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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533110/excretory-secretory-products-from-the-gastrointestinal-nematode-trichuris-muris
#1
Lucienne Tritten, Mifong Tam, Mireille Vargas, Armando Jardim, Mary M Stevenson, Jennifer Keiser, Timothy G Geary
To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529488/endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-promises-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Carina Hromada, Severin Mühleder, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524163/dsdna-containing-exosomes-the-culprit-in-chemotherapy-induced-diarrhea
#4
Paul Kurywchak, Raghu Kalluri
Chemotherapy is a predominant strategy to treat cancer and is often associated with toxicities like severe diarrhea that puts patients at additional risk and can hinder treatment strategies. Lian et al. recently explored the immune-mediated mechanisms of Irinotecan-induced diarrhea in colorectal cancer and found that double-stranded DNA in small vesicles can launch inflammation pathways in immune cells through the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523463/immature-exosomes-derived-from-microrna-146a-overexpressing-dendritic-cells-act-as-antigen-specific-therapy-for-myasthenia-gravis
#5
Weifan Yin, Song Ouyang, Zhaohui Luo, Qiuming Zeng, Bo Hu, Liqun Xu, Yuan Li, Bo Xiao, Huan Yang
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neurological autoimmune disease characterized by fluctuating weakness of certain voluntary muscles. Current treatments for MG are largely directed at suppressing the whole immune system by using immunosuppressants or glucocorticoids and often cause several side effects. The ideal therapeutic methods for MG should suppress aberrant immunoactivation specifically, while retaining normal function of the immune system. In this study, we first produced exosomes from microRNA-146a overexpressing dendritic cells (DCs)...
May 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508895/exosomes-maintain-cellular-homeostasis-by-excreting-harmful-dna-from-cells
#7
Akiko Takahashi, Ryo Okada, Koji Nagao, Yuka Kawamata, Aki Hanyu, Shin Yoshimoto, Masaki Takasugi, Sugiko Watanabe, Masato T Kanemaki, Chikashi Obuse, Eiji Hara
Emerging evidence is revealing that exosomes contribute to many aspects of physiology and disease through intercellular communication. However, the biological roles of exosome secretion in exosome-secreting cells have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that exosome secretion plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in exosome-secreting cells. The inhibition of exosome secretion results in the accumulation of nuclear DNA in the cytoplasm, thereby causing the activation of cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#8
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497202/exosomes-and-their-application-in-biomedical-field-difficulties-and-advantages
#9
REVIEW
Jafar Rezaie, Saeed Ajezi, Çığır Biray Avci, Mohammad Karimipour, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Nourazarian, Emel Sokullu, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Reza Rahbarghazi
The science of gene therapy has experienced a controversial history. At first, the initial concept that various disorders become curable by gene transferring was very exciting and challengeable. However, the problems and difficulties related to emerging techniques and unwanted side effects seen in some patients who have undergone gene therapy make some questions against the safety of novel molecular medicine approach. In line with this statement, discovery and developing a good bio-vector possessing low toxicity and high efficiency rate are the most important issues in gene therapy field...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490808/dendritic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-recruitment
#10
Andreia M Silva, Maria I Almeida, José H Teixeira, André F Maia, George A Calin, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Orchestration of bone repair processes requires crosstalk between different cell populations, including immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) as mediators of these interactions remain vastly unexplored. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of MSC recruitment by Dendritic Cells (DC), hypothesising that it would be mediated by EV. Primary human DC-secreted EV (DC-EV), isolated by ultracentrifugation, were characterized for their size, morphology and protein markers, indicating an enrichment in exosomes...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483690/characterization-of-the-lipid-envelope-of-exosome-encapsulated-hev-particles-protected-from-the-immune-response
#11
Sabine Chapuy-Regaud, Martine Dubois, Célia Plisson-Chastang, Tiffany Bonnefois, Sébastien Lhomme, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Bruno You, Steve Simoneau, Pierre-Emmanuel Gleizes, Benoît Flan, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although HEV is a small, naked RNA virus, HEV particles become associated with lipids in the blood of infected patients and in the supernatant of culture systems. The egress of these particles from cells implies the exocytosis pathway but the question of the role of the resulting HEV RNA containing exosomes and the nature of the lipids they contain has not been fully addressed. We determined the lipid proportions of exosomes from uninfected and HEV-infected cells and their role in HEV spreading...
May 5, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481180/trophoblast-glycoprotein-tpgb-5t4-in-human-placenta-expression-regulation-and-presence-in-extracellular-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#12
S M K Alam, S Jasti, S K Kshirsagar, D S Tannetta, R A Dragovic, C W Redman, I L Sargent, H C Hodes, T L Nauser, T Fortes, A M Filler, K Behan, D R Martin, T A Fields, B K Petroff, M G Petroff
BACKGROUND: Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. METHODS: Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480208/characterizing-the-contribution-of-inflammasome-derived-exosomes-in-the-activation-of-the-immune-response
#13
EDITORIAL
Miguel Abal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480200/tumor-exosomal-micrornas-thwarting-anti-tumor-immune-responses-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinomas
#14
EDITORIAL
Nikiforos-Ioannis Kapetanakis, Valentin Baloche, Pierre Busson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476471/elevated-levels-of-circulating-exosome-in-copd-patients-are-associated-with-systemic-inflammation
#15
Dino B A Tan, Jesse Armitage, Teck-Hui Teo, Nathanael E Ong, Heewoong Shin, Yuben P Moodley
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are associated with acute inflammation and infections and increase the rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, neither the aetiology nor pathogenesis of AECOPD are entirely understood. Exosomes have been reported to regulate immunity and inflammation via specific intercellular communications through an array of macromolecules (e.g. microRNA and proteins) contained within these microvesicles...
April 26, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468315/association-of-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-with-cutaneous-wound-healing
#16
REVIEW
Uyen Thi Trang Than, Dominic Guanzon, David Leavesley, Tony Parker
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released into the extracellular environment by various cell types, which can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. EVs have been shown to carry DNA, small RNAs, proteins and membrane lipids which are derived from the parental cells. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that EVs can regulate many biological processes, such as cancer progression, the immune response, cell proliferation, cell migration and blood vessel tube formation...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468249/unconventional-secretion-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Tiago Góss Santos, Vilma Regina Martins, Glaucia Noeli Maroso Hajj
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are abundant cellular proteins involved with protein homeostasis. They have both constitutive and inducible isoforms, whose expression levels are further increased by stress conditions, such as temperature elevation, reduced oxygen levels, infection, inflammation and exposure to toxic substances. In these situations, HSPs exert a pivotal role in offering protection, preventing cell death and promoting cell recovery. Although the majority of HSPs functions are exerted in the cytoplasm and organelles, several lines of evidence reveal that HSPs are able to induce cell responses in the extracellular milieu...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465248/roles-of-exosomes-in-the-normal-and-diseased-eye
#18
REVIEW
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Catherine Bowes Rickman, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a plethora of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key functions of exosomes include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of exosome function in the visual system in the context of larger bodies of data from other fields, in both health and disease...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456604/herpesviruses-hijack-host-exosomes-for-viral-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Sara Sadeghipour, Rommel A Mathias
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens possessing elaborate mechanisms to seize various host cellular components for immune evasion, replication, and virion egress. As viruses are dependent upon their hosts, investigating this intricate interplay has revealed that the exosome pathway is utilised by alpha (Herpes Simplex Virus 1), beta (Human Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpesvirus 6) and gamma (Epstein-Barr Virus, and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus) herpesviruses. Virions and exosomes share similar properties and functions...
April 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455238/a-novel-ex-vivo-immunoproteomic-approach-characterising-fasciola-hepatica-tegumental-antigens-identified-using-immune-antibody-from-resistant-sheep
#20
Timothy C Cameron, Ira Cooke, Pierre Faou, Hayley Toet, David Piedrafita, Neil Young, Vignesh Rathinasamy, Travis Beddoe, Glenn Anderson, Robert Dempster, Terry W Spithill
A more thorough understanding of the immunological interactions between Fasciola spp. and their hosts is required if we are to develop new immunotherapies to control fasciolosis. Deeper knowledge of the antigens that are the target of the acquired immune responses of definitive hosts against both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica will potentially identify candidate vaccine antigens. Indonesian Thin Tail sheep express a high level of acquired immunity to infection by F. gigantica within 4weeks of infection and antibodies in Indonesian Thin Tail sera can promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the surface tegument of juvenile F...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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