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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828645/isolation-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-ultracentrifugation
#1
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a group of heterogeneous vesicles that can be obtained from almost all biofluids. EVs, including microvesicles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies , can deliver bioactive cargos and signaling molecules. Various physiological roles and pathophysiological roles for EVs in diseases such as cancer, infectious diseases, endocrine diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders have been recognized. These observations highlight EVs as potential novel biomarkers and targets for therapeutic intervention...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827728/reference-mirnas-for-colorectal-cancer-analysis-and-verification-of-current-data
#2
E Danese, A M Minicozzi, M Benati, E Paviati, G Lima-Oliveira, M Gusella, F Pasini, G L Salvagno, M Montagnana, G Lippi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise in cancer research. The use of appropriate reference miRNAs for normalization of qPCR data is crucial for accurate expression analysis. We present here analysis and verification of current data, proposing a workflow strategy for identification of reference miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a systematic review of studies aimed to identify stable reference miRNAs in CRC through high-throughput screening. Among the candidate miRNAs selected from the literature we excluded those predicted to target oncogenes or tumor suppressor gene...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819549/metastatic-state-of-parent-cells-influences-the-uptake-and-functionality-of-prostate-cancer-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#3
Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, Maarit Neuvonen, Maarit Takatalo, Uma Thanigai Arasu, Cristian Capasso, Vincenzo Cerullo, Johng S Rhim, Kirsi Rilla, Marjo Yliperttula, Pia R-M Siljander
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, mediate intercellular signalling which has a profound role in cancer progression and in the development of metastasis. Internalisation of EVs can prompt functional changes in the recipient cells, the nature of which depends on the molecular composition and the cargo of the EVs. We hypothesised that the metastatic stage of cancerous parent cells would determine the uptake efficacy and the subsequent functional effects of the respective cancer cell-derived EVs...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#4
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817816/exosomes-derived-from-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-tumor-growth-through-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#5
Jin Qi, Yali Zhou, Zuoyi Jiao, Xu Wang, Yang Zhao, Yangbin Li, Huijuan Chen, Luxi Yang, Hongwen Zhu, Yumin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are known to home to sites of tumor microenvironments where they participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment and to interplay with tumor cells. However, the potential functional effects of MSCs on tumor cell growth are controversial. Here, we, from the view of bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes, study the molecular mechanism of MSCs on the growth of human osteosarcoma and human gastric cancer cells. METHODS: MSCs derived from human bone marrow (hBMSCs) were isolated and cultured in complete DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, cell culture supernatants containing exosomes were harvested and exosome purification was performed by ultracentrifugation...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817685/clinical-implications-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-distribution-in-serum-exosomal-fraction-measurement-by-elisa
#6
Shozo Yokoyama, Akihiro Takeuchi, Shunsuke Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Mitani, Takashi Watanabe, Kenji Matsuda, Tsukasa Hotta, John E Shively, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Serum exosomal proteins have great potential as indicators of disease status in cancer, inflammatory or metabolic diseases. The association of a fraction of various serum proteins such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with circulating exosomes has been debated. The establishment of a method to measure the exosomal fraction of such proteins might help resolve this controversy. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure serum exosomal molecules, for example CEA, is rare in research laboratories and totally absent in clinical biology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815045/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#7
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814883/serum-exosomal-mir-125b-is-a-novel-prognostic-marker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Weifeng Liu, Jie Hu, Kaiqian Zhou, Feiyu Chen, Zheng Wang, Boyi Liao, Zhi Dai, Ya Cao, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with high mortality. Circulating miRNA has been demonstrated as a novel noninvasive biomarker for many tumors. This study aimed to investigate the potential of circulating miR-125b as a prognostic marker of HCC. Exosomes were extracted from serum samples collected from two independent cohorts: cohort 1: HCC (n=30), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n=30), liver cirrhosis (LC, n=30); cohort 2: HCC (n=128). We found that miR-125b levels were remarkably increased in exosomes compared to those in serum from patients with CHB, LC, and HCC (P<0...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814772/myosin-isoform-expressed-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-stimulates-cell-invasion
#9
Ivan V Maly, Tera M Domaradzki, Victoria A Gosy, Wilma A Hofmann
During metastasis, tumor cells migrate out of their original tissue to invade other organs. Secretion of exosomes and metalloproteases is essential for extracellular matrix remodeling, enabling migration through tissue barriers. Metastatic prostate cancer is differentiated by expression of the rare isoform A of the molecular motor myosin IC, however the function of this isoform remained unknown. Here we show that it contributes causatively to the invasive motility of prostate cancer cells. We found that the isoform associates with metalloprotease-containing exosomes and stimulates their secretion...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807885/biogenesis-and-function-of-escrt-dependent-extracellular-vesicles
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807820/the-biology-function-and-clinical-implications-of-exosomes-in-lung-cancer
#11
Li Zhou, Tangfeng Lv, Qun Zhang, Qingqing Zhu, Ping Zhan, Suhua Zhu, Jianya Zhang, Yong Song
Exosomes are 30-100 nm small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by all types of cells, and can also be found in various body fluids. Increasing evidence implicates that exosomes confer stability and can deliver their cargos such as proteins and nucleic acids to specific cell types, which subsequently serve as important messengers and carriers in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the biogenesis and components of exosomes mainly in lung cancer, we summarize their function in lung carcinogenesis (epithelial mesenchymal transition, oncogenic cell transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response in tumor microenvironment), and importantly we focus on the clinical potential of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics in lung cancer...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806909/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#12
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805111/chemoresistance-in-cancer-cells-exosomes-as-potential-regulators-of-therapeutic-tumor-heterogeneity
#13
Aman Sharma
Drug resistance in cancer cells remains a fundamental challenge. Be it nontargeted or targeted drugs, the presence of intrinsic or acquired cancer cell resistance remains a great obstacle in chemotherapy. Conventionally, a spectrum of cellular mechanisms defines drug resistance including overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins and drug efflux pumps, mutations in target and synergistic activation of prosurvival pathways in tumor cells. In addition to these well-studied routes, exosome-induced chemoresistance is emerging as a novel mechanism...
September 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803894/exosomes-in-cancer-use-them-or-target-them
#14
REVIEW
Nuno Bastos, Carolina F Ruivo, Soraia Silva, Sonia A Melo
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a significant role in most processes associated with cancer. On one hand, exosomes role in the different hallmarks of cancer has been widely described, highlighting the urge to understand the potential to target communication mediated by exosomes as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer. On the other hand, exosomes stability in circulation and tumor-targeting capacity shows their applicability in the delivery of anti-cancer molecules. This review will discuss the dual applicability of exosomes in cancer focusing on their usage for therapy improvement, or their targeting to block their supportive role in tumor progression and response to therapy...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801576/disrupting-glutamine-metabolic-pathways-to-sensitize-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Ru Chen, Lisa A Lai, Yumi Sullivan, Melissa Wong, Lei Wang, Jonah Riddell, Linda Jung, Venu G Pillarisetty, Teresa A Brentnall, Sheng Pan
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with poor prognosis. Gemcitabine has been the first line systemic treatment for pancreatic cancer. However, the rapid development of drug resistance has been a major hurdle in gemcitabine therapy leading to unsatisfactory patient outcomes. With the recent renewed understanding of glutamine metabolism involvement in drug resistance and immuno-response, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of a glutamine analog (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine) as an adjuvant treatment to sensitize chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797930/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-induced-disruption-of-lipid-rafts-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-exosome-heregulin-content
#16
Osama A Alawin, Rayan A Ahmed, Venkateshwararao Dronamraju, Karen P Briski, Paul W Sylvester
Overexpression of heregulin, a potent ligand that activates HER3 and HER4 receptors, plays a significant role in the development of chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer patients. Exosomes released from cancer cells are small vesicles originating from the outward budding of lipid rafts that carry various mitogenic proteins that then act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner to stimulate cancer cell growth. Since the anticancer activity of γ-tocotrienol has been shown to be mediated in part through the disruption of lipid rafts, studies were conducted to determine the effect of γ-tocotrienol on exosomes mitogenic biopotency...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796150/the-role-of-cancer-derived-exosomes-in-tumorigenicity-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
REVIEW
Robert H Blackwell, Kimberly E Foreman, Gopal N Gupta
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their basement membrane interaction and acquire a more migratory, mesenchymal phenotype. EMT has been implicated in cancer cell progression, as cells transform and increase motility and invasiveness, induce angiogenesis, and metastasize. Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane-bound vesicles that are formed and excreted by all cell types and released into the extracellular environment. Exosomal contents include DNA, mRNA, miRNA, as well as transmembrane- and membrane-bound proteins derived from their host cell contents...
August 10, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791708/exosomal-dnmt1-mediates-cisplatin-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#18
Ya-Lei Cao, Ting Zhuang, Bao-Heng Xing, Na Li, Qin Li
Ovarian cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Owing to late syndromic presentation and lack of efficient early detection, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy are still the standard care currently. However, resistance invoked often compromises the clinical value of the latter. Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was analysed by gene array. Protein was determined by immunoblotting. Exosome was isolated with commercial kit. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 method...
August 8, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791656/egfr-as-a-target-for-glioblastoma-treatment-an-unfulfilled-promise
#19
Manfred Westphal, Cecile L Maire, Katrin Lamszus
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is a prime target for cancer therapy across a broad variety of tumor types. As it is a tyrosine kinase, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signal transduction, as well as monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR, have been investigated as anti-tumor agents. However, despite the long-known enigmatic EGFR gene amplification and protein overexpression in glioblastoma, the most aggressive intrinsic human brain tumor, the potential of EGFR as a target for this tumor type has been unfulfilled...
August 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783104/exosomes-and-other-extracellular-vesicles-in-hpv-transmission-and-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
David Guenat, François Hermetet, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes (Exos), microvesicles (MVs) and apoptotic bodies (ABs) are released in biofluids by virtually all living cells. Tumor-derived Exos and MVs are garnering increasing attention because of their ability to participate in cellular communication or transfer of bioactive molecules (mRNAs, microRNAs, DNA and proteins) between neighboring cancerous or normal cells, and to contribute to human cancer progression. Malignant traits can also be transferred from apoptotic cancer cells to phagocytizing cells, either professional or non-professional...
August 7, 2017: Viruses
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