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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925070/osmoregulation-in-polycystic-kidney-disease-relationship-with-cystogenesis-and-hypertension
#1
Conor F Underwood, Jacqueline K Phillips, Cara M Hildreth
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a group of monogenetic conditions characterised by the progressive accumulation of multiple renal cysts and hypertension. One of the earliest features of PKD is a reduction in urinary concentrating capacity that impairs extracellular fluid conservation. Urinary concentrating impairment predisposes PKD patients to periods of hypohydration when fluid loss is not adequately compensated by fluid intake. The hypohydrated state provides a blood hyperosmotic stimulus for vasopressin release to minimise further water loss...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923295/dapagliflozin-a-sglt2-inhibitor-slows-the-progression-of-renal-complications-through-the-suppression-of-renal-inflammation-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#2
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of dapagliflozin on the renal complications associated with metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. In this study, to work towards a resolution of these issues, we evaluated the renoprotective roles of dapagliflozin in pre-diabetic rats. METHODS: DIO was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HF) to male Wistar rats for 16 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923133/what-raises-troponins-in-the-paediatric-population
#3
Debbra Chong, Yan Ting Chua, Shu-Ling Chong, Gene Yong-Kwang Ong
Troponin I is a cardiac enzyme that is released during myocardial injury. However, cardiac enzymes are non-specific and can occur in many cardiac and non-cardiac pathologies. We aim to (1) describe the range of acute conditions that were associated with raised troponins in the paediatric population in our institution and (2) quantify the extent of troponin elevation and correlate it with the underlying aetiology. We performed a retrospective observational study in a tertiary institution which included patients from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923010/comparative-study-of-the-severity-of-renal-damage-in-newborn-and-adult-rats-under-conditions-of-ischemia-reperfusion-and-endotoxin-administration
#4
I B Pevzner, T A Pavlenko, V A Popkov, N V Andrianova, L D Zorova, A A Brezgunova, S D Zorov, S S Yankauskas, D N Silachev, D B Zorov, E Yu Plotnikov
Oxidative kidney injury was compared in newborn and adult rats under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion and in experimental model of systemic inflammation induced by endotoxin (LPS of bacterial cell wall) administration. Oxidative stress in the kidney accompanied both experimental models, but despite similar oxidative tissue damage, kidney dysfunction in neonates was less pronounced than in adult animals. It was found that neonatal kidney has a more potent regenerative potential with higher level of cell proliferation than adult kidney, where the level proliferating cell antigen (PCNA) increased only on day 2 after ischemia/reperfusion...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921773/renal-impairment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Hiroteru Kamimura, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Takeshi Yokoo, Akira Sakamaki, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of proteins. Liver dysfunction affects many organs because it communicates with the spleen and all digestive organs through the portal vein. Additionally, the kidney is an organ that is closely related to the liver and is involved in liver diseases. Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting HBV polymerase, thus decreasing the levels of serum HBV-DNA and delaying the progression of cirrhosis...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920978/effects-of-intrinsic-factors-on-the-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-vortioxetine
#6
Grace Chen, George G Nomikos, John Affinito, William Jacobson, Zhen Zhao, Shining Wang, Jinhui Xie
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant agent with multimodal activity that is approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder at doses of 5 to 20 mg once daily. Vortioxetine is a medium-clearance drug that undergoes extensive metabolism via several cytochrome P450 isozymes. A series of single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic studies were performed to evaluate the impact of intrinsic (ie, subject-related) factors, such as age, sex, race, and renal and hepatic function, on the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917205/efficacy-and-safety-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-renal-impairment-a-meta-analysis
#7
Y Chen, K Men, X-F Li, J Li, M Liu, Z-Q Fan
OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, the effects and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM patients with renal impairment (RI) remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM patients with moderate to severe RI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science database were searched for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared DPP-4 inhibitors with placebo or a control regimen...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917152/glomerular-filtration-rate-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-undergoing-stem-cell-transplantation-and-treated-with-cyclophosphamide
#8
Alejandro Ruiz-Argüelles, Jose M Gastélum-Cano, Mariana A Méndez-Huerta, Alma B Rodríguez-Gallegos, Guillermo J Ruiz-Argüelles
Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is partially impaired in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). When given chemotherapy before receiving hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, GFR might be further deteriorated. Objective: To measure the effect of cyclophosphamide on GFR in patients with MS who undergo chemotherapy. Methods: We estimated GFR based on creatinine and cystatin C plasma concentrations in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation to treat their MS...
June 15, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917004/is-female-sex-an-independent-risk-factor-for-early-mortality-in-isolated-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#9
Andrea Garatti, Alessandro Parolari, Alberto Canziani, Eugenio Mossuto, Andrea Daprati, Ali Abu Farah, Daniele Brugnetti, Marco Ranucci, Lorenzo Menicanti
AIMS: Despite several studies reporting a higher mortality rate for women undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, this issue has not been completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to determine if sex differences in CABG surgery affect adjusted operative results and operative mortality. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2012, 3756 consecutive patients (3009 men and 747 women) underwent isolated CABG at our institution...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916124/ocular-changes-in-nephropathic-cystinosis-the-course-of-the-gold-dust
#10
Elias Flockerzi, Loay Daas, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Annette Zimpfer, Rainer Bohle, Berthold Seitz
PURPOSE: Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive inherited lysosomal storage disease with an incidence of 1:100.000 up to 1:200.000 caused by a gene mutation of a lysosomal transport protein resulting in deposition of cystine in lysosomes in all cells and tissues. In the cornea, crystalline, gold-dust deposition of cystine leads to visual impairment, recurrent erosions, photophobia, epiphora and blepharospasmus. Standard therapy is topical and systemic application of cysteamine which may resolve the accumulated cystine crystals...
June 18, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915707/increased-chronic-kidney-disease-development-and-progression-in-diabetic-patients-after-appendectomy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Chin-Hua Chang, Chew-Teng Kor, Chia-Lin Wu, Ping-Fang Chiu, Jhao-Rong Li, Chun-Chieh Tsai, Teng-Hsiang Chang, Chia-Chu Chang
Background: The vermiform appendix serves as a "safe house" for maintaining normal gut bacteria and appendectomy may impair the intestinal microbiota. Appendectomy is expected to profoundly alter the immune system and modulate the pathogenic inflammatory immune responses of the gut. Recent studies have shown that a dysbiotic gut increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we hypothesized that appendectomy would increase the risk of CKD...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915083/early-loss-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-and-rewiring-of-glutathione-metabolism-in-renal-oncocytoma
#12
Raj K Gopal, Sarah E Calvo, Angela R Shih, Frances L Chaves, Declan McGuone, Eran Mick, Kerry A Pierce, Yang Li, Andrea Garofalo, Eliezer M Van Allen, Clary B Clish, Esther Oliva, Vamsi K Mootha
Renal oncocytomas are benign tumors characterized by a marked accumulation of mitochondria. We report a combined exome, transcriptome, and metabolome analysis of these tumors. Joint analysis of the nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes reveals loss-of-function mtDNA mutations occurring at high variant allele fractions, consistent with positive selection, in genes encoding complex I as the most frequent genetic events. A subset of these tumors also exhibits chromosome 1 loss and/or cyclin D1 overexpression, suggesting they follow complex I loss...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914938/amino-acid-and-lipid-associated-plasma-metabolomic-patterns-are-related-to-healthspan-indicators-with-aging-in-humans
#13
Lawrence C Johnson, Christopher R Martens, Jessica R Santos-Parker, Candace J Bassett, Talia R Strahler, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Nichole Reisdorph, Matthew B McQueen, Douglas R Seals
Advancing age is associated with impairments in numerous physiological systems, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and disability, and reduced healthspan (the period of high functioning healthy life). The plasma metabolome is thought to reflect changes in the activity of physiological systems that influence healthspan. Accordingly, we utilized an LC-MS metabolomics analysis of plasma collected from healthy young and older individuals to characterize global changes in small molecule abundances with age...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913183/predictive-metabolic-signatures-of-end-stage-renal-disease-a-multivariate-analysis-of-population-based-data
#14
Robson E Silva, João L Baldim, Daniela A Chagas-Paula, Marisi G Soares, João H G Lago, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Rômulo D Novaes
The variability of molecular signatures and predictive low molecular weight markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different populations are poorly understood. Thus, in a large sample with 4763 people we compare the molecular signatures and metabolites with diagnostic relevance in plasma and urine of CKD patients of different geographical origins. From an integrated model based on dynamic networks and multivariate statistics, metabolites with predictive value obtained from targeted and untargeted molecular analysis, interactions between metabolic pathways affected by CKD, and the methodological quality of metabolomic studies were analyzed...
June 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910688/recalling-cohnheim-s-theory-papillary-renal-cell-tumor-as-a-model-of-tumorigenesis-from-impaired-embryonal-differentiation-to-malignant-tumors-in-adults
#15
Daniel Banyai, Donat P Sarlos, Anetta Nagy, Gyula Kovacs
We have suggested that papillary renal cell tumor (PRCT) of the kidney arises from nephrogenic rest-like lesions. To approve our hypothesis, we worked up 14 kidneys bearing papillary and 14 ones with conventional renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) histologically and found 42 papillary lesions in average per kidney bearing PRCT. PRCTs are characterized by loss of the Y chromosome and trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17. The MET and HNF1B are localized to chromosome 7q31 and 17q21 and are frequently amplified in PRCT. We have analyzed the expression of the mutant MET in hereditary PRCTs and precursor lesions and found duplication and expression of the mutated allele...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910611/long-term-safety-of-tiotropium-olodaterol-respimat-%C3%A2-in-patients-with-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-and-renal-impairment-in-the-tonado-%C3%A2-studies
#16
Craig LaForce, Eric Derom, Ulrich Bothner, Isabel M Kloer, Matthias Trampisch, Roland Buhl
Introduction: The safety, lung function efficacy, and symptomatic benefits of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD were established in the 1-year TONADO® studies (NCT01431274; NCT01431287). As tiotropium is predominantly excreted by the kidneys, the long-term safety profile of tiotropium/olodaterol was investigated in patients with renal impairment in a prespecified safety analysis of the TONADO studies. Methods: These were 2 replicate, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week Phase III studies that assessed tiotropium/olodaterol compared with tiotropium or olodaterol alone (all via Respimat® ) in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910579/bedside-ultrasonography-screening-for-congenital-renal-anomalies-in-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases-undergoing-cardiac-repair
#17
Hussam K Hamadah, Omar Hijazi, Mohammad A Faraji, Mohamed S Kabbani
Introduction: Ultrasound (US) assessment of renal anomalies in children requiring pediatric cardiac surgery is not a standard practice. This study is highlighting the role of bedside US performed by intensivist to detect occult renal anomalies associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: A cross sectional study for 100 consecutive children with CHD admitted to Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2015. US of kidneys screening was performed by trained pediatric cardiac intensivists to ascertain the presence of both kidneys in renal fossae without gross anomalies and to investigate if early detection of occult kidney anomaly would have any impact on outcome...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910183/rhabdomyolysis-in-a-patient-complicated-with-hypopituitarism-and-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-and-the-literature-review
#18
Chuan Zhou, Shichao Lai, Yong Xie, Shu Zhang, Yiping Lu
INTRODUCTION: Muscular symptoms, including stiffness, myalgia, cramps, and fatigue, are present in the majority of the patients with hypopituitarism, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism, but rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle, is a rare manifestation. In most patients who develop rhabdomyolysis, precipitating factors, such as strenuous exercise or use of lipid-lowering drugs, can be identified. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with primary hypopituitarism who developed acute renal impairment (AKI) with rhabdomyolysis after strenuous physical activity (push-ups)...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909417/metabolic-syndrome-and-the-iodine-dose-creatinine-clearance-ratio-as-determinants-of-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Ali Amiri, Reza Ghanavati, Hassan Riahi Beni, Seyyed Hashem Sezavar, Mehrdad Sheykhvatan, Mahsa Arab
BACKGROUND: Finding patients at risk of developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is important because of its associated complications. In the present study, the contribution of different variables, such as the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the volume creatinine clearance (V/CrCl) ratio, the iodine-dose (I-dose)/CrCl ratio, or hypertension, to CI-AKI was evaluated. METHODS: A total of 255 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography with or without intervention were enrolled and divided into a MetS and a control group...
June 15, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909344/involvement-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-1-ilk-akt-signaling-pathway-in-the-effects-of-hesperidin-in-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
YingHui Zhang, Bing Wang, Feng Guo, ZhiZhen Li, GuiJun Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the manifestations of systemic microangiopathy in diabetes. Hesperetin, a natural flavanone glycoside compound in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated to exert hypoglycemic effects and protect kidney in experimental diabetic animals. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hypoglycemic effects of hesperetin in high-fat/streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that mice in whom hesperetin was administered for 4 weeks attenuated the increased fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance ability that was observed in high-fat/STZ mice...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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