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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139296/differential-content-of-proteins-mrnas-and-mirnas-suggests-that-mdsc-and-their-exosomes-may-mediate-distinct-immune-suppressive-functions
#1
Lucia Geis-Asteggiante, Ashton T Belew, Virginia K Clements, Nathan J Edwards, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg, Nagib M El-Sayed, Catherine Fenselau
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are immature myeloid cells that accumulate in the circulation and the tumor microenvironment of most cancer patients. There, MDSC suppress both adaptive and innate immunity, hindering immunotherapies. The inflammatory milieu often present in cancers facilitates MDSC suppressive activity, causing aggressive tumor progression and metastasis. MDSC from tumor-bearing mice release exosomes, which carry biologically active proteins and mediate some of the immunosuppressive functions characteristic of MDSC...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137278/comprehensive-microrna-sequencing-of-exosomes-derived-from-head-and-neck-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro-reveals-common-secretion-profiles-and-potential-utility-as-salivary-biomarkers
#2
Scott Langevin, Damaris Kuhnell, Tess Parry, Jacek Biesiada, Shouxiong Huang, Trisha Wise-Draper, Keith Casper, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Susan Kasper
Exosomes are nano-scale, membrane encapsulated vesicles that are released by cells into the extracellular space and function as intercellular signaling vectors through horizontal transfer of biologic molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). There is evidence that cancer-derived exosomes enable the tumor to manipulate its microenvironment, thus contributing to the capacity of the tumor for immune evasion, growth, invasion, and metastatic spread. The objective of this study was to characterize differential secretion of exosomal miRNA by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and identify a set of candidate biomarkers that could be detected in non-invasive saliva samples...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#3
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130994/enhancement-of-anti-leukemia-immunity-by-leukemia-derived-exosomes-via-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression
#4
Fang Huang, Jiangbo Wan, Weiwei Hu, Siguo Hao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Minimal residual leukemia cells (MRLs) are difficult to eradicate through traditional treatment and therefore remain to be a major threat to the long-term survival of leukemia patients. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which carry tumor associated antigens (TAA), may be a potential cell-free tumor vaccine for the specific eradication of MRLs. However, TEXs are intended to be less immunogenic due to exosomal TGF-β1. To further optimize the efficacy of TEX-based vaccines, we investigated whether exosomes from TGF-β1 silenced leukemia cells (LEXTGF-β1si) had an increased potential to induce a specific antitumor effect compared with non-modified exosomes...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127037/exosome-function-in-aerodigestive-mucosa
#5
REVIEW
Sarina K Mueller, Angela L Nocera, Benjamin S Bleier
Exosomes are 30-150nm membrane-bound vesicles which are secreted by virtually all cell types. Exosomes have been studied in a wide range of both normal and pathologic human tissues, most notably cancer. The role of exosomes in immune surveillance, non-invasive biomarker sampling, and their potential to act as therapeutic carriers lends particular importance to mucosal barrier derived exosomes. This review focuses specifically on current knowledge regarding exosomes derived from aerodigestive membranes. Specific topics covered include: isolation and characterization techniques, physiological function, protein expression, function as biomarkers of disease, and potential therapeutic uses...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122678/exosomes-and-cardioprotection-a-critical-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Sean M Davidson, Derek M Yellon
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by numerous cell types that appear to have diverse beneficial effects on the injured heart. Studies using exosomes from stem cells or from the blood have indicated that they are able to protect the heart both in models of acute ischaemia and reperfusion, and during chronic ischaemia. In addition to decreasing initial infarct size, they are able to stimulate angiogenesis, reduce fibrosis and remodelling, alter immune cell function and improve long-term cardiac contractile function...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117219/cellular-and-exosome-mediated-molecular-defense-mechanism-in-bovine-granulosa-cells-exposed-to-oxidative-stress
#7
Mohammed Saeed-Zidane, Lea Linden, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Eva Held, Christiane Neuhoff, Ernst Tholen, Michael Hoelker, Karl Schellander, Dawit Tesfaye
Various environmental insults including diseases, heat and oxidative stress could lead to abnormal growth, functions and apoptosis in granulosa cells during ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Despite the fact that cells exposed to oxidative stress are responding transcriptionally, the potential release of transcripts associated with oxidative stress response into extracellular space through exosomes is not yet determined. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells in vitro on the cellular and exosome mediated defense mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116589/extracellular-vesicles-novel-vehicles-in-herpesvirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Lingzhi Liu, Quan Zhou, Yan Xie, Lielian Zuo, Fanxiu Zhu, Jianhong Lu
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens that have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade host immunity, ensuring their proliferation and egress. Among these mechanisms, herpesviruses utilize elaborate extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, for the intricate interplay between infected host and recipient cells. Herpesviruses incorporate genome expression products and direct cellular products into exosomal cargoes. These components alter the content and function of exosomes released from donor cells, thus affecting the downstream signalings of recipient cells...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115853/extracellular-vesicles-new-players-in-lung-immunity
#9
Yu Fujita, Tsukasa Kadota, Jun Araya, Takahiro Ochiya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. Details on the involvement of EVs in the pathogenesis of lung diseases have emerged over the past several years. Moreover, EVs package numerous DNA, proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that can regulate immune responses in recipient cells. Almost all respiratory cells release EVs, and these EVs can have protective or detrimental functions depending on the type of donor cells, type of stimuli, and components...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115712/proteomic-profiling-of-exosomes-secreted-by-breast-cancer-cells-with-varying-metastatic-potential
#10
Lahiru Gangoda, Michael Liem, Ching-Seng Ang, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Christopher G Adda, Belinda S Parker, Suresh Mathivanan
Cancer cells actively release extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, into the surrounding microenvironment. Exosomes play pleiotropic roles in cancer progression and metastasis, including invasion, angiogenesis, and immune modulation. However, the proteome profile of exosomes isolated from cells with different metastatic potential and the role of these exosomes in driving metastasis remains unclear. Here, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from several genetically related mouse breast tumour lines with different metastatic propensity...
November 8, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112686/interferon-regulatory-factor-1-priming-of-tumour-derived-exosomes-enhances-the-antitumour-immune-response
#11
Mu-Qing Yang, Qiang Du, Patrick R Varley, Julie Goswami, Zhihai Liang, Ronghua Wang, Hui Li, Donna B Stolz, David A Geller
BACKGROUND: Tumour-derived exosomes (TEXs) have a potential for application in cancer vaccines. Whether TEXs after induction by interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) are capable of enhancing the antitumour response remains to be determined. METHODS: Exosomes released by tumour cells infected with IRF-1-expressing adenovirus (IRF-1-Exo) or treated with interferon-γ (IFN-Exo) were isolated via ultracentrifugation. The IRF-1 target proteins IL-15Rα and MHC class I (MHC-I) were analysed by western blot...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112174/mirnas-melanoma-and-microenvironment-an-intricate-network
#12
REVIEW
Gabriele Romano, Lawrence N Kwong
miRNAs are central players in cancer biology and they play a pivotal role in mediating the network communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment. In melanoma, miRNAs can impair or facilitate a wide array of processes, and here we will focus on: the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the immune milieu, and metabolism. Multiple miRNAs can affect the EMT process, even at a distance, for example through exosome-mediated mechanisms. miRNAs also strongly act on some components of the immune system, regulating the activity of key elements such as antigen presenting cells, and can facilitate an immune evasive/suppressive phenotype...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105655/pre-metastatic-cancer-exosomes-induce-immune-surveillance-by-patrolling-monocytes-at-the-metastatic-niche
#13
Michael P Plebanek, Nicholas L Angeloni, Elena Vinokour, Jia Li, Anna Henkin, Dalia Martinez-Marin, Stephanie Filleur, Reshma Bhowmick, Jack Henkin, Stephen D Miller, Igal Ifergan, Yesung Lee, Iman Osman, C Shad Thaxton, Olga V Volpert
Metastatic cancers produce exosomes that condition pre-metastatic niches in remote microenvironments to favor metastasis. In contrast, here we show that exosomes from poorly metastatic melanoma cells can potently inhibit metastasis to the lung. These "non-metastatic" exosomes stimulate an innate immune response through the expansion of Ly6C(low) patrolling monocytes (PMo) in the bone marrow, which then cause cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche, via the recruitment of NK cells and TRAIL-dependent killing of melanoma cells by macrophages...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093708/dynamics-of-heat-shock-protein-70-serum-levels-as-a-predictor-of-clinical-response-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-correlation-with-the-hypoxia-related-marker-osteopontin
#14
Christian Ostheimer, Sophie Gunther, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark, Gabriele Multhoff
Hypoxia mediates resistance to radio(chemo)therapy (RT) by stimulating the synthesis of hypoxia-related genes, such as osteopontin (OPN) and stress proteins, including the major stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Apart from its intracellular localization, Hsp70 is also present on the plasma membrane of viable tumor cells that actively release it in lipid vesicles with biophysical characteristics of exosomes. Exosomal Hsp70 contributes to radioresistance while Hsp70 derived from dying tumor cells can serve as a stimulator of immune cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093555/exosomes-derived-from-hiv-1-infected-dcs-mediate-viral-trans-infection-via-fibronectin-and-galectin-3
#15
Rutuja Kulkarni, Anil Prasad
Exosomes are membrane enclosed nano-sized vesicles actively released into the extracellular milieu that can harbor genomic, proteomic and lipid cargos. Functionally, they are shown to regulate cell-cell communication and transmission of pathogens. Though studies have implicated a role for exosomes in HIV-1 pathogenesis, their mechanisms are not well defined. Here, we characterized exosomes derived from uninfected or HIV-1 infected T-cells and DCs. We demonstrate substantial differences in morphological, molecular and biogenesis machinery between exosomes derived from these two immune cell types...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089618/circulating-exosomes-carrying-an-immunosuppressive-cargo-interfere-with-cellular-immunotherapy-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Chang-Sook Hong, Priyanka Sharma, Saigopalakrishna S Yerneni, Patricia Simms, Edwin K Jackson, Theresa L Whiteside, Michael Boyiadzis
Exosomes, small (30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from plasma of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) carry leukemia-associated antigens and multiple inhibitory molecules. Circulating exosomes can deliver suppressive cargos to immune recipient cells, inhibiting anti-tumor activities. Pre-therapy plasma of refractory/relapsed AML patients contains elevated levels of immunosuppressive exosomes which interfere with anti-leukemia functions of activated immune cells. We show that exosomes isolated from pre-therapy plasma of the AML patients receiving adoptive NK-92 cell therapy block anti-leukemia cytotoxicity of NK-92 cells and other NK-92 cell functions...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080983/autoimmune-responses-to-exosomes-and-candidate-antigens-contribute-to-type-1-diabetes-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#17
REVIEW
Yang D Dai, Huiming Sheng, Peter Dias, M Jubayer Rahman, Roman Bashratyan, Danielle Regn, Kristi Marquardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The initial autoimmune trigger of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, islet inflammation starts early in life, suggesting the presence of an endogenous trigger for the spontaneous autoimmune response in this T1D mouse model. In this review, we argue that abnormal release of exosomes might be the trigger of the early inflammatory and autoimmune responses in the islets. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes are nano-sized membrane complexes that are secreted by cells following fusion of late endosomes and/or multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058602/the-crosstalk-between-autophagic-and-endo-exosomal-pathways-in-antigen-processing-for-mhc-presentation-in-anticancer-t-cell-immune-responses
#18
REVIEW
Liangshun You, Liping Mao, Juying Wei, Shenhe Jin, Chunmei Yang, Hui Liu, Li Zhu, Wenbin Qian
T cells recognize antigen fragments from proteolytic products that are presented to them in the form of peptides on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, which is crucial for the T cell to identify infected or transformed cells. Autophagy, a process that delivers cytoplasmic constituents for lysosomal degradation, has been observed to provide a substantial source of intra- and extracellular antigens for MHC presentation to T cells, which will impact the tumor-specific immune response. Meanwhile, extracellular components are transported to cytoplasm for the degradation/secretion process by the endo-/exosomal pathway and are thus involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including immune responses...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054268/saliva-exosomics-in-cancer-molecular-characterization-of-cancer-derived-exosomes-in-saliva
#19
Taichiro Nonaka, David T W Wong
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by most cells and detected in saliva. Pathophysiological roles for salivary exosomes are beginning to be recognized in diseases including cancer, highlighting potential biomarkers and biological functions. Since early detection of cancer is vital for successful treatment, salivary exosomes would be advantageous in achieving a better survival rate due to their ready availability and noninvasiveness. The use of salivary exosomes may therefore be promising in the accurate detection of premalignant lesions and early-stage cancers, also for better our understanding of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053921/integrated-kidney-exosome-analysis-for-the-detection-of-kidney-transplant-rejection
#20
Jongmin Park, Hsing-Ying Lin, Jean Pierre Assaker, Sangmoo Jeong, Chen-Han Huang, Ahmed Kurdi, Kyungheon Lee, Kyle Fraser, Changwook Min, Siawosh Eskandari, Sujit Routray, Bakhos Tannous, Reza Abdi, Leonardo Riella, Anil Chandraker, Cesar M Castro, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee, Jamil R Azzi
Kidney transplant patients require life-long surveillance to detect allograft rejection. Repeated biopsy, albeit the clinical gold standard, is an invasive procedure with the risk of complications and comparatively high cost. Conversely, serum creatinine or urinary proteins are noninvasive alternatives but are late markers with low specificity. We report a urine-based platform to detect kidney transplant rejection. Termed iKEA (integrated kidney exosome analysis), the approach detects extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells into urine; we reasoned that T cells, attacking kidney allografts, would shed EVs, which in turn can be used as a surrogate marker for inflammation...
October 25, 2017: ACS Nano
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