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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339454/chromatin-remodeling-in-mammalian-embryos
#1
Birgit Cabot, Ryan Cabot
The mammalian embryo undergoes a dramatic amount of epigenetic remodeling during the first week of development. In this review, we discuss several epigenetic changes that happen over the course of cleavage development, focusing on covalent marks (e.g., histone methylation and acetylation) and non-covalent remodeling (chromatin remodeling via remodeling complexes ; e.g., SWI/SNF-mediated chromatin remodeling). Comparisons are also drawn between remodeling events that occur in embryos from a variety of mammalian species...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334836/snf5-deficiency-induces-apoptosis-resistance-by-repressing-satb1-expression-in-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome
#2
Yang Li, Jin Wang, Minghang Yu, Yang Wang, Huilai Zhang, Jie Yin, Zexing Li, Ting Li, Han Yan, Fajin Li, Xi Wang
SNF5, is a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. It's deficiency leads to multiple types of aggressive cancer. Sézary syndrome, a leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is characterized by its resistance to apoptosis. Although the cause of apoptosis resistance is still poorly understood, recent evidence has revealed the importance of SATB1 in the apoptosis resistance of Sézary syndrome. In this study, we show that SNF5 is an upstream regulator of SATB1 in several conditions and that both are deficient in Sézary cells...
January 16, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324430/a-prospective-multicenter-study-to-compare-a-disposable-high-fluid-capacity-underpad-to-nonpermeable-disposable-reusable-containment-products-on-incontinence-associated-dermatitis-rates-among-skilled-nursing-facility-residents
#3
Glenda Motta, Catherine T Milne
Due to the high prevalence of incontinence among skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents, incontinence-associated derma- titis (IAD) is a common occurrence. In addition, facility staff may mistakenly identify IAD as a pressure injury. A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted in 3 Connecticut facilities to evaluate the effect of substituting a disposable, high- uid capacity underpad for nonpermeable disposable and reusable containment products on the rate of IADs. Residents with and without IAD but with high IAD risk scores who were bed- or chairbound or ambulatory and used disposable nonpermeable briefs and underpads or reusable, laundered containment products when in bed longer than 2 hours were randomly enrolled and observed for a 4-week period...
December 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323272/dominant-negative-smarca4-mutants-alter-the-accessibility-landscape-of-tissue-unrestricted-enhancers
#4
H Courtney Hodges, Benjamin Z Stanton, Katerina Cermakova, Chiung-Ying Chang, Erik L Miller, Jacob G Kirkland, Wai Lim Ku, Vaclav Veverka, Keji Zhao, Gerald R Crabtree
Mutation of SMARCA4 (BRG1), the ATPase of BAF (mSWI/SNF) and PBAF complexes, contributes to a range of malignancies and neurologic disorders. Unfortunately, the effects of SMARCA4 missense mutations have remained uncertain. Here we show that SMARCA4 cancer missense mutations target conserved ATPase surfaces and disrupt the mechanochemical cycle of remodeling. We find that heterozygous expression of mutants alters the open chromatin landscape at thousands of sites across the genome. Loss of DNA accessibility does not directly overlap with Polycomb accumulation, but is enriched in 'A compartments' at active enhancers, which lose H3K27ac but not H3K4me1...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318081/-hidden-preoperative-blood-loss-with-extracapsular-versus-intracapsular-hip-fractures-what-is-the-difference
#5
Katharine D Harper, Paul Navo, Frederick Ramsey, Sainabou Jallow, Saqib Rehman
Purpose: Excessive blood loss with hip fracture management has been shown to result in increased rates of complications. Our goal is to compare blood loss and transfusion rates between patients with intracapsular and extracapsular (both intertrochanteric (IT) and subtrochanteric (ST)) hip fractures. Methods: 472 patients were evaluated over a five-year period. Those who presented to the hospital with a proximal femur fracture (femoral neck, IT or ST) were considered for the study...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318080/race-and-rehabilitation-destination-after-elective-total-hip-arthroplasty-analysis-of-a-large-regional-data-set
#6
Ernest R Vina, Michael J Kallan, Aliya Collier, Charles L Nelson, Said A Ibrahim
Background: Three-quarters of patients who undergo total hip replacement (THR) receive postsurgical rehabilitation care in an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), a skilled nursing facility (SNF), or through a home health agency. The objectives of this study are to examine racial differences where THR recipients receive postsurgical rehabilitation care and determine whether discharge destination is associated with hospital readmission. Methods: Using the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council database, we selected African American (AA) or white adults who underwent THR surgery (n = 68,016)...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316600/impact-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-on-90-day-episode-costs-and-post-acute-care-utilization-in-total-knee-replacement-patients-with-disuse-atrophy
#7
Sarmistha Pal, Morad Chughtai, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Nicole E George, Jennifer I Etcheson, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jared M Newman, Linsen T Samuel, Anil Bhave, Joan E DaVanzo, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated differences in: 1) total episode payments, 2) probability of hospital readmission, 3) probability of inpatient rehab facility (IRF) and utilization, and 4) probability of skilled nursing care facility (SNF) utilization in patients who had disuse atrophy and underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and either did, or did not, receive preoperative home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Medicare limited dataset for a 5% sample of beneficiaries from 2014 and 2015 to construct episodes-of-care for TKA (DRG-470) patients with disuse atrophy who underwent a TKA during the 30 days prior to hospital admission and 90 days post-discharge...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309303/swi-snf-chromatin-remodeling-complex-status-in-smarcb1-ini1-preserved-epithelioid-sarcoma
#8
Kenichi Kohashi, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Yuichi Yamada, Izumi Kinoshita, Tomoaki Taguchi, Yukihide Iwamoto, Yoshinao Oda
The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, which is composed of evolutionarily conserved core subunits such as SMARCB1/INI1 (INI1), SMARCA4/BRG1 (BRG1), SMARCC1/BAF155 (BAF155), and SMARCC2/BAF170 (BAF170), can be viewed as the prototype of an epigenetic regulator of gene expression that is involved in tumor suppression. Epithelioid sarcoma, which classified as a tumor of uncertain differentiation, shows an almost complete loss of INI1. However, some cases of epithelioid sarcoma have preserved INI1, and the clinicopathologic features of these cases are uncertain...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309288/improving-resident-oral-health-and-adherence-to-a-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-bundle-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility
#9
Patricia Finch Guthrie, Shelley Rayborn, John Boatright, Valinda Pearson, Rosemary Wieting, Randy Peterson, Molly Danahy
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common with mechanical ventilation. VAP bundles have improved outcomes in acute care and long-term acute care hospitals. This article reports on an implementation of a VAP bundle designed for a skilled nursing facility (SNF). The primary goal was to improve oral health, a significant factor for VAP, and improve SNF nurse adherence to the bundle. Improvements in oral health and adherence were demonstrated. Nurses had difficulty with adhering to maintaining the tracheostomy cuff seal...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309215/medicare-advantage-enrollees-more-likely-to-enter-lower-quality-nursing-homes-compared-to-fee-for-service-enrollees
#10
David J Meyers, Vincent Mor, Momotazur Rahman
Unlike fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, most Medicare Advantage (MA) plans have a preferred network of care providers that serve most of a plan's enrollees. Little is known about how the quality of care MA enrollees receive differs from that of FFS Medicare enrollees. This article evaluates the differences in the quality of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that Medicare Advantage and FFS beneficiaries entered in the period 2012-14. After we controlled for patients' clinical, demographic, and residential neighborhood effects, we found that FFS Medicare patients have substantially higher probabilities of entering higher-quality SNFs (those rated four or five stars by Nursing Home Compare) and those with lower readmission rates, compared to MA enrollees...
January 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307627/dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-composed-predominantly-of-rhabdoid-epithelioid-cells-a-frequently-misdiagnosed-highly-aggressive-variant
#11
Abbas Agaimy, Michael Michal, Ladislav Hadravsky, Michal Michal
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is one of the most common sarcoma types in adults with a predilection for the retroperitoneum. We have recently encountered 6 cases of DDL composed predominantly of rounded, rhabdoid or epithelioid cells mimicking rhabdoid melanoma, epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma or undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were 5 males and one female aged 64 to 81 years (median, 68). Tumors originated in the retroperitoneum (n=5; 3 in the psoas muscle) and deep soft tissue of the thigh (n=1). All 3 patients with follow-up died of metastatic disease within 4 to 8 months...
January 4, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307258/choosing-the-best-and-scrambling-for-the-rest-hospital-nursing-home-relationships-and-admissions-to-post-acute-care
#12
Renée Shield, Ulrika Winblad, John McHugh, Emily Gadbois, Denise Tyler
OBJECTIVE: We explored post-Affordable Care Act hospital and skilled nursing facility (SNF) perspectives in discharge and admission practices. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 138 administrative personnel in 16 hospitals and 25 SNFs in eight U.S. markets and qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Hospitals may use prior referral rates and patients' geographic proximity to SNFs to guide discharges. SNFs with higher hospital referral rates often use licensed nurses to screen patients to admit more preferred patients...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301960/genomic-correlates-of-response-to-immune-checkpoint-therapies-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
Diana Miao, Claire A Margolis, Wenhua Gao, Martin H Voss, Wei Li, Dylan J Martini, Craig Norton, Dominick Bossé, Stephanie M Wankowicz, Dana Cullen, Christine Horak, Megan Wind-Rotolo, Adam Tracy, Marios Giannakis, Frank Stephen Hodi, Charles G Drake, Mark W Ball, Mohamad E Allaf, Alexandra Snyder, Matthew D Hellmann, Thai Ho, Robert J Motzer, Sabina Signoretti, William G Kaelin, Toni K Choueiri, Eliezer M Van Allen
Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1) improve survival in a subset of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). To identify genomic alterations in ccRCC that correlate with response to anti-PD-1 monotherapy, we performed whole exome sequencing of metastatic ccRCC from 35 patients. We found that clinical benefit was associated with loss-of-function mutations in the PBRM1 gene (p=0.012), which encodes a subunit of a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (the PBAF subtype)...
January 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301958/a-major-chromatin-regulator-determines-resistance-of-tumor-cells-to-t-cell-mediated-killing
#14
Deng Pan, Aya Kobayashi, Peng Jiang, Lucas Ferrari de Andrade, Rong En Tay, Adrienne Luoma, Daphne Tsoucas, Xintao Qiu, Klothilda Lim, Prakash Rao, Henry W Long, Guo-Cheng Yuan, John Doench, Myles Brown, Shirley Liu, Kai W Wucherpfennig
Many human cancers are resistant to immunotherapy for reasons that are poorly understood. We used a genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 screen to identify mechanisms of tumor cell resistance to killing by cytotoxic T cells, the central effectors of anti-tumor immunity. Inactivation of >100 genes sensitized mouse B16F10 melanoma cells to killing by T cells, including Pbrm1, Arid2 and Brd7, which encode components of the PBAF form of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Loss of PBAF function increased tumor cell sensitivity to interferon-γ, resulting in enhanced secretion of chemokines that recruit effector T cells...
January 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299352/a-semi-automated-assessment-of-sarcopenia-using-psoas-area-and-density-predicts-outcomes-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-for-pancreatic-malignancy
#15
Jukes P Namm, Kiran H Thakrar, Chi-Hsiung Wang, Susan J Stocker, Malini D Sur, Jonathan Berlin, William Dale, Mark S Talamonti, Kevin K Roggin
Background: Sarcopenia has been associated with increased adverse outcomes after major abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined as decreased muscle volume or increased fatty infiltration may be a proxy for frailty. In conjunction with other preoperative clinical risk factors, radiographic measures of sarcopenia using both muscle size and density may enhance prediction of outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for malignancy. Methods: Preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of patients undergoing PD for malignancy were analyzed from a prospective pancreatic surgery database...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298176/untapped-potential-using-the-hrs-medicare-linked-files-to-study-the-changing-nursing-home-population
#16
Julie C Lima, Jessica Ogarek, Vincent Mor
BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) care in the United States now includes many short-term admissions to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for postacute care. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the potential of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to administrative data to study this group. RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective panel study. SUBJECTS: HRS respondents between 2002 and 2010 linked to administrative data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)...
January 2, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297379/constructing-an-integrated-gene-similarity-network-for-the-identification-of-disease-genes
#17
Zhen Tian, Maozu Guo, Chunyu Wang, LinLin Xing, Lei Wang, Yin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Discovering novel genes that are involved human diseases is a challenging task in biomedical research. In recent years, several computational approaches have been proposed to prioritize candidate disease genes. Most of these methods are mainly based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, since these PPI networks contain false positives and only cover less half of known human genes, their reliability and coverage are very low. Therefore, it is highly necessary to fuse multiple genomic data to construct a credible gene similarity network and then infer disease genes on the whole genomic scale...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297020/what-exactly-is-an-snf-ist-reply
#18
Joan M Teno, Amal N Trivedi, Pedro Gozalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297015/what-exactly-is-an-snf-ist
#19
Suzanne M Gillespie, Cari R Levy, Paul R Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290588/arabidopsis-argonaute-1-binds-chromatin-to-promote-gene-transcription-in-response-to-hormones-and-stresses
#20
Chang Liu, Ying Xin, Le Xu, Zhaokui Cai, Yuanchao Xue, Yong Liu, Daoxin Xie, Yule Liu, Yijun Qi
Conventional RNA interference (RNAi) pathways suppress eukaryotic gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. At the core of RNAi are small RNAs (sRNAs) and effector Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Arabidopsis AGO1 is known to bind microRNAs (miRNAs) and post-transcriptionally repress target genes in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that AGO1 also binds to the chromatin of active genes and promotes their transcription. We show that sRNAs and SWI/SNF complexes associate with nuclear AGO1 and are required for AGO1 binding to chromatin...
December 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
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