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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346528/a-novel-stromal-lncrna-signature-reprograms-fibroblasts-to-promote-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-lncrna-caf-interleukin-33
#1
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341292/amniotic-fluid-stem-cell-exosomes-therapeutic-perspective
#2
Francesca Beretti, Manuela Zavatti, Francesca Casciaro, Giuseppina Comitini, Fabrizia Franchi, Veronica Barbieri, Giovanni B La Sala, Tullia Maraldi
It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells can be largely mediated by paracrine factors, also included into exosomes. Thus, stem cell-derived exosomes represent a major therapeutic option in regenerative medicine avoiding, if compared to stem cells graft, abnormal differentiation and tumor formation. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce damaged tissue repair, and can also exert immunomodulatory effects on the differentiation, activation and function of different lymphocytes...
January 16, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336475/exosomes-originating-from-mscs-stimulated-with-tgf-%C3%AE-and-ifn-%C3%AE-promote-treg-differentiation
#3
Qingyi Zhang, Lin Fu, Yahui Liang, Zikuan Guo, Lisheng Wang, Cong Ma, Hengxiang Wang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been approved as a cellular drug for the treatment of a variety of immune-related diseases by the government of many countries'. Previous investigations, including ours, have shown that exosomes secreted by MSCs (MSC-ex) are one of the main factors responsible for the therapeutic effect of MSCs. However, the immune modulation activities and the contents of MSC-ex derived from cells under different incubation conditions differ dramatically. Therefore, the optimal way to ensure effectiveness is by identifying and preparing MSC-ex with confirmed potent immunosuppressive activity...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328436/role-of-exosomes-and-exosomal-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-potential-in-diagnosis-and-antitumour-treatments-review
#4
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Wei Li, Li Qin, Yun-Long Pan
Communication between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their environment is essential for the development and progression of HCC. Exosomes, which are microvesicles secreted by a number of cell types, are carriers of intercellular information and regulate the tumour microenvironment. Studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in the communication between HCC cells, endothelial cells and stem cells, and that they serve important roles in the metastasis and invasion, immune evasion and immunotherapy of HCC...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327816/brain-cortex-microglia-derived-exosomes-novel-nanoparticles-for-glioma-therapy
#5
Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Dasa Cizkova, Petra Majerova, Eva Petrovova, Lubomir Medvecky, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
The function and integrity of nervous system require interactive exchanges among neurons and glial cells. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a key mediator of intercellular communication, capable to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, influencing numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The immune response mediated by microglia derived exosomes are most prominently involved in the spread of neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and brain cancer...
January 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321591/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-changes-cargo-composition-of-exosome-released-from-airway-epithelial-cells
#6
Harendra Singh Chahar, Tiziana Corsello, Andrzej S Kudlicki, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Exosomes are microvesicles known to carry biologically active molecules, including RNA, DNA and proteins. Viral infections can induce profound changes in exosome composition, and exosomes have been implicated in viral transmission and pathogenesis. No information is current available regarding exosome composition and function during infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In this study, we characterized exosomes released from RSV-infected lung carcinoma-derived A549 cells...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316217/exosomes-expressing-the-self-antigens-myosin-and-vimentin-play-an-important-role-in-syngeneic-cardiac-transplant-rejection-induced-by-antibodies-to-cardiac-myosin
#7
Monal Sharma, Wei Liu, Sudhir Perincheri, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, T Mohanakumar
Long-term success of heart transplantation is hindered by humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We studied preexisting antibodies to two cardiac self-antigens, myosin and vimentin, and exosomes induced by antibodies to self-antigens in eliciting immune responses to cardiac grafts. After syngeneic heterotopic murine heart transplantation, rabbit anti-myosin or normal rabbit immunoglobulin was administered at days 0 or 7. Sera were collected after heartbeat cessation and cellular infiltration was analyzed, and exosomes were isolated from sera...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310666/in-vivo-evidence-for-the-contribution-of-peripheral-circulating-inflammatory-exosomes-to-neuroinflammation
#8
Jing Jing Li, Bin Wang, Mahesh Chandra Kodali, Chao Chen, Eunhee Kim, Benjamin John Patters, Lubin Lan, Santosh Kumar, Xinjun Wang, Junming Yue, Francesca-Fang Liao
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is implicated in the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Conditions that lead to a peripheral immune response are often associated with inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a communication between the peripheral immune system and the neuroimmune system. The underlying mechanism of this relationship remains largely unknown; however, experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to infectious stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, result in profound peripheral- and neuro-inflammation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308314/serum-exosomes-as-predictors-of-clinical-response-to-ipilimumab-in-metastatic-melanoma
#9
Marco Tucci, Anna Passarelli, Francesco Mannavola, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Marilena Capone, Gabriele Madonna, Patrizia Lopalco, Francesco Silvestris
Immunotherapy is effective in metastatic melanoma (MM) but most studies failed in discovering a biomarker predictive of clinical response. Exosomes (Exo) from melanoma cells are detectable in sera of MM patients similarly to those produced by immune cells that control the tumor progression. Here, we investigated by flow-cytometry the levels of Exo from both T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in 59 patients with MM treated with IPI and the relative expression of PD-1, CD28 and ICOS as well as CD80 and CD86. We found a significant increment of PD-1 and CD28 expression in patients achieving a clinical response reflected by improvement of both PFS and OS...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304816/extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-the-progression-and-chemoresistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-their-potential-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Jiangdong Qiu, Gang Yang, Mengyu Feng, Suli Zheng, Zhe Cao, Lei You, Lianfang Zheng, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide due to its insidious symptoms, early metastasis, and chemoresistance. Hence, the underlying mechanisms contributing to pancreatic cancer progression require further exploration. Based on accumulating evidence, extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, they also possess the potential to be promising biomarkers, therapy targets and tools for treating pancreatic cancer...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297621/amnion-epithelial-cell-derived-exosomes-restrict-lung-injury-and-enhance-endogenous-lung-repair
#11
Jean L Tan, Sin N Lau, Bryan Leaw, Hong P T Nguyen, Lois A Salamonsen, Mohamed I Saad, Siow T Chan, Dandan Zhu, Mirja Krause, Carla Kim, William Sievert, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by chronic inflammation, severe scarring, and stem cell senescence. Stem cell-based therapies modulate inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways by release of soluble factors. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles should be explored as a potential therapy for IPF. Human amnion epithelial cell-derived exosomes (hAEC Exo) were isolated and compared against human lung fibroblasts exosomes. hAEC Exo were assessed as a potential therapy for lung fibrosis. Exosomes were isolated and evaluated for their protein and miRNA cargo...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297499/differential-regulation-of-the-transcriptomic-and-secretomic-landscape-of-sensor-and-effector-functions-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#12
Roland Lehmann, Mario M Müller, Tilman E Klassert, Dominik Driesch, Magdalena Stock, Anina Heinrich, Theresia Conrad, Christoph Moore, Uta K Schier, Reinhard Guthke, Hortense Slevogt
Protein secretion upon TLR, TNFR1, and IFNGR ligation in the human airways is considered to be central for the orchestration of pulmonary inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we compared the gene expression and protein secretion profiles in response to specific stimulation of all expressed TLRs and in further comparison to TNFR1 and IFNGR in primary human airway epithelial cells. In addition to 22 cytokines, we observed the receptor-induced regulation of 571 genes and 1,012 secreted proteins. Further analysis revealed high similarities between the transcriptional TLR sensor and TNFR1 effector responses...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296848/enhanced-liver-gene-transfer-and-evasion-of-preexisting-humoral-immunity-with-exosome-enveloped-aav-vectors
#13
Amine Meliani, Florence Boisgerault, Zachary Fitzpatrick, Solenne Marmier, Christian Leborgne, Fanny Collaud, Marcelo Simon Sola, Severine Charles, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Alban Vignaud, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Beatrice Marolleau, Fabienne Jouen, Sisareuth Tan, Olivier Boyer, Olivier Christophe, Alain R Brisson, Casey A Maguire, Federico Mingozzi
Results from clinical trials of liver gene transfer for hemophilia demonstrate the potential of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector platform. However, to achieve therapeutic transgene expression, in some cases high vector doses are required, which are associated with a higher risk of triggering anti-capsid cytotoxic T-cell responses. Additionally, anti-AAV preexisting immunity can prevent liver transduction even at low neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers. Here, we describe the use of exosome-associated AAV (exo-AAV) vectors as a robust liver gene delivery system that allows the therapeutic vector dose to be decreased while protecting from preexisting humoral immunity to the capsid...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290766/integrated-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rna-and-mrna-expression-profile-in-pancreatic-cancer-derived-exosomes-treated-dendritic-cells-by-microarray-analysis
#14
Jionghuang Chen, Shaowen Wang, Shengnan Jia, Guoping Ding, Guixing Jiang, Liping Cao
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a low five-year survival rate. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most potent antigen-presenting cells in the human body, play a pivotal role in the immune response. However, few studies have investigated the role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes (PEXs) in DC-meditated immune escape. The expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs of PEX-treated dendritic cells are unknown. Methods: We used integrated lncRNA and mRNA microarrays to determine the expression profiles of PEX-treated DCs and normal DCs derived from five healthy donors...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289420/exosome-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-cross-talk-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#15
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a major component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and play a key role in promoting tumor progression. The tumor uses exosomes to co-opt MSCs and re-program their functional profile from normally trophic to pro-tumorigenic. These tumor-derived small vesicles called "TEX" carry and deliver a cargo rich in proteins and nucleic acids to MSCs. Upon interactions with surface receptors on MSCs and uptake of the exosome cargo by MSCs, molecular, transcriptional and translational changes occur that convert MSCs into producers of factors that are necessary for tumor growth and that also alter functions of non-tumor cells in the TME...
December 27, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284398/mechanisms-of-radiation-bystander-and-non-targeted-effects-implications-to-radiation-carcinogenesis-and-radiotherapy
#16
Rasoul Yahyapour, Elahe Motevaseli, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Hamid Abdollahi, Bagher Farhood, Mohsen Cheki, Masoud Najafi, Vilmar Villa
Knowledge of radiobiology is of paramount importance to be able to grasp and have an in-depth understanding of the consequences of ionizing radiation. One of the most important effects of this physical stressor's interaction to targeted and non-targeted cells, tissues and organs is on the late effects on the development of primary and secondary cancers. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated, and some studies have demonstrated or proposed a role of non-targeted effect in excess risk of cancer incidence...
December 29, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282521/engineered-exosomes-emerging-from-muscle-cells-break-immune-tolerance-to-her2-in-transgenic-mice-and-induce-antigen-specific-ctls-upon-challenge-by-human-dendritic-cells
#17
Simona Anticoli, Eleonora Aricò, Claudia Arenaccio, Francesco Manfredi, Chiara Chiozzini, Eleonora Olivetta, Flavia Ferrantelli, Laura Lattanzi, Maria Teresa D'Urso, Enrico Proietti, Maurizio Federico
We recently described a novel biotechnological platform for the production of unrestricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines. It relies on in vivo engineering of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles constitutively released by all cells, with full-length antigens of choice upon fusion with an exosome-anchoring protein referred to as Nefmut. They are produced upon intramuscular injection of a DNA vector and, when uploaded with a viral tumor antigen, were found to elicit an immune response inhibiting the tumor growth in a model of transplantable tumors...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281244/high-density-lipoprotein-nanobiologics-for-precision-medicine
#18
Willem J M Mulder, Mandy M T van Leent, Marnix Lameijer, Edward A Fisher, Zahi A Fayad, Carlos Pérez-Medina
Nature is an inspirational source for biomedical engineering developments. Particularly, numerous nanotechnological approaches have been derived from biological concepts. For example, among many different biological nanosized materials, viruses have been extensively studied and utilized, while exosome research has gained much traction in the 21st century. In our body, fat is transported by lipoproteins, intriguing supramolecular nanostructures that have important roles in cell function, lipid metabolism, and disease...
December 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278889/erythromyeloid-derived-trem2-a-major-determinant-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-down-syndrome
#19
Ruma Raha-Chowdhury, James W Henderson, Animesh Alexander Raha, Simon R W Stott, Romina Vuono, Simona Foscarin, Liam Wilson, Tiina Annus, Robert Fincham, Kieren Allinson, Vinod Devalia, Robert P Friedland, Anthony Holland, Shahid H Zaman
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) individuals have a spectrum of hematopoietic and neuronal dysfunctions, and by the time they reach the age of 40 years, almost all develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology which includes senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation and innate immunity are key players in AD and DS. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) variants have been identified as risk factors for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277503/mesenchymal-stem-cell-exosomes-promote-immunosuppression-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-asthma
#20
Du Yu-Mo, Zhuansun Yong-Xun, Chen Rui, Lin Lin, Lin Ying, Li Jian-Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are both potent immune-modulators. The aberrant proliferation and function of Tregs plays an important role in the development of asthma. Our previous studies have demonstrated the role of MSCs in promoting proliferation and immune-modulating of Tregs, as well as alleviating airway inflammation of asthmatic mice. In the present study, we isolated exosomes secreted by MSCs and investigated their immunomodulation effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patient...
December 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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