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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096300/enhanced-suppression-of-polyclonal-cd8-25-regulatory-t-cells-via-exosomal-arming-of-antigen-specific-peptide-mhc-complexes
#1
Chuanyong Mu, Xueshu Zhang, Lu Wang, Aizhang Xu, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Xueqin Pang, Rajni Chibbar, Andrew Freywald, Jianan Huang, Yehan Zhu, Jim Xiang
Compared with CD4(+)25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), the mechanisms for natural, polyclonal CD8(+)25(+) Treg immune suppression have been significantly less studied. We previously showed that polyclonal T cells can acquire antigen-specific targeting activity through arming with exosomal peptide-MHC (pMHC). In this study, we assessed the suppressive effect of CD8(+)25(+) Tregs or CD8(+)25(+) Tregs armed with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific exosomes on other immune cells and OVA-specific dendritic cell (DCOVA)-stimulated antitumor immunity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#2
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#3
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088841/intracellular-fate-of-ureaplasma-parvum-entrapped-by-host-cellular-autophagy
#4
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
January 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077296/extracellular-vesicle-communication-pathways-as-regulatory-targets-of-oncogenic-transformation
#5
REVIEW
Dongsic Choi, Tae Hoon Lee, Cristiana Spinelli, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Esterina D'Asti, Janusz Rak
Pathogenesis of human cancers bridges intracellular oncogenic driver events and their impact on intercellular communication. Among multiple mediators of this 'pathological connectivity' the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their subsets (exosomes, ectosomes, oncosomes) is of particular interest for several reasons. The release of EVs from cancer cells represents a unique mechanism of regulated expulsion of bioactive molecules, a process that also mediates cell-to-cell transfer of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073833/exosomal-mir-142-3p-is-increased-during-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-augments-vascular-permeability-through-down-regulation-of-endothelial-rab11fip2-expression
#6
Ihdina Sukma Dewi, Selvi Celik, Anna Karlsson, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Karen Lam, Janet-Wilson McManus, Scott Tebbutt, Raymond Ng, Paul Keown, Robert McMaster, Bruce McManus, Jenny Öhman, Olof Gidlöf
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069806/dna-containing-exosomes-derived-from-cancer-cells-treated-with-topotecan-activate-a-sting-dependent-pathway-and-reinforce-antitumor-immunity
#7
Yuichi Kitai, Takumi Kawasaki, Takuya Sueyoshi, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Jian Zou, Shizuo Akira, Tadashi Matsuda, Taro Kawai
Danger-associated molecular patterns derived from damaged or dying cells elicit inflammation and potentiate antitumor immune responses. In this article, we show that treatment of breast cancer cells with the antitumor agent topotecan (TPT), an inhibitor of topoisomerase I, induces danger-associated molecular pattern secretion that triggers dendritic cell (DC) activation and cytokine production. TPT administration inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice, which is accompanied by infiltration of activated DCs and CD8(+) T cells...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056059/high-levels-of-ebv-encoded-rna-1-eber1-trigger-interferon-and-inflammation-related-genes-in-keratinocytes-expressing-hpv16-e6-e7
#8
Sirinart Aromseree, Jaap M Middeldorp, Chamsai Pientong, Monique van Eijndhoven, Octavia Ramayanti, Sinéad M Lougheed, D Michiel Pegtel, Renske D M Steenbergen, Tipaya Ekalaksananan
Different types of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can release exosomes containing viral components that functionally affect neighboring cells. Previously, we found that EBV was localized mostly in infiltrating lymphocytes within the stromal layer of cervical lesions. In this study, we aimed to determine effects of exosome-transferred EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) on keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 (DonorI-HPV16 HFKs). Lipid transfection of in vitro-transcribed EBER1 molecules (ivt EBER1) into DonorI-HPV16 HFKs caused strong induction of interferon (IFN)-related genes and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054965/attacked-from-all-sides-rna-decay-in-antiviral-defense
#9
REVIEW
Jerome M Molleston, Sara Cherry
The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5' or 3' end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5' degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs...
January 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043542/the-analysis-of-exosomal-micro-rnas-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-derived-macrophages-after-infection-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-by-rna-sequencing
#10
Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D Alipoor, Payam Tabarsi, Ian M Adcock, Johan Garssen, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global threat to human health, especially in low-income countries. The diagnosis of TB is challenging because of the limitations of specificity and sensitivity with the current diagnostics. Novel, selective biomarkers for TB would be of great practical value. Exosomes are bioactive vesicles with 30-100nm in diameter, which are secreted from almost all cell types and are found in virtually every human body fluid. Exosomes transport micro-RNAs (miRNAs), which are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, around the body and allow miRNAs to modulate biological pathways in target cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031234/the-multiple-roles-of-exosomes-in-metastasis
#11
REVIEW
Ulrich H Weidle, Fabian Birzele, Gwen Kollmorgen, Rüdiger Rüger
Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases...
January 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999575/new-insights-into-regulatory-t-cells-exosome-and-non-coding-rna-mediated-regulation-of-homeostasis-and-resident-treg-cells
#12
REVIEW
Peiyao Li, Changhong Liu, Zhibin Yu, Minghua Wu
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a group of cells that are heterogeneous in origin and in functional activity. Treg cells comprise a necessary balance to adaptive immune responses. As key regulators of self-tolerance, Treg cells have been involved in a series of pathologic processes and considered as therapeutic targets. Here, we summarize recent research regarding Treg cell origins and their functional classification, highlight the role of exosomes and non-coding RNA in modulating Treg cell homeostasis, and discuss the current understanding of resident Treg cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989744/characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-ir-spectroscopy-fast-and-simple-classification-based-on-amide-and-ch-stretching-vibrations
#13
Judith Mihály, Róbert Deák, Imola Csilla Szigyártó, Attila Bóta, Tamás Beke-Somfai, Zoltán Varga
Extracellular vesicles isolated by differential centrifugation from Jurkat T-cell line were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Amide and CH stretching band intensity ratios calculated from IR bands, characteristic of protein and lipid components, proved to be distinctive for the different extracellular vesicle subpopulations. This proposed 'spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio', combined with the outlined spectrum-analysis protocol is valid also for low sample concentrations (0...
December 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977858/regulation-of-host-epithelial-responses-to-cryptosporidium-infection-by-micrornas
#14
Zhenping Ming, Rui Zhou, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidium species infect the gastrointestinal epithelium and other mucosal surfaces of vertebrate hosts. Epithelial cells provide the first line of defense against Cryptosporidium infection and play a critical role in the initiation, regulation, and resolution of both innate and adaptive immune reactions. Host miRNAs in mammalian cells have been shown to play crucial roles in cellular responses to infection by diverse pathogens, including viruses, parasites, and bacteria. Given the absence of RNAi machinery in Cryptosporidium, lack of miRNA expression in the parasite, and minimal invasion nature of infection, Cryptosporidium infection provides an ideal model for exploring miRNA-mediated epithelial cell defense, relevant to infection of mucosal epithelial cells by pathogens in general...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974541/characterization-and-diagnostic-application-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-trypomastigote-excreted-secreted-antigens-shed-in-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-infected-mammalian-cells
#15
Norma L Bautista-López, Momar Ndao, Fabio Vasquez Camargo, Takeshi Nara, Takeshi Annoura, Darryl B Hardie, Christoph H Borchers, Armando Jardim
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, although endemic in many parts of Central and South America, is emerging as a global health threat through the potential contamination of blood supplies. Consequently, in the absence of a gold standard assay for the diagnosis of Chagas additional antigens or strategies are needed. A proteomic analysis of the trypomastigote excreted secreted antigens (TESA) associated with exosomal vesicles shed by T. cruzi identified ∼80 parasite proteins; with the majority being trans-sialidases...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966794/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-potential-of-exosomes-in-cancer-the-beginning-of-a-new-tale
#16
REVIEW
Hamed Mirzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mohammad Goodarzi, Hamid Reza Mirzaei
Exosomes have emerged as one of the main players in intercellular communication. These small nano-sized particles have many roles in various physiological pathways in normal and abnormal cells. Exosomes can carry various cargos such as proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs to recipient cells. Uptake of exosomes and their cargo can induce and/or inhibit different cellular and molecular pathways that lead to the alteration of cell behavior. Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that exosomes released from cancer cells can effect development of cancer in different stages...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956165/cancer-derived-exosomic-micrornas-shape-the-immune-system-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-state-of-the-art
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Fanini, Muller Fabbri
In recent years there has been an increasing interest of the scientific community on exosome research, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms by which tumor-derived exosomes can promote tumor growth. Particularly, exosome-mediated immune-escape is under deep investigation and still represents a quite controversial issue. Tumor-derived exosomes are carriers of information able to reprogram functions of immune target cells, influencing their development, maturation, and antitumor activities. They deliver proteins similar to those of the parent cancer cells, but also genetic messages like genomic DNA, mRNA, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that ultimately share the so called "tumor microenvironment" in a pro-tumoral fashion...
December 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943213/isolation-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-from-cell-culture-systems-to-study-prion-transmission
#18
Pascal Leblanc, Zaira E Arellano-Anaya, Emilien Bernard, Laure Gallay, Monique Provansal, Sylvain Lehmann, Laurent Schaeffer, Graça Raposo, Didier Vilette
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are composed of microvesicles and exosomes. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles (40-120 nm sized) of endosomal origin released in the extracellular medium from cells when multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane, whereas microvesicles (i.e., shedding vesicles, 100 nm to 1 μm sized) bud from the plasma membrane. Exosomes and microvesicles carry functional proteins and nucleic acids (especially mRNAs and microRNAs) that can be transferred to surrounding cells and tissues and can impact multiple dimensions of the cellular life...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942611/donor-exosomes-rather-than-passenger-leukocytes-initiate-alloreactive-t-cell-responses-after-transplantation
#19
Jose Marino, Mohamed H Babiker-Mohamed, Patrick Crosby-Bertorini, Joshua T Paster, Christian LeGuern, Sharon Germana, Reza Abdi, Mayuko Uehara, James I Kim, James F Markmann, Georges Tocco, Gilles Benichou
Transplantation of allogeneic organs and tissues represents a lifesaving procedure for a variety of patients affected with end-stage diseases. Although current immunosuppressive therapy prevents early acute rejection, it is associated with nephrotoxicity and increased risks for infection and neoplasia. This stresses the need for selective immune-based therapies relying on manipulation of lymphocyte recognition of donor antigens. The passenger leukocyte theory states that allograft rejection is initiated by recipient T cells recognizing donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed on graft leukocytes migrating to the host's lymphoid organs...
July 14, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941871/nanosomes-carrying-doxorubicin-exhibit-potent-anticancer-activity-against-human-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Akhil Srivastava, Narsireddy Amreddy, Anish Babu, Janani Panneerselvam, Meghna Mehta, Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Allshine Chen, Yan Daniel Zhao, Mohammad Razaq, Natascha Riedinger, Hogyoung Kim, Shaorong Liu, Si Wu, Asim B Abdel-Mageed, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Successful chemotherapeutic intervention for management of lung cancer requires an efficient drug delivery system. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can incorporate various therapeutics; however, GNPs have limitations as drug carriers. Nano-sized cellular vesicles like exosomes (Exo) can ferry GNP-therapeutic complexes without causing any particle aggregation or immune response. In the present study, we describe the development and testing of a novel Exo-GNP-based therapeutic delivery system -'nanosomes'- for lung cancer therapy...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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