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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431250/nuclear-proximity-of-mtr4-to-rna-exosome-restricts-dna-mutational-asymmetry
#1
Junghyun Lim, Pankaj Kumar Giri, David Kazadi, Brice Laffleur, Wanwei Zhang, Veronika Grinstein, Evangelos Pefanis, Lewis M Brown, Erik Ladewig, Ophélie Martin, Yuling Chen, Raul Rabadan, François Boyer, Gerson Rothschild, Michel Cogné, Eric Pinaud, Haiteng Deng, Uttiya Basu
The distribution of sense and antisense strand DNA mutations on transcribed duplex DNA contributes to the development of immune and neural systems along with the progression of cancer. Because developmentally matured B cells undergo biologically programmed strand-specific DNA mutagenesis at focal DNA/RNA hybrid structures, they make a convenient system to investigate strand-specific mutagenesis mechanisms. We demonstrate that the sense and antisense strand DNA mutagenesis at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and some other regions of the B cell genome depends upon localized RNA processing protein complex formation in the nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424339/discovery-of-double-stranded-genomic-dna-in-circulating-exosomes
#2
Raghu Kalluri, Valerie S LeBleu
It is becoming increasingly clear that small vesicles released from cells (extracellular vesicles [EVs]) represent a heterogeneous population implicated in cell-to-cell communication. The classifications and nomenclature of EVs are evolving as enrichment strategies and specific characteristics are being unraveled. At present, physical properties of EVs-namely, size, shape, and density-are often used to identify subpopulations of EVs. A distinct group of EVs, termed exosomes, largely defined by their small size (∼40-150 nm) and proposed subcellular origin, has been extensively studied in several aspects of cancer biology...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423620/exosomal-mir-940-maintains-src-mediated-oncogenic-activity-in-cancer-cells-a-possible-role-for-exosomal-disposal-of-tumor-suppressor-mirnas
#3
Mohammed H Rashed, Pinar Kanlikilicer, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Martin Pichler, Recep Bayraktar, Emine Bayraktar, Cristina Ivan, Justyna Filant, Andreia Silva, Burcu Aslan, Merve Denizli, Rahul Mitra, Bulent Ozpolat, George A Calin, Anil K Sood, Mohamed F Abd-Ellah, Gouda K Helal, Gabriel Lopez Berestein
Exosomes have emerged as important mediators of diverse biological functions including tumor suppression, tumor progression, invasion, immune escape and cell-to-cell communication, through the release of molecules such as mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins. Here, we identified differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs between normal epithelial ovarian cell line and both resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines. We found miR-940 as abundant in exosomes from SKOV3-IP1, HeyA8, and HeyA8-MDR cells. The high expression of miR-940 is associated with better survival in patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411393/global-exosome-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-biomarkers-for-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Igor Selmaj, Maria Cichalewska, Magdalena Namiecinska, Grazyna Galazka, Wojciech Horzelski, Krzysztof W Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence supports a role for exosomes in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the total circulating exosome transcriptome in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to define the global RNA profile of serum exosomes in 19 RRMS patients (9 in relapse, 10 in remission) and 10 HC. We analyzed 5 million reads and over 50,000 transcripts per sample, including a detailed analysis of microRNA (miRNA) differentially expressed in RRMS...
April 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409562/chemotherapy-induced-intestinal-inflammatory-responses-are-mediated-by-exosome-secretion-of-double-strand-dna-via-aim2-inflammasome-activation
#5
Qiaoshi Lian, Jun Xu, Shanshan Yan, Min Huang, Honghua Ding, Xiaoyu Sun, Aiwei Bi, Jian Ding, Bing Sun, Meiyu Geng
Chemotherapies are known often to induce severe gastrointestinal tract toxicity but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study considers the widely applied cytotoxic agent irinotecan (CPT-11) as a representative agent and demonstrates that treatment induces massive release of double-strand DNA from the intestine that accounts for the dose-limiting intestinal toxicity of the compound. Specifically, "self-DNA" released through exosome secretion enters the cytosol of innate immune cells and activates the AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) inflammasome...
April 14, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407805/revelation-of-mrnas-and-proteins-in-porcine-milk-exosomes-by-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#6
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. Until now, there is no such research relevant to exosomal mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk, therefore, we have attempted to investigate porcine milk exosomal mRNAs and proteins using RNA-sequencing and proteomic analysis...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405503/genotoxic-stress-modulates-the-release-of-exosomes-from-multiple-myeloma-cells-capable-of-activating-nk-cell-cytokine-production-role-of-hsp70-tlr2-nf-kb-axis
#7
Elisabetta Vulpis, Francesca Cecere, Rosa Molfetta, Alessandra Soriani, Cinzia Fionda, Giovanna Peruzzi, Giulio Caracciolo, Sara Palchetti, Laura Masuelli, Lucilla Simonelli, Ugo D'Oro, Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni, Alessandra Zingoni
Exosomes are a class of nanovesicles formed and released through the late endosomal compartment and represent an important mode of intercellular communication. The ability of anticancer chemotherapy to enhance the immunogenic potential of malignant cells mainly relies on the establishment of the immunogenic cell death (ICD) and the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we investigated whether genotoxic stress could promote the release of exosomes from multiple myeloma (MM) cells and studied the immunomodulatory properties they exert on NK cells, a major component of the antitumor immune response playing a key role in the immunosurveillance of MM...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402944/exosome-emerging-biomarker-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Yunlu Jia, Yongxia Chen, Qinchuan Wang, Ushani Jayasinghe, Xiao Luo, Qun Wei, Ji Wang, Hanchu Xiong, Cong Chen, Bin Xu, Wenxian Hu, Linbo Wang, Wenhe Zhao, Jichun Zhou
Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. In breast cancer, through horizontal transfer of various bioactive molecules, such as proteins and mRNAs, exosomes are emerging as local and systemic cell-to-cell mediators of oncogenic information and play an important role on cancer progression. This review outlines the current knowledge and concepts concerning the exosomes involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis (including tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, immune system modulation and tumor microenvironment) and cancer therapy resistance...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400428/suppression-of-lymphocyte-functions-by-plasma-exosomes-correlates-with-disease-activity-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
Sonja Ludwig, Theofanis Floros, Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Chang-Sook Hong, Edwin K Jackson, Stephan Lang, Theresa L Whiteside
Purpose: Head and neck cancers (HNC) often induce profound immunosuppression which contributes to disease progression and interferes with immune-based therapies. Body fluids of HNC patients are enriched in exosomes potentially engaged in negative regulation of anti-tumor immune responses. The presence and content of exosomes derived from plasma of HNC patients are evaluated for the ability to induce immune dysfunction and influence disease activity. <p>Experimental Design: Exosomes were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from plasma of 38 HNC patients and 14 healthy donors...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394318/the-evolving-concept-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-thyroid-cancer-and-other-solid-tumors
#10
Heather Hardin, Ranran Zhang, Holly Helein, Darya Buehler, Zhenying Guo, Ricardo V Lloyd
The cancer stem-like cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that a small population of cells in a cancer has self-renewal and clonal tumor initiation properties. These cells are responsible for tumor initiation, growth, recurrence and for resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. CSCs can be characterized using markers such as SSEA-1, SSEA-4, CD44, CD24, ALDEFLUOR and others. CSCs form spheres when they are cultured in serum-free condition in low attachment plates and can generate tumors when injected into immune-deficient mice...
April 10, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388413/circulating-immune-cells-mediate-a-systemic-rnai-based-adaptive-antiviral-response-in-drosophila
#11
Michel Tassetto, Mark Kunitomi, Raul Andino
Effective antiviral protection in multicellular organisms relies on both cell-autonomous and systemic immunity. Systemic immunity mediates the spread of antiviral signals from infection sites to distant uninfected tissues. In arthropods, RNA interference (RNAi) is responsible for antiviral defense. Here, we show that flies have a sophisticated systemic RNAi-based immunity mediated by macrophage-like haemocytes. Haemocytes take up dsRNA from infected cells and, through endogenous transposon reverse transcriptases, produce virus-derived complementary DNAs (vDNA)...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388404/drosophilosophical-re-thinking-adaptive-immunity-in-the-fly
#12
Cara West, Neal Silverman
For decades, flies have been a model for innate immunity. In this issue of Cell, Tassetto et al. describe a mechanism for antiviral RNAi spreading that parallels mammalian adaptive immunity through reverse-transcribed vDNA circles and the systemic dissemination of small-RNA-containing exosomes.
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387650/a-proteomic-analysis-of-the-malignant-mesothelioma-secretome-using-itraq
#13
Jenette Creaney, Ian M Dick, Justine S Leon, Bruce W S Robinson
Backgound/Aim: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and fatal pleural cancer. The cell secretome offers information allowing insight into the pathogenesis of MM while offering the possibility to identify potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In the present study the secretome protein profile of MM cell lines was compared to normal mesothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six MM cell lines were compared against three primary mesothelial cell culture preparations using iTRAQ® mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385180/the-role-of-exosomes-in-cns-inflammation-and-their-involvement-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Igor Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoreactive immune cells recognizing myelin antigens lead to demyelination and axonal injury. Mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of MS have not been fully elucidated, particularly those underlying initiation of immune system dysfunction. For example, it is not known how reactivity against CNS components is generated within the peripheral immune system. In this review, we propose that a significant contribution to the immunoregulatory events may derive from a cell-to-cell communication system involving the production, secretion and transfer of extracellular vesicles known as exosomes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384121/negatively-regulation-of-tumor-infiltrating-nk-cell-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients-through-the-exosomal-pathway
#15
Yang Xia, Qiongfang Zhang, Quan Zhen, Yan Zhao, Nanjing Liu, Ting Li, Yanni Hao, Yao Zhang, Chunli Luo, Xiaohou Wu
Natural killer cells are the key components in tumor immunity and defects in function are necessary for tumor immune escape. Emerging studies on tumor cell-derived exosomes have shown the biological significance in tumor microenvironment, but the underlying role of exosomes in regulating natural killer cells functions in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients remains unknown. Firstly, we precisely characterized the phenotype and function of natural killer cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients vs healthy controls...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383678/microrna-mediated-dynamic-control-of-mucosal-immunity
#16
Eun Jeong Park, Motomu Shimaoka, Hiroshi Kiyono
The gastrointestinal tract is a complex and important physiological and immunological organ embodying the first line of defense by which mucosal immunity regulates the immense number and diversity of naturally encountered antigens and commensal microflora. Effective microRNA (miRNA) control of transcription factors or mediators in mucosal immunity is essential to host defense and homeostasis in both physiologic and pathologic states. MiRNA biology has advanced our understanding of the immune regulatory system network at the level of post-transcriptional gene modification...
April 5, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382422/the-role-of-exosomes-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment
#17
Avner Friedman, Wenrui Hao
Exosomes are nanovesicles shed by cells as a means of communication with other cells. Exosomes contain mRNAs, microRNAs (miRs) and functional proteins. In the present paper, we develop a mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction by means of exosomes shed by pancreatic cancer cells and dendritic cells. Cancer cells' exosomes contain miRs that promote their proliferation and that inhibit immune response by dendritic cells, and by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Dendritic cells release exosomes with proteins that induce apoptosis of cancer cells and that block regulatory T cells...
April 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369805/exosomes-carrying-immunoinhibitory-proteins-and-their-role-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Recent emergence of exosomes as information carriers between cells has introduced us to a new previously unknown biological communication system. Multi-directional cross-talk mediated by exosomes carrying proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between normal cells, cells harboring a pathogen or cancer and immune cells has been instrumental in determining outcomes of physiological as well as pathological conditions. Exosomes play a key role in the broad spectrum of human diseases. In cancer, tumor-derived exosomes carry multiple immunoinhibitory signals, disable anti-tumor immune effector cells and promote tumor escape from immune control...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360912/exosomes-isolated-from-ascites-of-t-cell-lymphoma-bearing-mice-expressing-surface-cd24-and-hsp-90-induce-a-tumor-specific-immune-response
#19
Florencia Menay, Leticia Herschlik, Julieta De Toro, Federico Cocozza, Rodrigo Tsacalian, María José Gravisaco, María Paula Di Sciullo, Alejandrina Vendrell, Claudia I Waldner, Claudia Mongini
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell-cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360855/the-p2x7-receptor-interleukin-1-liaison
#20
REVIEW
Anna Lisa Giuliani, Alba C Sarti, Simonetta Falzoni, Francesco Di Virgilio
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in stimulation of innate immune system and inflammation and in several chronic inflammatory diseases. These include rare hereditary conditions, e.g., auto-inflammatory syndromes, as well as common pathologies, such as type II diabetes, gout and atherosclerosis. A better understanding of IL-1β synthesis and release is particularly relevant for the design of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. One of the molecules mainly involved in IL-1β maturation is the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel that chiefly acts through the recruitment of the NLRP3 inflammasome-caspase-1 complex...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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