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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#1
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900319/spleen-dependent-immune-protection-elicited-by-cpg-adjuvanted-reticulocyte-derived-exosomes-from-malaria-infection-is-associated-with-changes-in-t-cell-subsets-distribution
#2
Lorena Martín-Jaular, Armando de Menezes-Neto, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Míriam Díaz-Varela, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Francesc E Borras, Maria Montoya, Hernando A Del Portillo
Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895106/saliva-exosomes-from-pancreatic-tumor-bearing-mice-modulate-nk-cell-phenotype-and-antitumor-cytotoxicity
#3
Stergios Katsiougiannis, David Chia, Yong Kim, Ram P Singh, David T W Wong
Tumor exosomes are emerging as antitumor immunity regulators; however, their effects on secondary exosome secretion by distal organs have not been explored. We have previously demonstrated that suppression of exosomes at the distal tumor site of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ablated the development of salivary biomarker profile. Here, we explore the function of salivary exosomes from tumor-bearing mice in immune surveillance. We provide evidence that salivary exosomes from mice with PDAC exhibit a suppressive effect that results in reduced tumor-killing capacity by NK cells...
November 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875097/role-of-exosomes-in-the-protection-of-cellular-homeostasis
#4
Gabriela Desdín-Micó, María Mittelbrunn
Due to their ability to shuttle proteins, lipids and genetic material between distant cells, exosomes promote extensive phenotypic changes in recipient cells, modulating immune responses, cellular migration, cancer metastasis or the spreading of neurotoxic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides intercellular communication, exosome biogenesis and secretion permit the rapid release of a selective repertoire of compounds, conferring cells with an additional mechanism to fight alterations in protein, lipid or RNA homeostasis during stress or pathological conditions...
November 22, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873273/isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-released-by-ebv-immortalized-cells
#5
Gulfaraz Khan, Waqar Ahmed
Epstein-Barr virus is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with several human malignancies. Although the details of the molecular steps involved in EBV-mediated cell transformation and immune evasion are not fully known, a number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been shown to be involved, directly or indirectly in these processes. In recent years, a growing body of data indicates that some viruses are able to transport selected products to neighboring cells and induce biological changes by exploiting the exosome secretory pathway...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872688/functional-roles-for-exosomal-micrornas-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Emma Bell, Molly A Taylor
Extracellular microRNAs are released from cells both passively and actively. The presence of these microRNAs in the tumour microenvironment (TME) can significantly impact on the plasticity of cancer cells leading to the promotion of metastatic and angiogenic processes. These extracellular microRNAs can act not only on other cancer cells, but also cells present in the TME, such as immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and others acting to subvert the host immune system and drive tumour progression. In this review we highlight the current understanding of both the mechanisms by which microRNAs are released from tumour cells and the downstream functional effects that extracellular microRNAs have on recipient cells...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872619/ebola-vp40-in-exosomes-can-cause-immune-cell-dysfunction
#7
Michelle L Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao A Akpamagbo, Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Sergey Iordanskiy, Gavin C Sampey, Benjamin Lepene, Sergei Nekhai, M J Aman, Fatah Kashanchi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80-90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872147/primary-human-and-rat-beta-cells-release-the-intracellular-autoantigens-gad65-ia-2-and-proinsulin-in-exosomes-together-with-cytokine-induced-enhancers-of-immunity
#8
Chiara Cianciaruso, Edward A Phelps, Miriella Pasquier, Romain Hamelin, Davide Demurtas, Mohamed Alibashe Ahmed, Lorenzo Piemonti, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Michele De Palma, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Steinunn Baekkeskov
The target autoantigens in several organ-specific autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), are intracellular membrane proteins, whose initial encounter with the immune system is poorly understood. Here we propose a new model for how these proteins can initiate autoimmunity. We found that rat and human pancreatic islets release the intracellular β-cell autoantigens in human T1D, GAD65, IA-2 and proinsulin, in exosomes, which are taken up by and activate dendritic cells. Accordingly, anchoring of GAD65 to exosome-mimetic liposomes strongly boosted antigen presentation and T cell activation in the context of the human type 1 diabetes susceptibility haplotype HLA-DR4...
November 21, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864711/mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomal-micrornas-contribute-to-wound-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Dongdong Ti, Haojie Hao, Xiaobing Fu, Weidong Han
Clinical and experimental studies have highlighted the significance of inflammation in coordinating wound repair and regeneration. However, it remains challenging to control the inflammatory response and tolerance at systemic levels without causing toxicity to injured tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties and facilitate tissue repair by releasing exosomes, which generate a suitable microenvironment for inflammatory resolution. Exosomes contain several effective bioactive molecules and act as a cell-cell communication vehicle to influence cellular activities in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863537/high-resolution-proteomic-and-lipidomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-from-different-cell-sources
#10
Reka A Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Marian DiFiglia, Michael A Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859351/exosomes-in-immunoregulation-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#11
REVIEW
K P Hough, D Chanda, S R Duncan, V J Thannickal, J S Deshane
Exosomes are nano-sized, membrane-bound vesicles released from cells that transport cargo including DNA, RNA, and proteins, between cells as a form of intercellular communication. In addition to their role in intercellular communication, exosomes are beginning to be appreciated as agents of immunoregulation that can modulate antigen presentation, immune activation, suppression and surveillance. This article summarizes how these multifaceted functions of exosomes may promote development and/or progression of chronic inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis...
November 15, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852870/biological-activities-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-cargos-from-bovine-and-human-milk-in-humans-and-implications-for-infants
#12
REVIEW
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852323/circulating-exosomes-from-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-induce-an-proinflammatory-immune-response
#13
Joo Youn Lee, Jin Kyun Park, Eun Young Lee, Eun Bong Lee, Yeong Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether circulating exosomes effectively contribute to the inflammatory response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Exosomes were purified from SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs). Healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with exosomes isolated from SLE patients and HCs in the presence or absence of Toll-like receptor (TLR) inhibitors...
November 16, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843374/potential-serum-and-urine-biomarkers-in-patients-with-lupus-nephritis-and-the-unsolved-problems
#14
REVIEW
Song-Chou Hsieh, Chang-Youh Tsai, Chia-Li Yu
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin) antibodies, may also involve in LN...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837092/extracellular-vesicles-isolated-from-the-leaf-apoplast-carry-stress-response-proteins
#15
Brian Rutter, Roger W Innes
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a central role in intercellular signaling in mammals by transporting proteins and small RNAs. Plants are also known to produce EVs, particularly in response to pathogen infection. The contents of plant EVs have not been analyzed, however, and their function is unknown. Here we describe a method for purifying EVs from the apoplastic fluids of Arabidopsis leaves. Proteomic analyses of these EVs revealed that they are highly enriched in proteins involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses...
November 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834857/the-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-mediated-immunity-induced-by-hpv-e6-uploaded-in-engineered-exosomes-is-improved-by-iscomatrix-tm-adjuvant
#16
Francesco Manfredi, Paola di Bonito, Barbara Ridolfi, Simona Anticoli, Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Adriana Baz Morelli, Maurizio Federico
We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8⁺ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8⁺ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8⁺ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting...
November 9, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826642/exosomes-mobile-platforms-for-targeted-and-synergistic-signaling-across-cell-boundaries
#17
REVIEW
Neha Vyas, Jyotsna Dhawan
Intercellular communications play a vital role during tissue patterning, tissue repair, and immune reactions, in homeostasis as well as in disease. Exosomes are cell-derived secreted vesicles, extensively studied for their role in intercellular communication. Exosomes have the intrinsic ability to package multiple classes of proteins and nucleic acids within their lumens and on their membranes. Here, we explore the hypothesis that exosomal targeting may represent a cellular strategy that has evolved to deliver specific combinations of signals to specific target cells and influence normal or pathological processes...
November 8, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824088/trehalose-prevents-aggregation-of-exosomes-and-cryodamage
#18
Steffi Bosch, Laurence de Beaurepaire, Marie Allard, Mathilde Mosser, Claire Heichette, Denis Chrétien, Dominique Jegou, Jean-Marie Bach
Exosomes are important mediators in intercellular communication. Released by many cell types, they transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids to distant recipient cells and contribute to important physiopathological processes. Standard current exosome isolation methods based on differential centrifugation protocols tend to induce aggregation of particles in highly concentrated suspensions and freezing of exosomes can induce damage and inconsistent biological activity. Trehalose is a natural, non-toxic sugar widely used as a protein stabilizer and cryoprotectant by the food and drug industry...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805059/isolation-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-urinary-extraexosomal-proteins
#19
Siri Hildonen, Ellen Skarpen, Trine Grønhaug Halvorsen, Léon Reubsaet
The aim of the present study was to develop a LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis method of urinary exosomal proteins that has the potential to discover disease biomarkers. In short, urinary exosomes from healthy subjects were isolated by immunocapture on magnetic beads, detected by immunofluorescence and TEM, trypsin digested directly on the beads for an accelerated time with no addition of detergents before performing an LC-MS analysis of the trypsinate. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis of proteins displayed on the outer surface of exosomes...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802428/effect-of-melatonin-on-telocytes-in-the-seminal-vesicle-of-the-soay-ram-an-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-morphometrical-study
#20
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Doaa M Mokhtar, Ahmed H S Hassan
Telocytes (TCs) are a special type of interstitial cell with characteristic cellular processes that are described in many organs. The current study aimed to investigate TCs in seminal vesicles of the Soay ram responding to melatonin treatment during the nonbreeding season by conventional immunohistochemical stains, and to detect the ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of TCs. TCs in the control group showed a broad range of staining affinity and also reacted positively to CD117/c-kit, CD34, desmin, S-100 protein, and progesterone and estrogen receptors alpha, while after melatonin treatment a strong reaction against these 6 antibodies was recorded...
November 2, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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