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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821839/circadian-clock-dependent-increase-in-salivary-iga-secretion-modulated-by-sympathetic-receptor-activation-in-mice
#1
Misaki Wada, Kanami Orihara, Mayo Kamagata, Koki Hama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsuhito Nakao, Shigenobu Shibata
The salivary gland is rhythmically controlled by sympathetic nerve activation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the main oscillator of circadian rhythms. In humans, salivary IgA concentrations reflect circadian rhythmicity, which peak during sleep. However, the mechanisms controlling this rhythmicity are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether the timing of parasympathetic (pilocarpine) or sympathetic (norepinephrine; NE) activation affects IgA secretion in the saliva. The concentrations of saliva IgA modulated by pilocarpine activation or by a combination of pilocarpine and NE activation were the highest in the middle of the light period, independent of saliva flow rate...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820985/human-bone-marrow-as-a-tissue-in-post-mortem-identification-and-determination-of-psychoactive-substances-screening-methodology
#2
Renata Wietecha-Posłuszny, Sofia Lendor, Magdalena Garnysz, Marcin Zawadzki, Paweł Kościelniak
The aim of this study was to apply a new instrumental approach to the analysis of human bone marrow for forensic purposes. A new screening method for the detection of more than 30 psychoactive drugs in bone marrow was developed and applied to case samples. The drugs used in this study belonged to the following groups: benzodiazepines (BZDs, n=16), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, n=5), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, n=4), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n=1), anticonvulsants (n=1), imidazopyridines (n=1) and piperazines (n=3)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820036/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-early-addition-of-vasopressin-to-norepinephrine-in-septic-shock
#3
Drayton A Hammond, Julia Cullen, Jacob T Painter, Kelsey McCain, Oktawia A Clem, Amy L Brotherton, Divyan Chopra, Nikhil Meena
BACKGROUND: Delays in achievement of target mean arterial pressure (MAP) have been associated with increased mortality in patients with septic shock. Vasopressin may be added to norepinephrine to raise MAP or decrease norepinephrine dosage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early initiation of vasopressin to norepinephrine resulted in a reduced time to target MAP compared to norepinephrine monotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared early addition of vasopressin within 4 hours of septic shock onset to norepinephrine versus initial norepinephrine monotherapy in medically, critically ill patients with septic shock admitted from May 2014 to October 2015...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819022/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-mice-housed-at-standard-temperatures-suppresses-an-effector-phenotype-in-cd8-t-cells-and-undermines-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#4
Mark J Bucsek, Guanxi Qiao, Cameron R MacDonald, Thejaswini Giridharan, Lauren Evans, Brian Niedzwecki, Haichao Liu, Kathleen M Kokolus, Jason W-L Eng, Michelle N Messmer, Kristopher Attwood, Scott I Abrams, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
The immune context of tumors has significant prognostic value and is predictive of responsiveness to several forms of therapy, including immunotherapy. We report here that CD8(+) T cell frequency and functional orientation within the tumor microenvironment is regulated by β2-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling in host immune cells. We used three strategies - physiologic (manipulation of ambient thermal environment), pharmacologic (β-blockers), and genetic (β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice) to reduce adrenergic stress signaling in two widely studied preclinical mouse tumor models...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817670/synthesis-radiosynthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-18f-bodipy-c16-triglyceride-as-a-dual-modal-imaging-agent-for-brown-adipose-tissue
#5
Andreas Paulus, Marco Maenen, Natascha Drude, Emmani B M Nascimento, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt, Felix M Mottaghy, Matthias Bauwens
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue research is in the focus in the field of endocrinology. We designed a dual-modal fluorescent/PET fatty acid based tracer on commercially available Bodipy-C16, which can be synthesized to its corresponding triglyceride and which combines the benefits of fluorescent and PET imaging. METHODS: Bodipy-C16 was coupled to 1,3-diolein resulting in Bodipy-triglyceride. Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride compounds were radiolabeled with 18F using an 18F/19F exchange reaction to yield a dual-modal imaging molecule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815802/prophylactic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-and-rosmarinic-acid-on-doxorubicin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Hanan A Rizk, Marwa A Masoud, Omar W Maher
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use cause neurobiological side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by daily administration of ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on DOX-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Our data showed that DOX-induced significant elevation of brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and cholinesterase associated with significant reduction in reduced glutathione, monoamines namely serotonin, dopamine, as well as norepinephrine...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815791/risk-of-preeclampsia-after-gestational-exposure-to-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-other-antidepressants-a-study-from-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort-study
#7
Angela Lupattelli, Mollie Wood, Kate Lapane, Olav Spigset, Hedvig Nordeng
PURPOSE: To describe the risk of early- and late-onset preeclampsia across pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and to evaluate the impact of timing and length of gestational exposure to antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on preeclampsia. METHODS: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, a prospective population-based study, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided information on antidepressant exposure, depression, and anxiety symptoms in pregnancy, preeclampsia diagnoses, and important covariates...
August 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814663/parasympathetic-dysfunction-and-antiarrhythmic-effect-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-following-myocardial-infarction
#8
Marmar Vaseghi, Siamak Salavatian, Pradeep S Rajendran, Daigo Yagishita, William R Woodward, David Hamon, Kentaro Yamakawa, Tadanobu Irie, Beth A Habecker, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Myocardial infarction causes sympathetic activation and parasympathetic dysfunction, which increase risk of sudden death due to ventricular arrhythmias. Mechanisms underlying parasympathetic dysfunction are unclear. The aim of this study was to delineate consequences of myocardial infarction on parasympathetic myocardial neurotransmitter levels and the function of parasympathetic cardiac ganglia neurons, and to assess electrophysiological effects of vagal nerve stimulation on ventricular arrhythmias in a chronic porcine infarct model...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814469/characterization-of-the-amplificatory-effect-of-norepinephrine-in-the-acquisition-of-pavlovian-threat-associations
#9
Lorenzo Díaz-Mataix, Walter T Piper, Hillary C Schiff, Clark H Roberts, Vincent D Campese, Robert M Sears, Joseph E LeDoux
The creation of auditory threat Pavlovian memory requires an initial learning stage in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a tone, is paired with an aversive one (US), such as a shock. In this phase, the CS acquires the capacity of predicting the occurrence of the US and therefore elicits conditioned defense responses. Norepinephrine (NE), through β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala, enhances threat memory by facilitating the acquisition of the CS-US association, but the nature of this effect has not been described...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814453/sympathetic-signaling-reactivates-quiescent%C3%A2-disseminated-prostate-cancer-cells-in-the-bone-marrow
#10
Ann Decker, Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Kenji Yumoto, Jingcheng Wang, Russell S Taichman
Clinical observations have identified an association between psychological stress and cancer relapse; suggesting that the sympathetic nervous system/norepinephrine (NE) plays a role in reactivation of dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow niche. Here, the mechanism by which NE regulates prostate cancer (PCa) DTCs in the marrow is explored. NE directly stimulated PCa cell proliferation through β2-adrenergic receptors (ADRB2). NE also altered PCa proliferation in the marrow niche by indirectly by downregulating the secretion of the dormancy inducing molecule growth arrest specific-6 (GAS6) expressed by osteoblasts...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814247/fluid-and-medication-considerations-in-the-traumatized-patient
#11
Amita Misir
This article reviews fluid therapy and medications in pediatric trauma. For resuscitation in the setting of hemorrhagic shock, isotonic crystalloid solution is the first-line agent of choice. Colloid solutions offer no additional benefit, introduce possible increased risks and cost more than crystalloids. Blood products, starting with pRBCs, should be introduced after 20-40 ml/kg of crystalloid has been administered if there is ongoing need for volume replacement. The use of a massive transfusion protocol of 1:1:1 (if >30 kg) or 30:20:20 (if <30 kg) of pRBCs:FFP:platelets is suggested after an initial 30 ml/kg of pRBcs have been administered...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814122/flibanserin-toxicity-in-a-toddler-following-ingestion
#12
Nicholas Granzella, Betty C Chen, Geoffrey S Baird, Matthew Valento
INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who ingested an estimated 600 mg of his mother's flibanserin...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811657/colorimetric-fingerprints-of-gold-nanorods-for-discriminating-catecholamine-neurotransmitters-in-urine-samples
#13
Somayeh Jafarinejad, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Forough Ghasemi, Pezhman Sasanpour, M Reza Hormozi-Nezhad
Catecholamine neurotransmitters, generally including dopamine (DA), epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) are known as substantial indicators of various neurological diseases. Simultaneous detection of these compounds and their metabolites is highly recommended in early clinical diagnosis. To this aim, in the present contribution, a high performance colorimetric sensor array has been proposed for the detection and discrimination of catecholamines based on their reducing ability to deposit silver on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811636/mussel-inspired-polynorepinephrine-functionalized-electrospun-polycaprolactone-microfibers-for-muscle-regeneration
#14
Ying Liu, Guoqiang Zhou, Zhu Liu, Mengyu Guo, Xiumei Jiang, Mehmet Berat Taskin, Zhongyang Zhang, Jing Liu, Jinglong Tang, Ru Bai, Flemming Besenbacher, Menglin Chen, Chunying Chen
Electrospun scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties, high specific surface area and a commendable porous network are widely used in tissue engineering. Improving the hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of hydrophobic substrates is the key point to enhance the effectiveness of electrospun scaffolds. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes with appropriate diameter were selected and coated by mussel-inspired poly norepinephrine (pNE). And norepinephrine is a catecholamine functioning as a hormone and neurotransmitter in the human brain...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811134/a-new-chemotype-inhibitor-for-the-human-organic-cation-transporter-3-hoct3
#16
Xiaolei Pan, Kavita A Iyer, Hebing Liu, Douglas H Sweet, Małgorzata Dukat
Human organic cation transporters (OCTs) represent an understudied neurotransmitter uptake mechanism for which no selective agents have yet been identified. Several neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin, norepinephrine) are low-affinity substrates for these transporters, but possess higher affinity for other transporters (e.g. the serotonin or norepinephrine transporters; SERT and NET, respectively). We have identified a new class of OCT inhibitors with a phenylguanidine structural scaffold. Here, we examine the actions of a series of such compounds and report preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) - the first dedicated SAR study of OCT3 action...
August 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810603/intratracheal-administration-of-isosorbide-dinitrate-improves-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-ventricular-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-following-myocardial-infarction
#17
Xuelian Wang, Qingqing Xu, Tianqi Li, Yaocong Rong, Weilin Hong, Yan Huang, Xingui Guo
Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease is associated with poor outcomes. This study investigated the beneficial effects of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) inhalation on pulmonary pressure and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI). To assess the effect of ISDN on pulmonary pressure, 20 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to four groups: Normal saline (NS) 1 ml/kg, ISDN 1 mg/kg, NS 3 ml/kg or ISDN 3 mg/kg following coronary ligation. Assessments included pulmonary and systemic artery pressure alterations, lung weight/body weight and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808144/particulate-matter-exposure-and-stress-hormone-levels-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-of-air-purification
#18
Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Renjie Chen, Zhuohui Zhao, Zhekang Ying, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Ke Hao, Patrick L Kinney, Honglei Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but potential mechanisms are largely unknown. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach to study global metabolic changes in response to environmental exposures. We therefore conducted this study to investigate changes in serum metabolites in response to the reduction of PM exposure among healthy college students. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind crossover trial in 55 healthy college students in Shanghai, China...
August 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807575/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-design-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-benzylpiperidine-tetrazoles
#19
Suresh Paudel, Xiao Min, Srijan Acharya, Daulat Bikram Khadka, Goo Yoon, Kyeong-Man Kim, Seung Hoon Cheon
Monoamine transporters are important targets in the treatment of various central nervous disorders. Several limitations of traditional reuptake inhibitors, like delayed onset of action, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction, have compelled the search for safer, more effective compounds. In this study, we have sought to identify novel monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Based upon the docking study of compounds that we had reported previously, aromatic rings (A1) were modified to generate a novel series of benzylpiperidine-tetrazoles...
July 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807037/selepressin-a-novel-selective-vasopressin-v1a-agonist-is-an-effective-substitute-for-norepinephrine-in-a-phase-iia-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-in-septic-shock-patients
#20
James A Russell, Jean-Louis Vincent, Anne Louise Kjølbye, Håkan Olsson, Allan Blemings, Herbert Spapen, Peder Carl, Pierre-Francois Laterre, Lars Grundemar
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1...
August 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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