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Immune exosome

Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize G Lima, Christina Sf Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Moller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently-labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells, distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45+ bone marrow-derived cells...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Research
Emilie Duvallet, Mathilde Boulpicante, Takahiro Yamazaki, Chrysoula Daskalogianni, Rodrigo Prado Martins, Sonia Baconnais, Bénédicte Manoury, Robin Fahraeus, Sébastien Apcher
Cellular immune reactions against non-self-epitopes require activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells via cross-presentation of MHC class I-restricted peptides by professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs), with the consequent detection and elimination of cells expressing the same antigens via the endogenous (direct) pathway. The source of peptides for the endogenous pathway is constituted of alternative mRNA translation products; however, it is still unclear which source of peptides is used for cross-presentation...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
C M Wong, L A Nash, J Del Papa, K L Poulin, T Falls, J C Bell, R J Parks
When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Jianjun Wang, Zhiyong Deng, Zeyou Wang, Jianhong Wu, Tao Gu, Yibiao Jiang, Guangxin Li
Exosomes containing microRNA-155 act as molecule carriers during immune cell-cell communication and play an important role in the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages. Previous reports have found that miR-155 was over-expressed in H. pylori infection macrophages, but the significance of which is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-155 loaded in exosomes derived from macrophages to the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages and possible mechanisms...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Masaki Morishita, Yuki Takahashi, Akihiro Matsumoto, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
For cancer immunotherapy via tumor antigen vaccination in combination with an adjuvant, major challenges include the identification of a particular tumor antigen and efficient delivery of the antigen as well as adjuvant to antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we proposed an efficient exosome-based tumor antigens-adjuvant co-delivery system using genetically engineered tumor cell-derived exosomes containing endogenous tumor antigens and immunostimulatory CpG DNA. Murine melanoma B16BL6 cells were transfected with a plasmid vector encoding a fusion streptavidin (SAV; a protein that binds to biotin with high affinity)-lactadherin (LA; an exosome-tropic protein) protein, yielding genetically engineered SAV-LA-expressing exosomes (SAV-exo)...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Naibin Yang, Shanshan Li, Guoxiang Li, Shengguo Zhang, Xinyue Tang, Shunlan Ni, Xiaomin Jian, Cunlai Xu, Jiayin Zhu, Mingqin Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. As vectors for intercellular information exchange, the potential role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in HCC formation, progression and therapy has been widely investigated. In this review, we explore the current status of the researches in this field. Altogether there is undeniable evidence that EVs play a crucial role in HCC development, metastasis. Moreover, EVs have shown great potential as drug delivery systems (DDSs) for the treatment of HCC...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhe Huang, Yong Feng
Cancer cell-derived exosomes have been actively released into the tumor microenvironment with pleiotropic roles in tumor growth and metastasis, including angiogenesis and immune modulation. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of exosomes shed by colorectal cancer (CRC) cells under hypoxic conditions remains unknown. Here, we found that exosomes derived from hypoxic CRC cells promoted the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Suppression of exosome secretion through RAB27a knockdown in CRC cells inhibited exosomal induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Research
Paul A Rowley, Brandon Ho, Sarah Bushong, Arlen Johnson, Sara L Sawyer
In eukaryotes, the degradation of cellular mRNAs is accomplished by Xrn1 and the cytoplasmic exosome. Because viral RNAs often lack canonical caps or poly-A tails, they can also be vulnerable to degradation by these host exonucleases. Yeast lack sophisticated mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, but do use RNA degradation as an antiviral defense mechanism. One model is that the RNA of yeast viruses is subject to degradation simply as a side effect of the intrinsic exonuclease activity of proteins involved in RNA metabolism...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Sergio Crovella, Edione Cristina Dos Reis, Alessandra Pontillo, José Artur Bogo Chies
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immune therapy (IT) against HIV showed variable results. It is known that different factors influence host response to DC-IT. Exosomes derived from DC are regulators of the immune system. In this context, here we hypothesize about the role of the DC-derived exosomes on the DC-IT response. Based on data from RT-PCR array genes expression (focused on the TSG101 gene, an exosome marker) and flow cytometry experiments of a DC-IT against HIV-1 clinical trial, we hypothesize that: During the DC-IT exosomes are used as an additional tool for immune system modulation...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Yuehui Zhang, Fangbing Liu, Yanzhi Yuan, Chaozhi Jin, Cheng Chang, Yunping Zhu, Xiuyuan Zhang, Chunyan Tian, Fuchu He, Jian Wang
Exosomes are secreted small vesicles that mediate various biological processes, such as tumorigenesis and immune response. However, whether the inflammasome signaling leads to the change of constituent of exosomes and its roles in immune response remains to be determined. We isolated the exosomes from macrophages with treatment of mock, endotoxin, or endotoxin/nigericin. A label-free quantification method by MS/MS was used to identify the components of exosomes. In total, 2331 proteins were identified and 513 proteins were exclusively detected in exosomes with endotoxin and nigericin treatment...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
J Diamond, J Chapman, B Ueberheide, S Formenti, S Demaria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sheila López-Cobo, Carmen Campos-Silva, Mar Valés-Gómez
Communication within the immune system depends on the release of factors that can travel and transmit information at points distant from the cell that produced them. In general, immune cells use two key strategies that can occur either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments to produce such factors, vesicle release and proteolytic cleavage. Release of soluble factors in exosomes, a subset of vesicles that originate from intracellular compartments, depends generally on biochemical and lipid environment features...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Botros B Shenoda, Seena K Ajit
Exosome-mediated signaling is important in mediating the inflammatory response. To exert their biological or pathophysiological functions in the recipient cells, exosomes deliver a diverse array of biomacromolecules including long and short coding and non-coding RNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes secreted by antigen-presenting cells can confer therapeutic benefits by attenuating or stimulating the immune response. Exosomes play a crucial role in carrying and presenting functional major histocompatibility peptide complexes to modulate antigen-specific T cell responses...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
Yan Li, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Marwa M Mona, Chikako Satomi, Shinji Okano, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kenzaburo Tani, Atsushi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: FEAT is an intracellular protein that potently drives tumorigenesis in vivo. It is only weakly expressed in normal human tissues, including the testis. In contrast, FEAT is aberrantly upregulated in most human cancers. The present study was designed to investigate whether FEAT is applicable to tumor immunotherapy and whether FEAT is discernible in the bloodstream as a molecular biomarker of human cancers. METHODS: Two mouse FEAT peptides with predicted affinities for major histocompatibility complex H-2Kb and H-2Db were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice before subcutaneous transplantation of isogenic B16-F10 melanoma cells...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ben Ma, Jing-Yue Yang, Wen-Jie Song, Rui Ding, Zhuo-Chao Zhang, Hong-Chen Ji, Xuan Zhang, Jian-Lin Wang, Xi-Sheng Yang, Kai-Shan Tao, Ke-Feng Dou, Xiao Li
Allograft tolerance is the ultimate goal in the field of transplantation immunology. Immature dendritic cells (imDCs) play an important role in establishing tolerance but have limitations, including potential for maturation, short lifespan in vivo and short storage times in vitro. However, exosomes (generally 30-100 nm) from imDCs (imDex) retain many source cell properties and may overcome these limitations. In previous reports, imDex prolonged the survival time of heart or intestine allografts. However, tolerance or long-term survival was not achieved unless immune suppressants were used...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elina Välimäki, Wojciech Cypryk, Juhani Virkanen, Katariina Nurmi, Pauli M Turunen, Kari K Eklund, Karl E Åkerman, Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Extracellular ATP is an endogenous danger signal that is known to activate inflammatory responses in innate immune cells, including macrophages. Activated macrophages start to secrete proteins to induce an immune response, as well as to recruit other immune cells to the site of infection and tissue damage. In this study, we characterized the secretome (i.e., the global pattern of secreted proteins) of ATP-stimulated human macrophages. We show that ATP stimulation activates robust vesicle-mediated unconventional protein secretion, including exosome release and membrane shedding, from human macrophages...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Takahisa Kouwaki, Yoshimi Fukushima, Takuji Daito, Takahiro Sanada, Naoki Yamamoto, Edin J Mifsud, Chean Ring Leong, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Michinori Kohara, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
UNLABELLED: The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN)-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80(+) cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Outi Heikkilä, Elina Ryödi, Veijo Hukkanen
Recently, it has been demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) -infected cells secrete exosomes that deliver to uninfected cells the innate immune sensor, STING, and viral RNAs (1, 2).….
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
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