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Cancer exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221185/tgf%C3%AE-1-in-fibroblasts-derived-exosomes-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Wenqian Li, Xiaoxue Zhang, Ji Wang, Mengchen Li, Canhui Cao, Jiahong Tan, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), a major component of the tumor microenvironment, play an important role in interacting with neoplastic cells to promote ovarian cancer progression. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that mediate the cross-talk between different cell types. An increasing number of studies have focused on the fact that tumor cell-derived exosomes influence stromal cells. However, the mechanism by which CAF-derived exosomes modulate cancer cells in ovarian cancer remains obscure. To investigate the role of CAF exosomes in ovarian cancer, we examined the exosomal content of paired primary, metastatic and normal fibroblasts from seven stage IIIC ovarian cancer patients by ELISA...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219189/breast-cancer-diagnosis-imaging-techniques-and-biochemical-markers
#2
REVIEW
Seyed Hamed Jafari, Zahra Saadatpour, Arash Salmaninejad, Fatemeh Momeni, Mojgan Mokhtari, Javid Sadri Nahand, Majid Rahmati, Hamed Mirzaei, Mojtaba Kianmehr
Breast cancer is a complex disease which is found as the second cause of cancer-associated death among women. Accumulating of evidence indicated that various factors (i.e. gentical and envirmental factors) could be associated with initiation and progression of breast cancer. Diagnosis of breast cancer patients in early stages is one of important aspects of breast cancer treatment. Among of various diagnosis platforms, imaging techniques are main diagnosis approaches which could provide valuable data on patients with breast cancer...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218268/blood-based-tumor-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-for-detection-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Hirva Mamdani, Shahid Ahmed, Samantha Armstrong, Tony Mok, Shadia I Jalal
The therapeutic landscape of lung cancer has expanded significantly over the past decade. Advancements in molecularly targeted therapies, strategies to discover and treat resistance mutations, and development of personalized cancer treatments in the context of tumor heterogeneity and dynamic tumor biology have made it imperative to obtain tumor samples on several different occasions through the course of patient treatment. While this approach is critical to the delivery of optimal cancer treatment, it is fraught with a number of barriers including the need for invasive procedures with associated complications, access to limited amount of tissue, logistical delays in obtaining the biopsy, high healthcare cost, and in many cases inability to obtain tissue because of technically difficult location of the tumor...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218244/exosomal-tgf-%C3%AE-1-is-correlated-with-lymphatic-metastasis-of-gastric-cancers
#4
Er-Yen Yen, Shi-Chuen Miaw, Jhang-Sian Yu, I-Rue Lai
Exosomes are nano-vesicles transporting bioactive material between cells. This study explored the prognostic association of exosomal TGF-β1 with lymph node (LN) metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). TGF-β1 expressions in the exosomes isolated from the gastroepiploic veins of 61 GC patients analyzed by ELISA. The regulatory T (Treg) cells in celiac LNs of gastric cancer analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Exosomal TGF-β1 expression and the ratio of Treg cells in draining LNs were both significantly associated with pathological stages and LN metastasis of gastric cancer...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216623/exosomal-microrna-mir-1246-promotes-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-drug-resistance-by-targeting-ccng2-in-breast-cancer
#5
Xiu Juan Li, Zhao Jun Ren, Jin Hai Tang, Qiao Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment of breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. This study aims to validate exosomal microRNA-1246 (miR-1246) as a serum biomarker for breast cancer and understand the underlying mechanism in breast cancer progression. METHODS: The expression levels of endogenous and exosomal miRNAs were examined by real time PCR, and the expression level of the target protein was detected by western blot. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy were used to characterize exosomes and to study their uptake and transfer...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216356/improved-egfr-mutation-detection-using-combined-exosomal-rna-and-circulating-tumor-dna-in-nsclc-patient-plasma
#6
A K Krug, D Enderle, C Karlovich, T Priewasser, S Bentink, A Spiel, K Brinkmann, J Emenegger, D G Grimm, E Castellanos-Rizaldos, J W Goldman, L V Sequist, J-C Soria, D R Camidge, S M Gadgeel, H A Wakelee, M Raponi, M Noerholm, J Skog
Background: A major limitation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for somatic mutation detection has been the low level of ctDNA found in a subset of cancer patients. We investigated whether using a combined isolation of exosomal RNA (exoRNA) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) could improve blood-based liquid biopsy for EGFR mutation detection in NSCLC patients. Patients and methods: Matched pretreatment tumor and plasma were collected from 84 patients enrolled in TIGER-X (NCT01526928), a Ph1/2 study of rociletinib in mutant EGFR NSCLC patients...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212270/exosomal-mir-141-3p-regulates-osteoblast-activity-to-promote-the-osteoblastic-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer
#7
Yun Ye, Su-Liang Li, Yue-Yun Ma, Yan-Jun Diao, Liu Yang, Ming-Quan Su, Zhuo Li, Yang Ji, Juan Wang, Lin Lei, Wei-Xiao Fan, La-Xiu Li, Yi Xu, Xiao-Ke Hao
Exosomes from cancer cells, which contain microRNA and reach metastasis loci prior to cancer cells, stimulate the formation of a metastatic microenvironment. Previous studies have shown that exosomal miR-141-3p is associated with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role and regulatory mechanism of miR-141-3p in the microenvironment of bone metastases require further study. In this study, we performed a series of experiments in vivo and in vitro to determine whether exosomal miR-141-3p from MDA PCa 2b cells regulates osteoblast activity to promote osteoblastic metastasis...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212193/microrna-expression-profiling-in-exosomes-derived-from-gastric-cancer-stem-like-cells
#8
Zhan-Peng Sun, An-Qi Li, Wen-Huan Jia, Sen Ye, Grace Van Eps, Jian-Min Yu, Wei-Jun Yang
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been identified as the initial cell in formation of cancer. Quiescent CSCs can "hide out" from traditional cancer therapy which may produce an initial response but are often unsuccessful in curing patients. Thus, levels of CSC in patients may be used as an indicator to measure the chance of recurrence of cancer after therapy. The goals of our work are to develop specific exosomal miRNA clusters for gastric CSCs that can potentially predict which patients are at high risk for developing gastric cancer (GC) in order to diagnose GC at an early stage...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206292/microrna-6869-5p-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-via-targeting-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
Shushan Yan, Zengfang Wang, Quanhong Duan, Changcheng Wang, Donghua Xu
Many studies have implicated that microRNAs (miRNAs), as non-coding RNAs, play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the role of a newly identified miRNA, miR-6869-5p, in CRC. We aim to investigate the modifying effects and underlying mechanisms of miR-6869-5 in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression. Significantly reduced levels of miR-6869-5p were observed in both serum exosomes tumor tissue samples from patients with CRC. The prediction of targets of miR-6869-5p in databases of targetscan, microRNA...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202614/liquid-biopsies-in-gastrointestinal-malignancies-when-is-the-big-day
#10
Anthony Lopez, Kazuto Harada, Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Xiaochuan Dong, Shumei Song, Jaffer A Ajani
Tumor tissue sample is currently the gold standard for diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers, but also for genomic/immune component analyses that can help in the selection of therapy. However, this approach of studying a 'representative' sample of the tumor does not address inherent heterogeneity. Liquid biopsies, mainly represented by circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor exosomes, and microRNAs, have the potential to assess various biomarkers for early detection of cancer, carrying out genomic/immune profiling for not only selection of appropriate therapy but also to monitor effect of therapy...
December 4, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198150/the-effect-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-on-immune-regulation-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) carry both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory receptor/ligands that in part mimic the profiles of the parent tumor cells. Operating as an intercellular communication system, TEX deliver protumor or antitumor signals to immune and nonimmune cells reprogramming their functions. Mechanisms responsible for cellular reprogramming include cell surface signaling and/or uptake of TEX by recipient cells. Once internalized, TEX transfer mRNA, miRNA and proteins that promote transcriptional/translational activities...
December 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198089/-exosomes-as-mediators-of-intercellular-communication-the-cancer-and-telomerase-connection
#12
REVIEW
Orit Uziel, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Meir Lahav
Exosomes, nano-vesicles secreted from all types of cells in the human body, function as inter-cell communicators. This role of exosomes is fulfilled by their specific content, dependent on the origin of donor cells from which they are secreted. Exosomes contain a plethora of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and micro RNA), proteins and lipids. These molecules are packed in the donor cells into the exosomes which are subsequently secreted and transferred through various body fluids into the target cells which may be located far from the donor cells...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197582/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-colon-cancer-cells-identifies-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-alpha-as-antitumor-target-of-citrus-limon-derived-nanovesicles
#13
Stefania Raimondo, Laura Saieva, Marta Cristaldi, Francesca Monteleone, Simona Fontana, Riccardo Alessandro
We have previously isolated exosome-like nanoparticles from Citrus-limon juice, able to inhibit in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth. In order to deeply understand the mechanism underlying nanovesicle effects, we performed a proteomic profile of treated colorectal cancer cells. Among the proteins differentially expressed after nanovesicle treatment, we found a significant downregulation of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACACA) and we demonstrated that silencing ACACA in cancer cells leads to a reduction of cell growth...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196997/methods-to-enrich-exosomes-from-conditioned-media-and-biological-fluids
#14
Shayna Sharma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Exosomes are nano-vesicles which can transport a range of molecules including but not limited to proteins and miRNA. This ability of exosomes renders them useful in cellular communication often resulting in biological changes. They have several functions in facilitating normal biological processes such as immune responses and an involvement in pregnancy. However, they have also been linked to pathological conditions including cancer and pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. An understanding for the role of exosomes in preeclampsia is based on the ability to purify and characterize exosomes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192155/trehalose-significantly-enhances-the-recovery-of-serum-and-serum-exosomal-mirna-from-a-paper-based-matrix
#15
Shu Hui Neo, Ka Yan Chung, Jia Min Quek, Heng-Phon Too
The preservation of nucleic acids from clinical samples is critical to facilitate accurate molecular diagnosis. The use of a paper matrix, Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) Elute cards, to archive DNA and viral RNA is well-documented. However, the feasibility of FTA Elute cards for archiving serum and serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of FTA Elute cards for miRNA storage and recovery in different pre-analytical conditions. The recovery of serum miRNA dry-spotted on FTA Elute cards by direct elution with water at high temperature was poor...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187456/analysis-of-the-mirna-profiles-of-melanoma-exosomes-derived-under-normoxic-and-hypoxic-culture-conditions
#16
Michal Wozniak, Lukasz Peczek, Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
BACKGROUND/AIM: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) transported in melanoma-derived exosomes function as intercellular messengers supporting tumor survival and progression. Hypoxia increases melanoma phenotypic plasticity, drug resistance, and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the miRNA profiles in exosomes derived from melanoma cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions by microarray analyses and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in order to analyze the potential influence of vesicle-transported miRNAs on cancer-related pathways and transcriptional programs...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185191/delivery-of-exogenous-mir-124-to-glioblastoma-multiform-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-confers-chemosensitivity
#17
S Sharif, M H Ghahremani, M Soleimani
MicroRNAs (miRs) are potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the difficulties associated with their delivery to tumor target cells have hampered their widespread use. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the sites of cancers, including GBM and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, it is shown that Wharton's jelly-MSCs (WJ-MSCs) have the ability to deliver exogenous miRs to GBM cells and the functional impact of this delivery is characterized. It is found that the labeled miR-124, as an example for miR of interest, can be successfully delivered with WJ-MSCs to U87 GBM cells via dependent or exosome-independent processes...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184676/exosomes-as-diagnostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Pablo Reclusa, Simona Taverna, Marzia Pucci, Elena Durendez, Silvia Calabuig, Paolo Manca, María José Serrano, Laure Sober, Patrick Pauwels, Antonio Russo, Christian Rolfo
The concept of exosomes has evolved from be considered garbage bags to the demonstration that exosomes could play very interesting roles and functions, from biomarkers detection to the potential of work as drug delivery systems. It has been widely proved that exosomes can contain key molecules important for the tumour development. The current review summarizes the latest investigations developed in the field of predictive exosomal biomarkers. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are the more known molecules due to their amount inside the exosomes and the sensitivity of the techniques available for their study...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184401/placenta-derived-exosomes-potential-biomarkers-of-preeclampsia
#19
REVIEW
Preenan Pillay, Kogi Moodley, Jagidesa Moodley, Irene Mackraj
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality, due to ineffective treatment and diagnostic strategies, compounded by the lack of clarity on the etiology of the disorder. Although several clinical and biological markers of preeclampsia have been evaluated, they have proven to be ineffective in providing a definitive diagnosis during the various stages of the disorder. Exosomes have emerged as ideal biomarkers of pathological states, such as cancer, and have more recently gained interest in pregnancy-related complications, due to their role in cellular communication in normal and complicated pregnancies...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175553/the-key-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-metastatic-process
#20
REVIEW
Hongyun Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Elisabetta Iessi, Mariantonia Logozzi, Davide Mizzoni, Rossella Di Raimo, Deepak Nagrath, Stefano Fais
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, have a key role in the paracrine communication between organs and compartments. EVs shuttle virtually all types of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites and even pharmacological compounds. Their ability to transfer their biomolecular cargo into target cells enables EVs to play a key role in intercellular communication that can regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and migration. This has led to the emergence of EVs as a key player in tumor growth and metastasis through the formation of "tumor niches" in target organs...
November 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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