Read by QxMD icon Read


Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David Ea Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. e281 in vol. 3, PMID: 27606356.].
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Yong Li, Julia Hoffmann, Yang Li, Flora Stephano, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
The monoamines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate numerous behaviours and physiological processes in invertebrates. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether these invertebrate counterparts of norepinephrine are important regulators of metabolic and life history traits. We show that flies (Drosophila melanogaster) lacking OA are more resistant to starvation, while their overall life span is substantially reduced compared with control flies. In addition, these animals have increased body fat deposits, reduced physical activity and a reduced metabolic resting rate...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peter R Bieck, Mark Leibowitz, D Richard Lachno, Edouard Ledent, Robert Padich, Stan Jhee
To assess the primary metabolite of norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), as a sensitive biomarker for norepinephrine transporter (NET) function and the relationship of DHPG measured peripherally and centrally, NET was antagonized with 80 mg/d atomoxetine for 18 days. Twelve healthy subjects were treated with atomoxetine in an open-label, multiple-dose exploratory study. Plasma atomoxetine reached steady state by day 6, and the pharmacokinetic results demonstrated availability of atomoxetine to the central nervous system...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Peter Lam, Susan Lucak, Hanga Galfalvy, Elizabeth Jackson, Jane Fried, Melissa Rosario, Ana Alicia de la Cruz, Arturo Sánchez-Lacay, Samantha Díaz, Franklin Schneier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently co-occur, yet treating their comorbid presentation is challenging. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants are efficacious for IBS, but higher doses to treat depressive symptoms present tolerability problems, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are more tolerable but show inconsistent efficacy for IBS. If efficacious, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like duloxetine would provide a useful alternative. We explored efficacy, tolerability, and time to onset of action of duloxetine in comorbid IBS-MDD in an open-label, 12-week trial...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael G Ziegler, Milos Milic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caregiving for a severely demented spouse, and obesity more specifically address whether SNS activation might lead to the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is associated with both increased SNS electrical activity and plasma norepinephrine...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Markus Schlaich, Rosemary Elliott, Caroline Rudnicka, Vance Matthews
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system activation is a common feature in various metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) mediates re-absorption of glucose from the renal proximal tubules. SGLT-2 inhibitors have attracted substantial attention due to their glucose and blood pressure lowering effects. Furthermore, the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
George Bakris
Renal denervation started out as a very promising approach to treat resistant hypertension with a very strong conceptual and basic science frame work from Gerald DiBona's lab and extending into the early non shame clinical studies demonstrating proof of concept in SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and 2. SYMPLICITY-HTN 3 a properly done, sham control trial failed to show a benefit on further reduction of BP compared to the sham group. The conclusion the procedure doesn't work. How could this be-it was clearly effective in animal models but why not in man...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: These studies tested the hypothesis that the SNS release of norepinephrine modulates NCC activity via a WNK1 mechanism to contribute to the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats receiving a continuous s.c. saline or NE (600 ng/min) infusion or naïve Dahl Salt-Resistant (DSR) and Dahl Salt-Sensitive (DSS) rats were fed a 0.6% (NS) or 8% NaCl (HS) diet for 14 or 21 days respectively (N = 6/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Vavřínová, Michal Behuliak, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and hypertension development. The available information concerning mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. This might be due to various reference genes used as internal controls. We therefore searched for suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression of genes of catecholaminergic system between these strains...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Akira Nishiyama, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Yoshihide Fujisawa
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have indicated that renal denervation (RDN) suppresses sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients, suggesting that afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) enhances sympathetic outflow via central nervous system. To investigate the possible role of ARNA in the pathophysiology of renovascular hypertension, we examined the effect of RDN on blood pressure and urinary norepinephrine in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Wister-Kyoto rats were divided 3 groups: sham, 2K1C and 2K1C with RDN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Young Chul Kim, Dae Hoon Kim, Sang Eok Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Woong Choi, Sang Jin Lee, Hyo-Yung Yun
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous oscillation of tone of blood vessel called vasomotion cause vessel to flow blood which is an oscillation of flow into an organ. Microcirculation is sensitive to hypoxic condition and metabolism but mechanism of vasomotion is still poorly understood. DESIGN AND METHOD: Purpose: We studied involvement of metabolism-mediated regulation by intracellular ATP level of vasomotion in human gastric artery. METHODS: Conventional contractile measuring system and Western blot were used...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eileen M Stock, Laurel A Copeland, Jack Y Tsan, John E Zeber, Michael A Veronin, Alexander W Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of various statistical analysis approaches while assessing the marginal effect of polypharmacy (prescription of multiple psychotropics including a first-line antidepressant) on all-cause hospital admission among veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. METHODS: Data were obtained on 398 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans being followed in a southwestern U.S. health care system from October 2005 through September 2009, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and receiving first-line antidepressants (serotonin selective or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors)...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Peter P Fong, Taylor B S Bury, Elizabeth E Donovan, Olivia J Lambert, Julia R Palmucci, Stephnie K Adamczak
Exposure to human antidepressants has been shown to disrupt locomotion and other foot-mediated mechanisms in aquatic snails. We tested the effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- and one selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-type antidepressants on the righting response in the marine snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta. All four antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, venlafaxine) significantly increased righting time compared with controls with an exposure time as short as 1 h...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gyuho Song, Yeonho You, Wonjoon Jeong, Junwan Lee, Yongchul Cho, Seungwhan Lee, Seung Ryu, Jinwoong Lee, Seungwhan Kim, Insool Yoo
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to an acute myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock required higher doses of vasopressors with low targeted temperature management (TTM) after return of spontaneous circulation. METHODS: We included consecutive comatose patients resuscitated from OHCA between January 2011 and December 2013. Patients with return of spontaneous circulation, regional wall motion abnormality on echocardiography, and coronary artery stenosis of ≥70% on percutaneous coronary artery angiography were enrolled...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Clare Parker Fischer, L Michael Romero
When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) over the first week of captivity...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Domenico Acanfora, Pietro Scicchitano, Gerardo Casucci, Bernardo Lanzillo, Nicola Capuano, Giuseppe Furgi, Chiara Acanfora, Marialaura Longobardi, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Marco Matteo Ciccone
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training on cardiac function in heart failure (HF) patients recently suffering from acute decompensation. Radionuclide ambulatory ventricular function monitoring (VEST) was used to detect variations in cardiac hemodynamics during training period. METHODS: This was a monocentric, randomized, controlled trial. We enrolled 72 HF patients [left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%] within two weeks after acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: 40 in the elderly group, 32 in the middle-aged group...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"