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Cancer exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456536/janus-faced-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-exosomes-for-the-good-and-the-bad-in-cancer-and-autoimmune-disease
#1
REVIEW
Margot Zöller
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells originally described to hamper immune responses in chronic infections. Meanwhile, they are known to be a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy. On the other hand, MDSC can interfere with allogeneic transplant rejection and may dampen autoreactive T cell activity. Whether MDSC-Exosomes (Exo) can cope with the dangerous and potentially therapeutic activities of MDSC is not yet fully explored. After introducing MDSC and Exo, it will be discussed, whether a blockade of MDSC-Exo could foster the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer and mitigate tumor progression supporting activities of MDSC...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456019/exosomes-serve-as-nanoparticles-to-deliver-anti-mir-214-to-reverse-chemoresistance-to-cisplatin-in-gastric-cancer
#2
Xinyi Wang, Haiyang Zhang, Ming Bai, Tao Ning, Shaohua Ge, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Le Zhang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
Chemoresistance is one of the causes of adverse effects in gastric cancer, including a poor response to cisplatin (DDP). Exosomes loaded with microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, and other non-coding RNAs could regulate drug resistance. Exo-anti-214 was extracted and verified. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) cell viability assay, flow cytometry, and transwell and immunofluorescence assays were performed to determine whether exo-anti-214 could sensitize cells to DDP in vitro. A combination of intravenously injected exo-anti-214 and intraperitoneal DDP was utilized in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452091/expression-profiles-and-clinical-value-of-plasma-exosomal-tim-3-and-galectin-9-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Jianwei Gao, Xiangyu Qiu, Xinying Li, Hang Fan, Fang Zhang, Tangfeng Lv, Yong Song
Exosomes are membrane-bound, virus-size vesicles present in circulating blood. Tumor cells are avid producers of exosomes, which are thought to mimic molecular features of parent tumor cells. T-cell Immunoglobulin- and Mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is one of the next generation immune checkpoints and can be activated by its ligand Galectin-9, negatively regulating anti-tumor immune response. However, the characteristics of plasma exosomal Tim-3/Galectin-9 (Exo-T/G) in cancer remained unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the expression patterns and clinical value of plasma exosomal total protein (Exo-pro) and Exo-T/G in non-small cell lung caner (NSCLC)...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449895/dnm3-p65-and-p53-from-exosomes-represent-potential-clinical-diagnosis-markers-for-glioblastoma-multiforme
#5
Jian-Kai Yang, Jian Song, Hao-Ran Huo, Yin-Long Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang, Zong-Mao Zhao, Guo-Zhu Sun, Bao-Hua Jiao
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and deadly primary brain cancer that arises from astrocytes and classified as grade IV. Recently, exosomes have been reported as an essential mediator in diverse cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, their role in GBM is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether blood exosomes can be potential clinical diagnostic markers for GBM. Methods: We used a xenograft orthotopic mouse model to detect the differentially expressed genes in the brain and blood exosomes of original/recurrent GBM...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444662/a-systematic-approach-to-rna-associated-motif-discovery
#6
Tian Gao, Jiang Shu, Juan Cui
BACKGROUND: Sequencing-based large screening of RNA-protein and RNA-RNA interactions has enabled the mechanistic study of post-transcriptional RNA processing and sorting, including exosome-mediated RNA secretion. The downstream analysis of RNA binding sites has encouraged the investigation of novel sequence motifs, which resulted in exceptional new challenges for identifying motifs from very short sequences (e.g., small non-coding RNAs or truncated messenger RNAs), where conventional methods tend to be ineffective...
February 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441349/liquid-biopsy-in-clinical-management-of-breast-lung-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Ivana Bratić Hench, Jürgen Hench, Markus Tolnay
Examination of tumor molecular characteristics by liquid biopsy is likely to greatly influence personalized cancer patient management. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and tumor-derived exosomes, all collectively referred to as "liquid biopsies," are not only a modality to monitor treatment efficacy, disease progression, and emerging therapy resistance mechanisms, but they also assess tumor heterogeneity and evolution in real time. We review the literature concerning the examination of ctDNA and CTC in a diagnostic setting, evaluating their prognostic, predictive, and monitoring capabilities...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438363/cd9-positive-exosomes-from-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-stimulate-the-migration-ability-of-scirrhous-type-gastric-cancer-cells
#8
Yuichiro Miki, Masakazu Yashiro, Tomohisa Okuno, Kishu Kitayama, Go Masuda, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND: Crosstalk between cancer cells and fibroblasts is crucial for tumour progression. It has been reported that exosomes derived from cancer cells play an important role in the intracellular communications involved in the development of carcinoma. However, the role of exosomes from fibroblasts remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effect of exosomes from fibroblasts on the motility of gastric cancer cells. METHODS: 5 gastric cancer cell lines were used: OCUM-12, NUGC-3, MKN45, FU97 and MKN74...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438102/gold-carbon-dots-for-the-intracellular-imaging-of-cancer-derived-exosomes
#9
Xiaoyue Jiang, Shenfei Zong, Chen Chen, Yizhi Zhang, Zhuyuan Wang, Yiping Cui
As a novel fluorescent nanomaterial, gold-carbon quantum dots (GCDs) possess high biocompatibility and can be easily synthesized by a microwave-assisted method. Owing to their small sizes and unique optical properties, GCDs can be applied to imaging of biological targets, such as cells, exosomes and other organelles. In this study, GCDs were used for fluorescence imaging of exosomes. Tumor-specific antibodies are attached to the GCDs, forming exosome specific nanoprobes. The nanoprobes can label exosomes via immuno-reactions and thus facilitate fluorescent imaging of exosomes...
February 13, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437039/microrna-1246-is-an-exosomal-biomarker-for-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#10
Divya Bhagirath, Thao Ly Yang, Nathan Bucay, Kirandeep Sekhon, Shahana Majid, Varahram Shahryari, Rajvir Dahiya, Yuichiro Tanaka, Sharanjot Saini
Due to high heterogeneity, molecular characterization of prostate cancer (PCa) based on biopsy sampling is often challenging. Hence, a minimally invasive method to determine the molecular imprints of a patient's tumor for risk stratification would be advantageous. In this study, we employ a novel, digital amplification-free quantification method using the nCounter technology (Nanostring Technologies) to profile exosomal serum miRNAs (ex-miRNA) from aggressive PCa cases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and disease-free controls...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435929/quantitative-analysis-of-precursors-micrornas-and-their-respective-mature-micrornas-in-cancer-exosomes-overtime
#11
Nuno Bastos, Sónia A Melo
Exosomes are a cell-to-cell communication system that transports information to neighbor and/or distant cells. Their content is composed of lipids, proteins, RNAs, and DNA. The role of exosomes released by cancer cells in disease progression has been widely studied. Here, we report a detailed protocol to quantify precursor microRNAs and mature microRNAs overtime in exosomes of cancer cells. Those precursor microRNAs that are packaged together with RISC proteins will get further processed in the exosomes overtime and an accumulation of the mature form of the microRNAs will occur...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435490/c-terminal-farnesylation-of-uch-l1-plays-a-role-in-transport-of-epstein-barr-virus-primary-oncoprotein-lmp1-to-exosomes
#12
E Kobayashi, M Aga, S Kondo, C Whitehurst, T Yoshizaki, J S Pagano, J Shackelford
Increasing evidence shows that exosomes are key regulators in cancer cell-to-cell communication. Several reports on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancies demonstrate that latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) secreted by exosomes derived from EBV- or LMP1-positive cells can promote cancer progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which LMP1 is loaded into exosomes is still poorly understood. Here, we examined whether the process of LMP1 loading into exosomes is linked to the multifunctional molecule of the ubiquitin system-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1)...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431869/separation-of-plasma-derived-exosomes-into-cd3-and-cd3-fractions-allows-for-association-of-immune-cell-and-tumor-cell-markers-with-disease-activity-in-hnscc-patients
#13
Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Thomas K Hoffmann, Theresa L Whiteside
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly immunosuppressive malignancy. Exosomes in HNSCC patients' plasma are enriched in inhibitory cargo and mediate immunosuppression. As these exosomes are products of various cells, the cellular origin of immunoregulatory proteins they carry is unknown. To test whether tumor- or T cell-derived exosomes in patient's plasma are immunosuppressive and impact on disease activity, we separated CD3(-) from CD3(+) exosomes by immunocapture using anti-CD3 Abs. The exosome protein cargo was evaluated for immunoregulatory proteins using on-bead flow cytometry...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430178/engineered-exosome-mediated-delivery-of-functionally-active-mir-26a-and-its-enhanced-suppression-effect-in-hepg2-cells
#14
Gaofeng Liang, Shu Kan, Yanliang Zhu, Shuying Feng, Wenpo Feng, Shegan Gao
Introduction: Exosomes are closed-membrane nanovesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells and exist in most body fluids. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of exosomes as natural vehicles that target delivery of functional small RNA and chemotherapeutics to diseased cells. Methods: In this study, we introduce a new approach for the targeted delivery of exosomes loaded with functional miR-26a to scavenger receptor class B type 1-expressing liver cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427678/poly-i-c-enhanced-anti-cervical-cancer-immunities-induced-by-dendritic-cells-derived-exosomes
#15
Shisheng Chen, Mingfen Lv, Shan Fang, Wenxia Ye, Yu Gao, Yunsheng Xu
Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (Dexo) has been confirmed to be able to induce the specific anti-tumor immune response ex vivo and in vivo. Here, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the antigen-pulsed Dexo as a new vaccination platform in immunotherapy for cervical cancer. The immunogenic profile of the different Dexo was assessed by the cell proliferation, cytokines secretion and effector functions of CD8+ T cells and the splenocytes from Dexo-vaccinated mice. Furthermore, the anti-tumor immunity elicited by Dexo was further compared in cervical cancer-bearing mice...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425686/exosomal-micrornas-exomirs-small-molecules-with-a-big-role-in-cancer
#16
Rahul Bhome, Filippo Del Vecchio, Gui-Han Lee, Marc D Bullock, John N Primrose, A Emre Sayan, Alex H Mirnezami
Exosomes are secreted vesicles which can transmit molecular cargo between cells. Exosomal microRNAs (exomiRs) have drawn much attention in recent years because there is increasing evidence to suggest that loading of microRNAs into exosomes is not a random process. Preclinical studies have identified functional roles for exomiRs in influencing many hallmarks of cancer. Mechanisms underpinning these actions, such as exomiR receptors ("miRceptors"), are now becoming apparent. Even more exciting is the fact that exomiRs are highly suitable candidates for use as non-invasive biomarkers in an era of personalized cancer medicine...
February 6, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#17
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423813/exosomes-in-pancreatic-cancer-from-early-detection-to-treatment
#18
Emily A Armstrong, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Anghela Z Paredes, Demetrios Moris, Timothy M Pawlik, Carl R Schmidt, Mary E Dillhoff
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most fatal forms of cancer worldwide with incidence nearly equal to mortality. This is often attributed to the fact that diagnosis is often not made until later disease stages when treatment proves difficult. Efforts have been made to reduce the mortality of PC through improvements in early screening techniques and treatments of late-stage disease. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles involved in cellular communication, have shown promise in helping understand PC disease biology...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421439/lncrna-fal1-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-1236-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#19
Baoguo Li, Rui Mao, Changfu Liu, Weihao Zhang, Yong Tang, Zhi Guo
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play crucial role in tumor growth and metastasis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA FAL1 has been indicated to promote the progression of various cancers. However, the role of lncRNA FAL1 in HCC was poorly understood. METHODS: The expression levels of lncRNA FAL1 in HCC tissues and cells were determined by RT-qPCR. The roles of lncRNA FAL1 on HCC cells were investigated by MTT, colony formation, transwell, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting...
February 5, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419779/mirnas-at-the-crossroads-between-innate-immunity-and-cancer-focus-on-macrophages
#20
REVIEW
Graziella Curtale
Innate immune cells form an integrative component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which can control or prevent tumor initiation and progression, due to the simultaneous processing of both anti- and pro-growth signals. This decision-making process is a consequence of gene expression changes, which are in part dependent on post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In this context, microRNAs have been shown to regulate both recruitment and activation of specific tumor-associated immune cells in the TME...
February 8, 2018: Cells
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