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Renal impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921400/effects-of-taurine-and-housing-density-on-renal-function-in-laying-hens
#1
Zi-Li Ma, Yang Gao, Hai-Tian Ma, Liu-Hai Zheng, Bin Dai, Jin-Feng Miao, Yuan-Shu Zhang
This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920250/renal-anemia-model-mouse-established-by-transgenic-rescue-with-erythropoietin-gene-lacking-kidney-specific-regulatory-elements
#2
Ikuo Hirano, Norio Suzuki, Shun Yamazaki, Hiroki Sekine, Naoko Minegishi, Ritsuko Shimizu, Masayuki Yamamoto
The erythropoietin (Epo) gene is under tissue-specific inducible regulation. Because kidney is the primary EPO-producing tissue in adults, impaired EPO production in chronic kidney disorders results in serious renal anemia. The Epo gene contains a liver-specific enhancer in the 3' region, but the kidney-specific enhancer for gene expression in renal EPO-producing (REP) cells remains elusive. Here, we examined a Conserved-Upstream-element for Renal-Epo-regulation (CURE) region that spans 17.4 kb to 3.6 kb upstream of the Epo gene and harbors several phylogenetically conserved elements...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917764/diabetic-cachectic-neuropathy-an-uncommon-neurological-complication-of-diabetes
#3
A Iyagba, A Onwuchekwa
A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdominal swelling, and constipation with occasional episodes of epigastric pain. On examination, she was chronically ill-looking with a body mass index of 17.1 kg/m2, grossly distended abdomen (initially mistaken for gravid abdomen). Blood pressure measurements in the supine and standing positions were 200/130 mmHg and 180/100 mmHg, respectively...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917715/antiplatelet-agents-and-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#4
Jens Lutz, Kerstin Jurk
Progressive impairment of renal function can lead to uremia, which is associated with thus increasing the risk of bleeding as well as thrombosis. Furthermore, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an indication for an anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy due to atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, thromboembolic disease, or peripheral artery disease. The treatment usually includes vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) and/or platelet aggregation inhibitors. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity represent an alternative for heparins and VKAs...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915025/molecular-analysis-of-the-agxt-gene-in-patients-suspected-with-hyperoxaluria-type-1-and-three-novel-mutations-from-turkey
#5
Emel Isiyel, Sevcan A Bakkaloglu Ezgu, Salim Caliskan, Sema Akman, Ipek Akil, Yilmaz Tabel, Nurver Akinci, Elif Bahat Ozdogan, Ahmet Ozel, Fehime Kara Eroglu, Fatih S Ezgu
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease, caused by the defect of AGXT gene encoding hepatic peroxisomal alanine glyoxylateaminotransferase (AGT). This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine. The diagnosis of PH1 should be suspected in infants and children with nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial in preventing disease progression to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). In this study, AGXT gene sequence analyses were performed in 82 patients who were clinically suspected (hyperoxaluria and nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis with or without renal impairment) to have PH1...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914499/exercise-training-improves-exercise-capacity-and-quality-of-life-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-a-randomized-pilot-trial
#6
Axel Pressler, Jeffrey W Christle, Benjamin Lechner, Viola Grabs, Bernhard Haller, Ina Hettich, David Jochheim, Julinda Mehilli, Rüdiger Lange, Sabine Bleiziffer, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is increasingly applied for aortic stenosis in elderly patients with impaired mobility and reduced quality of life. These patients may particularly benefit from postinterventional exercise programs, but no randomized study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of exercise in this population. METHODS: In a prospective pilot study, 30 patients after TAVI (mean age, 81±6 years, 44% female, 83±34 days postintervention) were randomly allocated 1:1 to a training group (TG) performing 8 weeks of supervised combined endurance and resistance exercise or to usual care...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913479/thrombosis-and-anticoagulation-in-the-setting-of-renal-or-liver-disease
#7
Christine Ribic, Mark Crowther
Thrombosis and bleeding are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease or liver disease. The pathophysiology underlying the increased risk for venous thromboembolism and bleeding in these 2 populations is distinct, as are considerations for anticoagulation. Anticoagulation in patients with kidney or liver disease increases the risk of bleeding; this risk is correlated with the degree of impairment of anticoagulant elimination by the kidneys and/or liver. Despite being in the same pharmacologic category, anticoagulant agents may have varied degrees of renal and liver metabolism...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912877/riceberry-bran-extract-prevents-renal-dysfunction-and-impaired-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-oat3-function-by-modulating-the-pkc-nrf2-pathway-in-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#8
Phatchawan Arjinajarn, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, Krit Jaikumkao, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Orranuch Norkaew, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the protective effects of Riceberry bran extract (RBBE) on renal function, and the function and expression of renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and explored the mechanisms for its protective effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 42) were divided into six groups to receive normal saline, gentamicin (100mg/kg), co-treatment of gentamicin and RBBE (at dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), and RBBE (at dose of 1000mg/kg) only, for consecutive fifteen days...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909964/oxidative-stress-and-biochemical-markers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-organ-damage-under-conditions-of-experimental-nonferrous-metal-intoxication
#9
F S Dzugkoeva, I V Mozhaeva, S G Dzugkoev, O I Margieva, A I Tedtoeva, M A Otiev
Chronic nickel intoxication caused by parenteral nickel chloride administration (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) to Wistar rats led to ROS generation inducing LPO in erythrocyte membranes and homogenates of renal, liver, and myocardial tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was inhibited, while catalase activity and ceruloplasmin concentration increased. LPO and its products disrupted nitric oxide production and reduced its bioavailability, which led to the development of endothelial dysfunction and impaired microcirculatory hemodynamics...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909494/anemia-an-independent-predictor-of-adverse-outcomes-in-older-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#10
REVIEW
Ali N Ali MBChB MSc Mrcp Uk, Nandkishor V Athavale MBChB Md Frcp, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz MBChB MSc Md Frcp
Both anemia and atrial fibrillation are common in older people and their prevalence is age dependent which increases as population ages. Anemia, especially acute onset, predisposes to new onset atrial fibrillation which is likely to be mediated through inducing heart failure first and this predisposition seems to be potentiated by the presence of renal impairment. Anemia adds to the comorbidity burden of patients with atrial fibrillation and independently increases the risks of adverse outcomes such as increased hospitalization, mortality, bleeding and thromboembolic events...
April 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908765/long-term-requirement-for-pacemaker-implantation-after-cardiac-valve-replacement-surgery
#11
Francisco Leyva, Tian Qiu, David McNulty, Felicity Evison, Howard Marshall, Maurizio Gasparini
BACKGROUND: The risk of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after cardiac valve replacement surgery is thought be highest in the post-operative period. Long-term risks are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates and timing of PPI after valve replacement surgery. METHODS: We compared PPI rates patients undergoing aortic (AVR, n = 111,674), mitral (MVR, n = 18,402) valve replacement, AVR+MVR (n = 5,166) or AVR + MVR and tricuspid valve replacement (TVR, n = 114) or CABG without valve replacement (n=249,742)...
November 28, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906866/inherited-and-acquired-disorders-of-magnesium-homeostasis
#12
Matthias Tilmann Florian Wolf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidneys are the major regulator of total body Mg homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906706/effects-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass-on-renal-perfusion-filtration-and-oxygenation-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#13
Lukas Lannemyr, Gudrun Bragadottir, Vitus Krumbholz, Bengt Redfors, Johan Sellgren, Sven-Erik Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors evaluated the effects of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and renal oxygen supply/demand relationship, i.e., renal oxygenation (primary outcome) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: Eighteen patients with a normal preoperative serum creatinine undergoing cardiac surgery procedures with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (2...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906637/prevalence-of-urat1-allelic-variants-in-the-roma-population
#14
Blanka Stiburkova, Dana Gabrikova, Pavel Čepek, Pavel Šimek, Pavol Kristian, Elizabeth Cordoba-Lanus, Felix Claverie-Martin
The Roma represents a transnational ethnic group, with a current European population of 8-10 million. The evolutionary process that had the greatest impact on the gene pool of the Roma population is called the founder effect. Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a rare heterogenous inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate reabsorption. The affected individuals are predisposed to recurrent episodes of exercise-induced nonmyoglobinuric acute kidney injury and nephrolithiasis. To date, more than 150 patients with a loss-of-function mutation for the SLC22A12 (URAT1) gene have been found, most of whom are Asians...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905298/haploinsufficiency-of-the-folliculin-gene-leads-to-impaired-functions-of-lung-fibroblasts-in-patients-with-birt-hogg-dub%C3%A3-syndrome
#15
Yoshito Hoshika, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Shinsaku Togo, Muneaki Hashimoto, Takeshi Nara, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Fariz Nurwidya, Hideyuki Kataoka, Masatoshi Kurihara, Etsuko Kobayashi, Hiroki Ebana, Mika Kikkawa, Katsutoshi Ando, Koichi Nishino, Okio Hino, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Kuniaki Seyama
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by germline mutations in the FLCN gene, and characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal neoplasms. Pulmonary manifestations frequently develop earlier than other organ involvements, prompting a diagnosis of BHDS However, the mechanism of lung cyst formation and pathogenesis of pneumothorax have not yet been clarified. Fibroblasts were isolated from lung tissues obtained from patients with BHDS (n = 12) and lung cancer (n = 10) as controls...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904044/investigation-of-risk-factors-affecting-lactate-levels-in-japanese-patients-treated-with-metformin
#16
Shota Yokoyama, Hideyuki Tsuji, Sachiko Hiraoka, Masayuki Nishihara
Metformin is a biguanaide antidiabetic drug used worldwide, and its effectiveness and benefits have already been established. However, the safety of high doses of metformin in Japanese patients, especially in elderly patients with a decreased renal function, remains unclear. Among the side effects of metformin, lactate acidosis is the most problematic due to a high mortality rate. Therefore, we assessed plasma lactate levels in metformin-treated patients to identify independent risk factors for hyperlactemia...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904025/early-raas-blockade-exerts-renoprotective-effects-in-autosomal-recessive-alport-syndrome
#17
Nao Uchida, Naonori Kumagai, Kandai Nozu, Xue Jun Fu, Kazumoto Iijima, Yoshiaki Kondo, Shigeo Kure
Alport syndrome is a progressive renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes that encode collagen type IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains, respectively. Because of abnormal collagen chain, glomerular basement membrane becomes fragile and most of the patients progress to end-stage renal disease in early adulthood. COL4A5 mutation causes X-linked form of Alport syndrome, and two mutations in either COL4A3 or COL4A4 causes an autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. Recently, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to attenuate effectively disease progression in Alport syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#18
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901336/robotic-kidney-transplantation-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#19
Angelo Territo, Alex Mottrie, Ronney Abaza, Craig Rogers, Mani Menon, Mahendra Bhandari, Rajesh Ahlawat, Alberto Breda
INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is preferred to renal replacement modalities such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Although open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive approaches have recently been applied in transplant kidney surgery. Despite growing enthusiasm and potential benefits of robotic kidney transplant, many aspects of this novel technique remain controversial. Aim of this study was to analyze the current status and future developments in robotic-assisted surgery for kidney transplantation...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901178/hypoparathyroidism-and-pseudohypoparathyroidism-etiology-laboratory-features-and-complications
#20
Maicon Piana Lopes, Breno S Kliemann, Ileana Borsato Bini, Rodrigo Kulchetscki, Victor Borsani, Larissa Savi, Victoria Z C Borba, Carolina A Moreira
Objectives: To identify a clinical profile and laboratory findings of a cohort of hypoparathyroidism patients and determine the prevalence and predictors for renal abnormalities. Materials and methods: Data from medical records of five different visits were obtained, focusing on therapeutic doses of calcium and vitamin D, on laboratory tests and renal ultrasonography (USG). Results: Fifty-five patients were identified, 42 females and 13 males; mean age of 44...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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