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Cancer exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678180/emerging-role-of-exosome-derived-long-non-coding-rnas-in-tumor-microenvironment
#1
REVIEW
Zhenqiang Sun, Shuaixi Yang, Quanbo Zhou, Guixian Wang, Junmin Song, Zhen Li, Zhiyong Zhang, Jizhong Xu, Kunkun Xia, Yuan Chang, Jinbo Liu, Weitang Yuan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by many cell types and have been attributed for their roles in many diseases including cancer. Exosomes secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells are critical mediators of intercellular communication in tumor microenvironments. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are selectively sorted into exosomes and can regulate cancer onset and progression in a variety of ways. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of exosomal lncRNAs and their dysregulation in multiple types of cancer...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675003/role-of-micrornas-and-exosomes-in-helicobacter-pylori-and-epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Iva Polakovicova, Sofia Jerez, Ignacio A Wichmann, Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez, Nicolás Carrasco-Véliz, Alejandro H Corvalán
Emerging evidence suggests that chronic inflammation caused by pathogen infection is connected to the development of various types of cancer. It is estimated that up to 20% of all cancer deaths is linked to infections and inflammation. In gastric cancer, such triggers can be infection of the gastric epithelium by either Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ), a bacterium present in half of the world population; or by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus which has recently been associated with gastric cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674506/diagnostic-and-prognostic-roles-of-circulating-exosomal-micrornas-in-acquired-aplastic-anemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#3
Valentina Giudice, Lauren G Banaszak, Fernanda Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Sachiko Kajigaya, Reema Panjwani, Maria Del Pilar Fernandez Ibanez, Olga Rios, Christopher K Bleck, Erin S Stempinski, Diego Quinones Raffo, Danielle M Townsley, Neal S Young
Exosomal microRNAs modulate cancer cell metabolism and the immune response. Specific exosomal microRNAs have been reported to be reliable biomarkers of several solid and hematologic malignancies. We examined the possible diagnostic and prognostic values of exosomal microRNAs in two human bone marrow failure diseases, aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. After screening of 372 microRNAs in a discovery set (n=42) of plasma exosome samples, we constructed a custom microRNA PCR plate, including 42 microRNAs, for validation in a larger cohort (n=99), and we identified 25 differentially expressed exosomal microRNAs uniquely or frequently present in aplastic anemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674035/dnase-i-enzyme-aided-fluorescence-signal-amplification-based-on-graphene-oxide-dna-aptamer-interactions-for-colorectal-cancer-exosome-detection
#4
Hui Wang, Hui Chen, Zhipeng Huang, Tengda Li, Anmei Deng, Jilie Kong
Exosomes have proved to be an effective cancer biomarker with significant potential, and several cell-specific molecules have been found in colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes. Nevertheless, it is challenging to use exosomes in clinical lab diagnostics due to their nanoscale and the lack of a convenient and effective detection platform. Here, we developed a DNase I enzyme-aided fluorescence amplification method for CRC exosome detection, based on graphene oxide (GO)-DNA aptamer (CD63 and EpCAM aptamers) interactions...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673440/mir-93-5p-transferred-by-exosomes-promotes-the-proliferation-of-esophageal-cancer-cells-via-intercellular-communication-by-targeting-pten
#5
Meng Xin Liu, Juan Liao, Ming Xie, Zhi Kui Gao, Xiang Hu Wang, Ying Zhang, Mu He Shang, Li Hong Yin, Yue Pu Pu, Ran Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between plasma miR-93-5p and the risk of esophageal cancer, as well as the influence of miR-93-5p on the biological function of esophageal cancer cells, exerted through exosomes. METHODS: The expression of plasma miR-93-5p in esophageal cancer patients and healthy controls was analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. The influence of miR-93-5p on the risk and prognosis of esophageal carcinoma was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and survival analysis...
March 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672851/human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-protection-by-melatonin
#6
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee
Despite great scientific breakthroughs toward understanding the identity of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mechanistically, there are still no clinically efficient therapeutic methods for this cancer. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a multi-tasking hormone that has long been known for its anti-cancer activity against various human cancers including HCC, which is a focus of this review. PubMed database was searched for relevant articles with the keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), melatonin, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, autophagy, oxidative stress, tumor immunity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) focusing on just human cell lines and English language articles...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669940/generation-and-testing-of-clinical-grade-exosomes-for-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Mayela Mendt, Sushrut Kamerkar, Hikaru Sugimoto, Kathleen M McAndrews, Chia-Chin Wu, Mihai Gagea, Sujuan Yang, Elena V Rodriges Blanko, Qian Peng, Xiaoyan Ma, Joseph R Marszalek, Anirban Maitra, Cassian Yee, Katayoun Rezvani, Elizabeth Shpall, Valerie S LeBleu, Raghu Kalluri
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles produced by all cells with a remarkable ability to efficiently transfer genetic material, including exogenously loaded siRNA, to cancer cells. Here, we report on a bioreactor-based, large-scale production of clinical-grade exosomes employing good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards. A standard operating procedure was established to generate engineered exosomes with the ability to target oncogenic Kras (iExosomes). The clinical-grade GMP iExosomes were tested in multiple in vitro and in vivo studies to confirm suppression of oncogenic Kras and an increase in the survival of several mouse models with pancreatic cancer...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668670/exosomes-released-by-gastric-cancer-cells-induce-transition-of-pericytes-into-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#8
Xiaofei Ning, Hongran Zhang, Cong Wang, Xiuqi Song
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are functionally and structurally essential for tumor progression. There are 3 main origins of CAFs: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition cells, and tissue-resident cells. Pericytes retain characteristics of progenitor cells and can differentiate into other cells under normal physiological conditions and into myofibroblasts under pathological conditions. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring membrane components and nucleic acids between different cells...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#9
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#10
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665143/identification-of-potential-tumor-educated-platelets-rna-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-integrated-bioinformatical-analysis
#11
Linlin Xue, Li Xie, Xingguo Song, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Platelets have emerged as key players in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Tumor-educated platelet (TEP) RNA profile has the potential to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to identify potential TEP RNA biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC and to explore the mechanisms in alternations of TEP RNA profile. METHODS: The RNA-seq datasets GSE68086 and GSE89843 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets (GEO DataSets)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662176/cancer-cell-secreted-exosomal-mir-105-promotes-tumour-growth-through-the-myc-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming-of-stromal-cells
#12
Wei Yan, Xiwei Wu, Weiying Zhou, Miranda Y Fong, Minghui Cao, Juan Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Chih-Hong Chen, Oluwole Fadare, Donald P Pizzo, Jiawen Wu, Liang Liu, Xuxiang Liu, Andrew R Chin, Xiubao Ren, Yuan Chen, Jason W Locasale, Shizhen Emily Wang
Cancer and other cells residing in the same niche engage various modes of interactions to synchronize and buffer the negative effects of environmental changes. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated in the intercellular crosstalk. Here we show a mechanistic model involving breast-cancer-secreted, extracellular-vesicle-encapsulated miR-105, which is induced by the oncoprotein MYC in cancer cells and, in turn, activates MYC signalling in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to induce a metabolic program...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660899/plasma-exosome-levels-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-correlation-with-clinicopathological-features-and-prognostic-implications
#13
Qingyun Liu, Ying Xiang, Shuai Yuan, Weijia Xie, Chengying Li, Zeyao Hu, Ying Xiang, Na Wu, Long Wu, Zubin Yu, Li Bai, Yafei Li
BACKGROUND: Biomarker studies revealed important clinical significance of exosome for cancer patients. However, there is currently no consensus on exosome quantification methods. METHODS: Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) method and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) were utilized to quantify 20 plasma exosome samples, and interrelations between these three methods were explored. Associations of plasma exosome levels with characteristics and prognosis of 208 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were investigated...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660691/proteomic-analysis-of-liquid-biopsy-from-tumor-draining-vein-indicates-that-high-expression-of-exosomal-ecm1-is-associated-with-relapse-in-stage-i-iii-colon-cancer
#14
Sandra Santasusagna, Isabel Moreno, Alfons Navarro, Joan J Castellano, Francisco Martinez, Raquel Hernández, Carmen Muñoz, Mariano Monzo
BACKGROUND: The analysis of exosomes in blood obtained from the tumor-draining mesenteric vein (MV) can identify tumor biomarkers before they reach target organs and form the premetastatic niche where circulating tumor cells can anchor. Our group has recently shown that microRNAs in plasma from the MV-but not the peripheral vein (PV)-have been related to liver metastases in colon cancer (CC) patients. Here we examine the exosomal protein cargo in plasma from the MV and paired PV in 31 CC patients...
April 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659501/the-stability-of-medicinal-plant-micrornas-in-the-herb-preparation-process
#15
Wenyan Xie, Matthias F Melzig
Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658109/pge-2-ep-4-antagonism-enhances-tumor-chemosensitivity-by-inducing-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-clearance-of-cancer-stem-cells
#16
Meng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Yin Chen, Pei- Lin He, Harvey Herschman, Hua-Jung Li
Cells expressing mesenchymal/basal phenotypes in tumors have been associated with stem cell properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We explored overcoming mesenchymal CSC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Our goal was to reduce CSC numbers in vivo, in conjunction with chemotherapy, to reduce tumor burden. Analysis of clinical samples demonstrated that COX-2/PGE2 /EP4 signaling is elevated in basal-like and chemoresistant breast carcinoma and is correlated with survival and relapse of breast cancer...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657130/the-platelet-lifeline-to-cancer-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
REVIEW
Monika Haemmerle, Rebecca L Stone, David G Menter, Vahid Afshar-Kharghan, Anil K Sood
Besides their function in limiting blood loss and promoting wound healing, experimental evidence has highlighted platelets as active players in all steps of tumorigenesis including tumor growth, tumor cell extravasation, and metastasis. Additionally, thrombocytosis in cancer patients is associated with adverse patient survival. Due to the secretion of large amounts of microparticles and exosomes, platelets are well positioned to coordinate both local and distant tumor-host crosstalk. Here, we present a review of recent discoveries in the field of platelet biology and the role of platelets in cancer progression as well as challenges in targeting platelets for cancer treatment...
March 19, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652798/the-double-face-of-exosome-carried-micrornas-in-cancer-immunomodulation
#18
REVIEW
Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652594/tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-2017-a-year-in-review
#19
Kyung Min Park, Young Min Shin, Kyobum Kim, Heungsoo Shin
In 2017, a new paradigm change caused by artificial intelligence and big data analysis resulted in innovation in each field of science and technology, and also significantly influenced progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). TERM has continued to make technological advances based on interdisciplinary approaches and has contributed to the overall field of biomedical technology including cancer biology, personalized medicine, development biology, and cell-based therapeutics. While researchers are aware that there is still a long way to go until TERM reaches the ultimate goal of patient treatment through clinical translation, the rapid progress in convergence studies led by technological improvements in TERM has been encouraging...
March 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650788/serum-exosomal-long-noncoding-rnas-ensg00000258332-1-and-linc00635-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Hong Xu, Yueming Chen, Xueyan Dong, Xianjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Increasing studies suggest that lncRNAs involving in carcinogenesis of human cancers, which might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cancers Methods:Three hundred and one participants were recruited in the first part of the study including HCC group (n = 60), LC group (n = 85), CHB group (n = 96) and healthy subjects (n = 60). In the second part, we collected 55 HCC patients, 60 CHB patients and 60 healthy subjects as an independent cohort to validate the ability of the experiential lncRNAs for identifying HCC from CHB...
April 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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