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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916320/exosomes-carring-gag-env-of-alv-j-possess-negative-effect-on-immunocytes
#1
Guihua Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Pingping Zhuang, Xiaomin Zhao, Ziqiang Cheng
J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912528/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-cell-proliferation-and-prolong-allograft-survival
#2
Sistiana Aiello, Federica Rocchetta, Lorena Longaretti, Silvia Faravelli, Marta Todeschini, Linda Cassis, Francesca Pezzuto, Susanna Tomasoni, Nadia Azzollini, Marilena Mister, Caterina Mele, Sara Conti, Matteo Breno, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marina Noris, Ariela Benigni
We have previously shown that rat allogeneic DC, made immature by adenoviral gene transfer of the dominant negative form of IKK2, gave rise in-vitro to a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory T cells (dnIKK2-Treg). These cells inhibited Tcell response in-vitro, without needing cell-to-cell contact, and induced kidney allograft survival prolongation in-vivo. Deep insight into the mechanisms behind dnIKK2-Treg-induced suppression of Tcell proliferation remained elusive. Here we document that dnIKK2-Treg release extracellular vesicles (EV) riched in exosomes, fully accounting for the cell-contact independent immunosuppressive activity of parent cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901485/a-novel-non%C3%A2-contact-communication-between-human-keratinocytes-and-t-cells-exosomes-derived-from-keratinocytes-support-superantigen%C3%A2-induced-proliferation-of-resting-t-cells
#3
Xiao-Wei Cai, Rong Zhu, Lei Ran, Yi-Qian Li, Ke Huang, Jing Peng, Wei He, Chun-Li Zhou, Ru-Peng Wang
It is widely accepted that keratinocytes act as non‑professional antigen‑presenting cells and support superantigen‑induced proliferation of resting T cells; however, it remains unknown whether keratinocytes function in situ with T cells via a non‑contact mechanism. The current study used a transwell co‑culture system and demonstrated, for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge, that HaCaT cells (the human keratinocyte cell line) did induce T cell proliferation via indirect contact. The data further indicated that exosomes, small membrane vesicles that transfer antigens to recipient cells, are also involved in the superantigen‑associated immunity of keratinocytes...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899687/proteomic-profiling-of-sweat-exosome-suggests-its-involvement-in-skin-immunity
#4
Chang-Xian Wu, Zheng-Fei Liu
The healthy human skin sustains an effective immune defense mechanism, formed by a complex physical and chemical epidermal barrier that coordinates with different cellular components of the skin immune system. However, the mechanism how skin cells regulate local immune homeostasis in health and disease contexts is not well known. To investigate whether exosomes exist in sweat, sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected after aerobic exercise. Sweat exosome was isolated via differential ultracentrifugation, observed under transmission electron microscope, measured by dynamic light scattering and confirmed by immunoblot...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#5
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882786/exosomal-biomarkers-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eric D Hamlett, Aurélie Ledreux, Huntington Potter, Heidi J Chial, David Patterson, Joaquin M Espinosa, Brianne M Bettcher, Ann-Charlotte Granholm
Every person with Down syndrome (DS) has the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology in their brain by the age of forty, and most go on to develop AD dementia. Since people with DS show highly variable levels of baseline function, it is often difficult to identify early signs of dementia in this population. The discovery of blood biomarkers predictive of dementia onset and/or progression in DS is critical for developing effective clinical diagnostics. Our recent studies show that neuron-derived exosomes, which are small extracellular vesicles secreted by most cells in the body, contain elevated levels of amyloid-beta peptides and phosphorylated-Tau that could indicate a preclinical AD phase in people with DS starting in childhood...
September 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861041/programmed-fetal-membrane-senescence-and-exosome-mediated-signaling-a-mechanism-associated-with-timing-of-human-parturition
#7
REVIEW
Ramkumar Menon, Sam Mesiano, Robert N Taylor
Human parturition is an inflammatory process that involves both fetal and maternal compartments. The precise immune cell interactions have not been well delineated in human uterine tissues during parturition, but insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models. Unfortunately, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species-indicative of different phylogenetic clocks and alarms-but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858295/versatile-effects-of-bacterium-released-membrane-vesicles-on-mammalian-cells-and-infectious-inflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
You-Jiang Yu, Xiao-Hong Wang, Guo-Chang Fan
Gram-negative bacterium-released outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) and Gram-positive bacterium-released membrane vesicles (MVs) share significant similarities with mammalian cell-derived MVs (eg, microvesicles and exosomes) in terms of structure and their biological activities. Recent studies have revealed that bacterial OMVs/MVs could (1) interact with immune cells to regulate inflammatory responses, (2) transport virulence factors (eg, enzymes, DNA and small RNAs) to host cells and result in cell injury, (3) enhance barrier function by stimulating the expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal epithelial cells, (4) upregulate the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and (5) serve as natural nanocarriers for immunogenic antigens, enzyme support and drug delivery...
August 31, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855728/meta-signature-of-human-endometrial-receptivity-a-meta-analysis-and-validation-study-of-transcriptomic-biomarkers
#9
Signe Altmäe, Mariann Koel, Urmo Võsa, Priit Adler, Marina Suhorutšenko, Triin Laisk-Podar, Viktorija Kukushkina, Merli Saare, Agne Velthut-Meikas, Kaarel Krjutškov, Lusine Aghajanova, Parameswaran G Lalitkumar, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Linda Giudice, Carlos Simón, Andres Salumets
Previous transcriptome studies of the human endometrium have revealed hundreds of simultaneously up- and down-regulated genes that are involved in endometrial receptivity. However, the overlap between the studies is relatively small, and we are still searching for potential diagnostic biomarkers. Here we perform a meta-analysis of endometrial-receptivity associated genes on 164 endometrial samples (76 from 'pre-receptive' and 88 from mid-secretory, 'receptive' phase endometria) using a robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, followed by enrichment analysis, and regulatory microRNA prediction...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855621/immune-activated-monocyte-exosomes-alter-micrornas-in-brain-endothelial-cells-and-initiate-an-inflammatory-response-through-the-tlr4-myd88-pathway
#10
Pranjali Dalvi, Bing Sun, Norina Tang, Lynn Pulliam
The host immune response is critical for homeostasis; however, when chronic low level activation of the immune response with or without the driver continues, a cascade of events can trigger immunological dysfunction. Monocytes are key peripheral sensors of the immune response and their activation is instrumental in the development of cognitive impairment. Here, we show that monocytes activated by interferon alpha, lipopolysaccharide or a combination of both generate exosomes carrying significantly altered microRNA profiles compared to non-activated monocytes...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855278/exosomes-in-postshock-mesenteric-lymph-are-key-mediators-of-acute-lung-injury-triggering-the-macrophage-activation-via-toll-like-receptor-4
#11
Mitsuaki Kojima, Joao A Gimenes-Junior, Theresa W Chan, Brian P Eliceiri, Andrew Baird, Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common cause of morbidity in patients after severe injury due to dysregulated inflammation, which is believed to be driven by gut-derived inflammatory mediators carried via mesenteric lymph (ML). We have previously demonstrated that nano-sized extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, secreted into ML after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) have the potential to activate immune cells in vitro Here, we assess the function of ML exosomes in the development of T/HS-induced ALI and the role of TLR4 in the ML exosome-mediated inflammatory response...
August 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853608/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-exosomes-ameliorate-experimental-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-restore-lung-function-through-macrophage-immunomodulation
#12
Gareth R Willis, Angeles Fernandez-Gonzalez, Jamie Anastas, Sally H Vitali, Xianlan Liu, Maria Ericsson, April Kwong, S Alex Mitsialis, Stella Kourembanas
RATIONALE: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapies have shown promise in preclinical models of pathologies relevant to newborn medicine, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We have reported that the therapeutic capacity of MSCs is comprised in their secretome, and demonstrated that the therapeutic vectors are exosomes produced by MSCs (MSC-exos). OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy of MSC-exo treatment in a pre-clinical model of BPD and to investigate mechanisms underlying MSC-exo therapeutic action...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843722/macrophage-cell-derived-exosomes-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-against-fibrosarcoma-tumor
#13
Elham Behzadi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Raheleh Halabian, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Targeted immune therapies are a modern approach to harness the immunity to treat cancer patients. Exosomes (EXOs) are nano-vesicles used for drug delivery in cancer treatment. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of novel designed EXO structures for immunotherapy alone and in combination with other components in animal models. EXO derived from untreated macrophage (EXO), WEHI-164 cell lysate treated EXO (EXOLys), HSP70 enriched WEHI-164 cell lysate treated EXO (EXOHSP70), Naloxone (NLX) treated EXO (EXONLX), Propranolol (PRP) treated EXO (EXOPRP) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) anchored to three kinds of EXOs designated as EXO/SEB, EXOLys/SEB, EXOHSP70/SEB were purified from J774 cell line...
August 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842467/role-of-lymphocyte-subsets-in-the-immune-response-to-primary-b-cell-derived-exosomes
#14
Sarah C Saunderson, Alexander D McLellan
Exosomes are lipid nanovesicles released after fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigated the requirement for CD4 T cells, B cells, and NK cells to provide help for CD8 T cell-mediated response to B cell-derived exosomes. CTL responses to Ag-loaded exosomes were dependent on host MHC class I, with a critical role for splenic langerin(+) CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in exosomal Ag cross-presentation. In addition, there was an absolute dependence on the presence of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells, where the loss of any one of these subsets led to a complete loss of CTL response...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838888/cancer-self-defense-%C3%A2-an-immune-stealth
#15
Kosei Nakajima, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
The hurdles in realizing immunotherapy success for cure stem from the fact that cancer patients are either refractory to immune response and/or develop resistance. Here, we propose that these phenomena are due, in part, to the deployment of a 'decoy flare' i.e., release or secretion of anomalous cancer-associated antigens. The cancer secretome, that resembles the parent cell make up, is composed of soluble macromolecules (proteins, glycans, lipids, DNAs, RNAs etc.) and insoluble vesicles (exosomes), thus hindering cancer detection/recognition by immunotherapeutic agents resulting in a 'cancer-stealth' effect...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838855/exosomes-damps-and-mirna-features-of-stress-physiology-and-immune-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Monika Fleshner, Camille R Crane
Psychological/physical stressors and local tissue damage increase inflammatory proteins in tissues and blood in humans and animals, in the absence of pathogenic disease. Stress-evoked cytokine/chemokine responses, or sterile inflammation, can facilitate host survival and/or negatively affect health, depending on context. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that systemic stress-evoked sterile inflammation is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the elevation of exosome-associated immunostimulatory endogenous danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a reduction in immunoinhibitory miRNA, which are carried in the circulation to tissues throughout the body...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837697/herpesviruses-shape-tumour-microenvironment-through-exosomal-transfer-of-viral-micrornas
#17
Ohad Yogev, Stephen Henderson, Matthew John Hayes, Sara Sofia Marelli, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Javier Herrero, Tariq Enver
Metabolic changes within the cell and its niche affect cell fate and are involved in many diseases and disorders including cancer and viral infections. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV latently infected cells express only a subset of viral genes, mainly located within the latency-associated region, among them 12 microRNAs. Notably, these miRNAs are responsible for inducing the Warburg effect in infected cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism enabling KSHV to manipulate the metabolic nature of the tumour microenvironment...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#18
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815045/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#19
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#20
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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