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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782191/lipid-protein-and-microrna-composition-within-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#1
Hao Deng, Chun Sun, Yingxin Sun, Huhu Li, Lin Yang, Danbin Wu, Qing Gao, Xijuan Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were regarded as one of the most promising type of seed cells in tissue engineering due to its easy accessibility and multipotent feature of being able to differentiate into adipocyte, osteoblast, cardiomyocytes, and neurons. For years, MSCs have been applied in treating cardiovascular disease, reconstructing kidney injury, and remodeling immune system with remarkable achievements. Basic researches revealed that its clinic effects are not only due to their pluripotent ability but also through their paracrine function that they synthesize and secrete a broad spectrum of growth factors and cytokines...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780635/liquid-biopsy-for-lung-cancer-early-detection
#2
REVIEW
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Alessia Liguori, Alessandro D'Aveni, Niki Karachaliou, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Maria Grazia Daffinà, Chiara Lazzari, Giuseppe Altavilla, Rafael Rosell
Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780392/tumor-derived-apoptotic-vesicles-with-death-they-do-part
#3
REVIEW
Morad-Remy Muhsin-Sharafaldine, Alexander D McLellan
Tumor cells release lipid particles known as extracellular vesicles (EV) that contribute to cancer metastasis, to the immune response, and to thrombosis. When tumors are exposed to radiation or chemotherapy, apoptotic vesicles (ApoVs) are released in abundance as the plasma membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton. Recent studies have suggested that ApoVs are distinct from the EVs released from living cells, such as exosomes or microvesicles. Depending on their treatment conditions, tumor-released ApoV have been suggested to either enhance or suppress anti-cancer immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774506/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-the-treatment-of-eye-diseases
#4
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774070/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-viral-and-bacterial-infections-pathogenesis-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Meryl Rodrigues, Jia Fan, Christopher Lyon, Meihua Wan, Ye Hu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), or exosomes, are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen-derived protein, nucleic acid, and lipid cargos. They are secreted by most cell types and play important roles in normal cell-to-cell communications but can also spread pathogen- and host-derived molecules during infections to alter immune responses and pathophysiological processes. New research is beginning to decipher how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we will describe how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis by spreading pathogen-derived factors and how they can promote and inhibit the immune response to these pathogens...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773668/plants-send-small-rnas-in-extracellular-vesicles-to-fungal-pathogen-to-silence-virulence-genes
#6
Qiang Cai, Lulu Qiao, Ming Wang, Baoye He, Feng-Mao Lin, Jared Palmquist, Hsien-Da Huang, Hailing Jin
Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771531/exosomes-as-a-drug-delivery-system-in-cancer-therapy-potential-and-challenges
#7
Golam Kibria, Erika Kathryn Ramos, David R Gius, Yong Wan, Huiping Liu
Exosomes play a pivotal role in mediating intercellular communications and package delivery. They have recently been discovered to serve as diagnostic biomarkers as well as a possible drug delivery vehicle based on their nanometer size range and capability to transfer biological materials to recipient cells. Their unique biocompatibility, high stability, preferred tumor homing, and adjustable targeting efficiency can make exosomes an attractive and potentially effective tool of drug delivery in cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764923/extracellular-vesicles-lipids-as-key-components-of-their-biogenesis-and-functions
#8
Michel Record, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Marc Poirot, Michael J O Wakelam
Intercellular communication has been known for decades to involve either direct contact between cells or to operate by spreading molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, or lipid mediators. Through the last decade we have begun to appreciate the increasing importance of intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles released by viable cells either from plasma membrane shedding microvesicles, also named microparticles), or from an intracellular compartment (exosomes). Exosomes and microvesicles circulate in all biological fluids and can trigger biological responses at distance...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#9
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755693/exosomes-in-melanoma-a-role-in-tumor-progression-metastasis-and-impaired-immune-system-activity
#10
REVIEW
Marco Tucci, Francesco Mannavola, Anna Passarelli, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Mauro Cives, Franco Silvestris
Exosomes (Exo) are small vesicles produced by melanoma cells and the accessory cells of the tumor microenvironment. They emerge via both classical and direct pathways and actively participate in tumor colonisation of distant tissues. The proteins, nucleic acids, cytokines and growth factors engulfed by Exo are transferred to recipient cells, where they drive numerous functions required for the tumor escape from immune system control and tumor progression. By positively or negatively modulating immune cell properties, Exo provoke immune suppression and, in turn, defective dendritic cell (DC) functions...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754177/exosomes-function-in-tumor-immune-microenvironment
#11
Yin Huang, Keli Liu, Qing Li, Yikun Yao, Ying Wang
Immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells are the major cellular components in tumor microenvironment that actively migrate to tumor sites by sensing "signals" released from tumor cells. Together with other stromal cells, they form the soil for malignant cell progression. In the crosstalk between tumor cells and its surrounded microenvironment, exosomes exert multiple functions in shaping tumor immune responses. In tumor cells, their exosomes can lead to pro-tumor immune responses, whereas in immune cells, their derived exosomes can operate on tumor cells and regulate their ability to growth, metastasis, even reaction to chemotherapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740045/exosome-markers-associated-with-immune-activation-and-oxidative-stress-in-hiv-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Sukrutha Chettimada, David R Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Simon T Dillon, R Keith Reeves, Cordelia Manickam, Susan Morgello, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti H Mehta, Dana Gabuzda
Exosomes are nanovesicles released from most cell types including immune cells. Prior studies suggest exosomes play a role in HIV pathogenesis, but little is known about exosome cargo in relation to immune responses and oxidative stress. Here, we characterize plasma exosomes in HIV patients and their relationship to immunological and oxidative stress markers. Plasma exosome fractions were isolated from HIV-positive subjects on ART with suppressed viral load and HIV-negative controls. Exosomes were characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking, immunoblotting, and LC-MS/MS proteomics...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736200/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-alleviate-overwhelming-systemic-inflammatory-reaction-and-organ-damage-and-improve-outcome-in-rat-sepsis-syndrome
#13
Chia-Lo Chang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Pei-Lin Shao, Chih-Chao Yang, Ben-Chung Cheng, Kun-Chen Lin, Chih-Hung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Hon-Kan Yip, Hong-Hwa Chen
This study tested the hypothesis that healthy adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC)-derived exosomes (HMSCEXO ) and apoptotic (A) (induced by 12 h hypoxia/12 h starvation)-ADMSC-derived exosomes (AMSCEXO ) were comparably effective at alleviating sepsis syndrome [SS; induced by cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP)]-induced systemic inflammation and reduced organ damage and unfavorable outcomes in rats. SD rats were divided into sham control (SC), SS only, SS + HMSCEXO (100 µg intravenous administration 3 h after CLP), and AMSCEXO ...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728998/kh-type-splicing-regulatory-protein-is-regulated-by-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-to-mediate-innate-immunity-in-caco-2-cells-infected-by-salmonella-enteritidis
#14
Yuanyang Nie, Mei Cao, Daoyan Wu, Ningzhe Li, Jingshan Peng, Sijun Yi, Xiaofan Yang, Mao Zhang, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao
Salmonella enteritidis infection occurs in enterogenous diseases, such as gastroenteritis and parenteral focal infection, which often involve inflammation of intestinal epithelial cells. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway participates in the innate immune response to many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and initiates inflammation in epithelial cells. KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) is a multi-domain RNA-binding protein that recruits the exosome-containing mRNA degradation complex to mRNAs coding for inflammatory response factors...
May 4, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721985/polarized-exosome-release-from-the-retinal-pigmented-epithelium
#15
Mikael Klingeborn, W Daniel Stamer, Catherine Bowes Rickman
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier and provides nutrients and recycling of visual pigment to the photoreceptors, among many other functions. The RPE is also a key site of pathophysiological changes in age-related macular degeneration, making it an important focus of study in both visual health and disease. Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a range of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key exosome actions include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization, and cellular waste removal...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721824/exosomes-definition-role-in-tumor-development-and-clinical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Alberto Carretero-González, Irene Otero, Lucía Carril-Ajuria, Guillermo de Velasco, Luis Manso
Exosomes are microvesicles released by cells in both physiological and pathological situations. They are surrounded by a lipid bilayer with proteins derived from the origin cell, and contain a variety of molecules, such as nucleic acids. They represent an emerging mechanism of intercellular communication, and they play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, stimulating proliferation and aggressiveness of cancer cells, inducing a microenvironment favorable to tumor development and controlling immune responses...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721369/specific-adam10-inhibitors-localize-in-exosome-like-vesicles-released-by-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-stromal-cells-and-prevent-sheddase-activity-carried-to-bystander-cells
#17
Francesca Tosetti, Roberta Venè, Caterina Camodeca, Elisa Nuti, Armando Rossello, Cristina D'Arrigo, Denise Galante, Nicoletta Ferrari, Alessandro Poggi, Maria Raffaella Zocchi
Shedding of ADAM10 substrates, like TNFα, MICA or CD30, is reported to affect both anti-tumor immune response and antibody-drug-conjugate (ADC)-based immunotherapy. Soluble forms of these molecules and ADAM10 can be carried and spread in the microenvironment by exosomes released by tumor cells. We reported new ADAM10 inhibitors able to prevent MICA shedding in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), leading to recognition of HL cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this paper, we show that the mature bioactive form of ADAM10 is released in exosome-like vesicles (ExoV) by HL cells and lymph node mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720982/the-potential-biomarkers-and-immunological-effects-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-in-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite considerable achievements in lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, the global control of the disease remains problematic. In this respect, greater understanding of the disease pathology is crucially needed for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment to be achieved. Exosomes are nano-sized particles secreted from most cells, which allow cross talk between cells and their surrounding environment via transferring their cargo...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720498/altered-extracellular-vesicle-concentration-cargo-and-function-in-diabetes-mellitus
#19
David W Freeman, Nicole Noren Hooten, Erez Eitan, Jamal Green, Nicolle A Mode, Monica Bodogai, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Alan B Zonderman, Arya Biragyn, Josephine Egan, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson, Ngozi Ejiogu, Michele K Evans
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic age-associated degenerative metabolic disease that reflects relative insulin deficiency and resistance. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) are small (50-400 nM) lipid-bound vesicles capable of shuttling functional proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids as part of intercellular communication systems. Recent studies in mouse models and in cell culture suggest that EVs may modulate insulin signaling. Here, we designed cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts of euglycemic, pre-diabetic and diabetic participants...
May 2, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720199/immunoassays-for-scarce-tumour-antigens-in-exosomes-detection-of-the-human-nkg2d-ligand-mica-in-tetraspanin-containing-nanovesicles-from-melanoma
#20
Sheila López-Cobo, Carmen Campos-Silva, Amanda Moyano, Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez, Annette Paschen, María Yáñez-Mó, María Carmen Blanco-López, Mar Valés-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Tumour-derived exosomes can be released to serum and provide information on the features of the malignancy, however, in order to perform systematic studies in biological samples, faster diagnostic techniques are needed, especially for detection of low abundance proteins. Most human cancer cells are positive for at least one ligand for the activating immune receptor NKG2D and the presence in plasma of NKG2D-ligands can be associated with prognosis. METHODS: Using MICA as example of a tumour-derived antigen, endogenously expressed in metastatic melanoma and recruited to exosomes, we have developed two immunocapture-based assays for detection of different epitopes in nanovesicles...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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