; conversely, neurohormonal systems activated in heart failure (norepinephrine, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and neprilysin) impair insulin sensitivity and contribute to microvascular disease in diabetes mellitus...
October 17, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036640/toxicokinetics-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinohexanophenone
#16
Yuji Fujita, Toshinori Mita, Kiyotaka Usui, Yoshito Kamijo, Satoshi Kikuchi, Makoto Onodera, Yasuhisa Fujino, Yoshihiro Inoue
Synthetic cathinones inhibit monoamine transporters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transporters, and act on the central nervous system via increasing synaptic concentrations of monoamines. These compounds, which are highly addictive and potentially poisonous, are new psychoactive substances. In this study, we investigated the toxicokinetics of the synthetic cathinone, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP), and assessed the relationship between the toxicokinetics and the long-term clinical symptoms induced by α-PHP in a male patient...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035364/sympathetic-neuron-associated-macrophages-contribute-to-obesity-by-importing-and-metabolizing-norepinephrine
#17
Roksana M Pirzgalska, Elsa Seixas, Jason S Seidman, Verena M Link, Noelia Martínez Sánchez, Inês Mahú, Raquel Mendes, Vitka Gres, Nadiya Kubasova, Imogen Morris, Bernardo A Arús, Chelsea M Larabee, Miguel Vasques, Francisco Tortosa, Ana L Sousa, Sathyavathy Anandan, Erin Tranfield, Maureen K Hahn, Matteo Iannacone, Nathanael J Spann, Christopher K Glass, Ana I Domingos
The cellular mechanism(s) linking macrophages to norepinephrine (NE)-mediated regulation of thermogenesis have been a topic of debate. Here we identify sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages (SAMs) as a population of cells that mediate clearance of NE via expression of solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), an NE transporter, and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a degradation enzyme. Optogenetic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) upregulates NE uptake by SAMs and shifts the SAM profile to a more proinflammatory state...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034205/kaempferia-parviflora-rhizome-extract-and-myristica-fragrans-volatile-oil-increase-the-levels-of-monoamine-neurotransmitters-and-impact-the-proteomic-profiles-in-the-rat-hippocampus-mechanistic-insights-into-their-neuroprotective-effects
#18
Waluga Plaingam, Siriporn Sangsuthum, Wannee Angkhasirisap, Tewin Tencomnao
Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032769/amphetamine-modestly-improves-conners-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-healthy-adults
#19
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young, William Perry
OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. METHODS: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner's CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032494/the-effects-of-add-on-exenatide-to-insulin-on-glycemic-variability-and-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#20
L-L Jiang, S-Q Wang, B Ding, J Zhu, T Jing, L Ye, K-O Lee, J-D Wu, J-H Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of add-on exenatide to insulin on glycemic excursion and the counter-regulatory hormone in response to hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: 30 patients with T1DM were recruited and randomly assigned to exenatide + insulin-treated group (group 1, n = 15) or insulin-only-treated group (group 2, n = 15) for 4 weeks. All patients had continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS) applied at before (week-0) and after (week-4) treatment to evaluate the glycemic variability...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
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