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Immune exosome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#2
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321122/the-emerging-roles-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-in-hematological-malignancies
#3
REVIEW
M Boyiadzis, T L Whiteside
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) membranous vesicles of endocytic origin produced by all cells under physiological and pathological conditions. They have recently emerged as vehicles for intercellular transfer of molecular and genetic contents from parent to recipient cells. Exosome-mediated transfer of proteins or genes (RNA, miRNA, DNA) results in reprogramming of recipient cell functions. Exosomes carry and deliver information that is essential for health, and they participate in pathological events, including malignant transformation...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295832/polyomavirus-micrornas-circulating-in-biological-fluids-during-viral-persistence
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Martelli, Simone Giannecchini
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-mediated gene silencing, detected during exosome intercellular communication between cells, may be exploited by persistent human viruses. Recently, it has been reported that human polyomaviruses encode microRNAs that downregulate large T expression and target host factors, helping the virus to escape immune elimination. Consequently, viral microRNAs and their genetic variability may have roles in the induction of polyomavirus reactivation, the success of persistence or replication and the development of diseases...
March 10, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290538/tlr-exosomes-exhibit-distinct-kinetics-and-effector-function
#5
Swetha Srinivasan, Michelle Su, Shashidhar Ravishankar, James Moore, PamelaSara Head, J Brandon Dixon, Fredrik Vannberg
The innate immune system is vital to rapidly responding to pathogens and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of this response. Nanovesicular exosomes play a role in immunity, but to date their exact contribution to the dissemination of the TLR response is unknown. Here we show that exosomes from TLR stimulated cells can largely recapitulate TLR activation in distal cells in vitro. We can abrogate the action-at-a-distance signaling of exosomes by UV irradiation, demonstrating that RNA is crucial for their effector function...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283754/leishmania-donovani-chaperonin-10-regulates-parasite-internalization-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-macrophages
#6
Lucie Colineau, Joachim Clos, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Neil E Reiner
Protozoa of the genus Leishmania infect macrophages in their mammalian hosts causing a spectrum of diseases known as the leishmaniases. The search for leishmania effectors that support macrophage infection is a focus of significant interest. One such candidate is leishmania chaperonin 10 (CPN10) which is secreted in exosomes and may have immunosuppressive properties. Here, we report for the first time that leishmania CPN10 localizes to the cytosol of infected macrophages. Next, we generated two genetically modified strains of Leishmania donovani (Ld): one strain overexpressing CPN10 (CPN10+++) and the second, a CPN10 single allele knockdown (CPN10+/-), as the null mutant was lethal...
March 11, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283433/pharmacokinetics-of-exosomes-an-important-factor-for-elucidating-the-biological-roles-of-exosomes-and-for-the-development-of-exosome-based-therapeutics
#7
Masaki Morishita, Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles containing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Recently, researchers have uncovered that exosomes are involved in various biological events, such as tumor growth, metastasis, and the immune response, by delivering their cargos to exosome-receiving cells. Moreover, exosomes are expected to be employed in therapeutic treatments, such as tissue regeneration therapy and antitumor immunotherapy, since exosomes are effective delivery vehicles for proteins, nucleic acids, and other bioactive compounds...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275626/exosomes-your-body-s-answer-to-immune-health
#8
EDITORIAL
Beverlie Baquir, Robert E W Hancock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274991/macrophage-derived-apoptotic-bodies-promote-the-proliferation-of-the-recipient-cells-via-shuttling-microrna-221-222
#9
Ziwen Zhu, Duo Zhang, Heedoo Lee, Aravind Ajakumar Menon, Jingxuan Wu, Kebin Hu, Yang Jin
Bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious clinical entity. Alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense in the innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. Epithelial cells are known to release chemokines/cytokines that recruit and activate phagocytic cells. However, the signals sent from alveolar macrophages back to the lung epithelial cells remain largely unexplored. We found that LPS, a well-recognized stimulator derived from gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, rapidly and robustly induces the secretion of macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273783/multiple-sclerosis-serum-derived-exosomes-express-myelin-proteins
#10
Grazyna Galazka, Marcin P Mycko, Igor Selmaj, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof W Selmaj
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that provide cell-to-cell communication and are involved in immunoregulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum exosomes for the presence of myelin proteins outside the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from 45 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 30 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 45 healthy controls...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262829/exosomes-function-in-antigen-presentation-during-an-in-vivo-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Victoria L Smith, Yong Cheng, Barry R Bryant, Jeffrey S Schorey
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages and dendritic cells are limited in their ability to present antigen to CD4+ T cells suggesting that other mechanism of antigen presentation are driving the robust T cell response observed during an M. tuberculosis infection. These mechanisms could include antigens present in apoptotic bodies, necrotic debris, exosomes or even release of non-vesicular antigen from infected cells. However, there is limited data to support any of these mechanisms as important in driving T cell activation in vivo...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259929/expression-profiles-and-circulation-dynamics-of-rat-mesenteric-lymph-micrornas
#12
Wakako Sakamoto, Tomohiko Masuno, Hiroyuki Yokota, Toshihiro Takizawa
Mesenteric lymph is vital for immune cell trafficking and intestinal fluid and chyle transport, which aid homeostatic maintenance. There have been few reports investigating the profiles and circulatory dynamics of mesenteric lymph microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in normal rodent mesenteric lymph. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)‑based array analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of 375 miRNAs in normal rat mesenteric lymph...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259747/exosome-based-immunomodulation-during-aging-a-nano-perspective-on-inflamm-aging
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Prattichizzo, Luigina Micolucci, Monica Cricca, Sabrina De Carolis, Emanuela Mensà, Antonio Ceriello, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
Exosomes are nanovesicles formed by inward budding of endosomal membranes. They exert complex immunomodulatory effects on target cells, acting both as antigen-presenting vesicles and as shuttles for packets of information like proteins, coding and non-coding RNA, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA fragments. Albeit different, all such functions seem to be encompassed in the adaptive mechanism mediating the complex interactions of the organism with a variety of stressors, providing both for defense and for the evolution of symbiotic relationships with others organisms (gut microbiota, bacteria, and viruses)...
March 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258691/viewing-siglecs-through-the-lens-of-tumor-immunology
#14
REVIEW
Isabella Fraschilla, Shiv Pillai
Many Siglecs function as inhibitory receptors on innate and adaptive immune cells and may contribute to the attenuation of immune responses to tumors. Siglec 9 on neutrophils and Siglec 7 on NK cells are prominent examples of inhibitory Siglecs that can potentially dampen anti-tumor immunity. CD169 is a Siglec that may function as an adhesion molecule and a facilitator of the recognition and internalization of sialic acid decorated apoptotic bodies and exosomes derived from tumors. It can potentially contribute to both the attenuation as well as the facilitation of anti-tumor immunity...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258195/systematic-analysis-of-cell-type-differences-in-the-epithelial-secretome-reveals-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Yingxin Zhao, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Yueqing Zhang, Hong Sun, Teodora Ivanciuc, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
Lower respiratory tract infections from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are due, in part, to secreted signals from lower airway cells that modify the immune response and trigger airway remodeling. To understand this process, we applied an unbiased quantitative proteomics analysis of the RSV-induced epithelial secretory response in cells representative of the trachea versus small airway bronchiolar cells. A workflow was established using telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells that revealed highly reproducible cell type-specific differences in secreted proteins and nanoparticles (exosomes)...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247946/the-emerging-role-of-exosome-and-microvesicle-emv-based-cancer-therapeutics-and-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Colin Moore, Uchini Kosgodage, Sigrun Lange, Jameel M Inal
There is an urgent need to develop new combination therapies beyond existing surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, perhaps initially combining chemotherapy with the targeting specificities of immunotherapy. For this, strategies to limit inflammation and immuno-suppression and evasion in the tumour microenvironment are also needed. To devise effective new immunotherapies we must first understand tumour immunology, including the roles of T cells, macrophages, myeloid suppressor cells and of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) in promoting angiogenesis, tumour growth, drug resistance and metastasis...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236854/transfer-of-malignant-traits-as-opposed-to-migration-of-cells-a-novel-concept-to-explain-metastatic-disease
#17
Goffredo Orazio Arena, Vincenzo Arena, Manuel Arena, Mohamed Abdouh
Metastatic disease is believed to develop following dissemination of cells to target organs. Inability of this theory to effectively explain certain phenomena such as patterns of metastatic spread, late metastasis formation, different gene patterns between primary cancer and metastasis have brought forward the need for alternative models. Recent discoveries have strengthened the validity of theories supporting a humoral transfer of malignant traits as opposed to migration of malignant cells to explain metastatic disease in cancer patients...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#18
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224705/the-role-of-exosomes-in-hepatitis-liver-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Jiliang Shen, Chiung-Kuei Huang, Hong Yu, Bo Shen, Yaping Zhang, Yuelong Liang, Zheyong Li, Xu Feng, Jie Zhao, Lian Duan, Xiujun Cai
Exosomes are small vesicles that were initially thought to be a mechanism for discarding unneeded membrane proteins from reticulocytes. Their mediation of intercellular communication appears to be associated with several biological functions. Current studies have shown that most mammalian cells undergo the process of exosome formation and utilize exosome-mediated cell communication. Exosomes contain various microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins. They have been reported to mediate multiple functions, such as antigen presentation, immune escape and tumour progression...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213497/mitochondrial-damage-elicits-a-tcdd-inducible-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-mediated-antiviral-response
#20
Tatsuya Kozaki, Jun Komano, Daiki Kanbayashi, Michihiro Takahama, Takuma Misawa, Takashi Satoh, Osamu Takeuchi, Taro Kawai, Shigeomi Shimizu, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Shizuo Akira, Tatsuya Saitoh
The innate immune system senses RNA viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and protects the host from virus infection. PRRs mediate the production of immune modulatory factors and direct the elimination of RNA viruses. Here, we show a unique PRR that mediates antiviral response. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (TIPARP), a Cysteine3 Histidine (CCCH)-type zinc finger-containing protein, binds to Sindbis virus (SINV) RNA via its zinc finger domain and recruits an exosome to induce viral RNA degradation...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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