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Inflammation, atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665623/dietary-mannan-oligosaccharides-modulate-gut-microbiota-increase-fecal-bile-acid-excretion-and-decrease-plasma-cholesterol-and-atherosclerosis-development
#1
Lisa R Hoving, Saeed Katiraei, Marieke Heijink, Amanda Pronk, Lianne van der Wee-Pals, Trea Streefland, Martin Giera, Ko Willems van Dijk, Vanessa van Harmelen
SCOPE: Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have proven effective at improving growth performance, while also reducing hyperlipidemia and inflammation. As atherosclerosis is accelerated both by hyperlipidemia and inflammation, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary MOS on atherosclerosis development in hyperlipidemic ApoE*3-Leiden.CETP (E3L.CETP) mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female E3L.CETP mice were fed a high cholesterol diet, with or without 1% MOS for 14 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663503/mir-135a-represses-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-inflammatory-events-via-targeting-toll-like-receptor-4-in-atherogenesis
#3
Xian-Jin Du, Jing-Min Lu
Plenty of microRNAs have been identified as critical mediators in atherosclerosis progression, which is still a great threat to human health. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated to contribute a lot to atherosclerosis development. MiR-135a is abnormally expressed in various cancer types, however its function in atherosclerosis is largely unexplored. Ox-LDL is commonly recognized as a crucial atherosclerosis regulator. In our current study, we observed ox-LDL was able to induce RAW264.7 cell apoptosis and meanwhile miR-135a was restrained by ox-LDL both dose-dependently and time- dependently...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663491/mir-370-inhibits-vascular-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-triggered-by-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-through-targeting-tlr4
#4
Dan Tian, Yin Sha, Jing-Min Lu, Xian-Jin Du
Atherosclerosis, as a chronic cardiovascular disease, still remains a serious threat to human health. Inflammation and oxidative stress are commonly involved in various stages of atherosclerosis development. MicroRNAs are reported to play important roles in macrophages, which can respond to inflammation and oxidative stress. In our current study, we focused on the biological roles of miR-370 in atherosclerosis. According to the previously research, miR-370 was downregulated in AS mice models. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is regarded as a crucial regulator of atherosclerosis and we observed that miR-370 was decreased by ox-LDL dose-dependently and time-dependently in THP-1 cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661746/effects-of-oral-vitamin-d-3-supplementation-in-stage-3-chronic-kidney-disease-subjects-insulin-resistance-syndrome-and-hormonal-disturb-interactions
#5
Amina Tahar, Faiza Zerdoumi, Messaoud Saidani, Lakhdar Griene, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
The 1-25-hydroxyvitamine D (1-25OHD) or calcitriol deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was associated with increases vascular calcification risk, nephrons reduction, bone deficit and cardiovascular mortality by atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 200.000 IU (D200 group) every 3 months versus 30.000 IU (D30 group) every month dose vitamin D supplementation in stage 3 CKD patients. A cohort of 132 adult subjects was randomized into 2 groups according to dose vitamin D supplementation in deficient subjects (25OHD <50 nmol/L or <20 ng/mL)...
April 16, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660466/formononetin-an-isoflavone-from-astragalus-membranaceus-inhibits-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#6
Jing Zhang, Likun Liu, Jing Wang, Baoyin Ren, Lin Zhang, Weiling Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus which was originally described in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica, the earliest complete Pharmacopoeia of China written from the Warring States Period to Han Dynasty, has been widely used in Chinese medicine for>2,000 years, especially in the prescription of curing cancer. A. membranaceus has various bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, immunomodulation, hepatoprotection, hematopoiesis, neuroprotection and so on...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656648/germinated-brown-rice-attenuates-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-inflammation-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-knockout-mice
#7
Ruozhi Zhao, Nora Ghazzawi, Jiansu Wu, Khuong Le, Chunyang Li, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Yaw L Siow, Franklin Apea-Bah, Trust Beta, Zhengfeng Yin, Garry Shen
The present study investigated the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on atherosclerosis and underlying mechanism in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The sizes of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic roots of LDLr-KO mice fed with diet supplemented with 60% GBR (weight/weight) were significantly less than that in mice fed with 60% of white rice (WR) or control diet (p<0.05) and all diets containing 0.06% cholesterol. WR or GBR diet did not significantly alter plasma total or LDL-cholesterol, fecal sterols, glucose or the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the control diet...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655831/corrigendum-to-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-the-emerging-role-of-colchicine-to-inhibit-atherosclerosis-associated-inflammation-atherosclerosis-2018-feb-269-262-271
#9
G J Martínez, D S Celermajer, S Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653364/microrna-20a-protects-human-aortic-endothelial-cells-from-ox-ldl-induced-inflammation-through-targeting-tlr4-and-txnip-signaling
#10
Mantian Chen, Wei Li, Yi Zhang, Jieying Yang
MiR-20a has been previously reported to participate in the development of various human diseases. However, the role of miR-20a in the pathology of atherosclerosis remains elusive. The present study aimed to reveal the relationship between miR-20a expression and atherosclerosis using in vitro cell model. The expression level of miR-20a was detected in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) under Ox-LDL exposure. Meanwhile, the regulatory effects of miR-20a on predicted targets (TLR4 and TXNIP) were also determined...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653253/cholesterol-and-bile-acid-mediated-regulation-of-autophagy-in-fatty-liver-diseases-and-atherosclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Yifeng Wang, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
Liver is the major organ that regulates whole body cholesterol metabolism. Disrupted hepatic cholesterol homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Hepatic bile acid synthesis is the major catabolic mechanism for cholesterol elimination from the body. Furthermore, bile acids are signaling molecules that regulate liver metabolism and inflammation. Autophagy is a highly-conserved lysosomal degradation mechanism, which plays an essential role in maintaining cellular integrity and energy homeostasis...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653075/inhibition-of-semicarbazide-sensitive-amine-oxidase-reduces-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#12
Shu-Huei Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Feng-Chiao Tsai, Chris J Weston, Mao-Shin Lin, Chi-Sheng Hung, Hsien-Li Kao, Yu-I Li, Montse Solé, Mercedes Unzeta, Yuh-Lien Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang, Hung-Yuan Li
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and formation of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) are important for atherosclerosis. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and has semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity, which catalyzes oxidative deamination to produce hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes, leading to generation of AGEs and ALEs. However, the effect of VAP-1/SSAO inhibition on atherosclerosis remains controversial, and no studies used coronary angiography to evaluate if plasma VAP-1/SSAO is a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
March 27, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653065/tet2-a-novel-epigenetic-regulator-and-potential-intervention-target-for-atherosclerosis
#13
Yami Liu, Wen Peng, Kai Qu, Xiaolong Lin, Zhaolin Zeng, Jiaojiao Chen, Dangheng Wei, Zuo Wang
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardio-cerebrovascular disease. However, the mechanisms of atherosclerosis are still unclear. The modification of DNA methylation has an important role in atherosclerosis development. As a member of the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family, TET methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) can modify DNA methylation by catalyzing 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and mediate DNA demethylation. Recent findings suggest that TET2 is related to the phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation of macrophage, the key factors of atherosclerosis...
April 13, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652673/inflammation-and-coronary-artery-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-canakinumab-anti-inflammatory-thrombosis-outcomes-study-cantos
#14
Mahboob Ali, Sameh Girgis, Atif Hassan, Steven Rudick, Richard C Becker
The worldwide prevalence of cardiovascular disease in general and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in particular is a health and economic concern of unparalleled proportion. Despite a long history of astute observations beginning in 1575 made by Fallopius, followed by those of von Rokatansky, Virchow, Osler, and Ross, and incremental knowledge of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis to include varying stages of inflammation, response to internally and externally mediated vascular injury, and impaired homeostasis, gaps in the field's understanding persist...
April 12, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652038/analysis-of-novel-cardiovascular-biomarkers-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-pad
#15
Peter Jirak, Moritz Mirna, Bernhard Wernly, Vera Paar, Marcus Thieme, Stefan Betge, Marcus Franz, Uta Hoppe, Alexander Lauten, Jürgen Kammler, Paul C Schulze, Michael Lichtenauer, Daniel Kretzschmar
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common form of manifestation of atherosclerosis. PAD has a considerable impact on morbidity, hospitalisation rates and health- care costs. Biomarkers have been introduced in many cardiovascular disease entities over the last years. However, an analysis on the correlation of biomarker levels and PAD is still lacking. METHODS: A total of 106 patients were enrolled in this current study, 51 that were diagnosed with PAD and 55 with excluded coronary and peripheral artery disease as controls...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644527/gemcabene-a-first-in-class-lipid-lowering-agent-in-late-stage-development-down-regulates-acute-phase-c-reactive-protein-via-c-ebp-%C3%AE-mediated-transcriptional-mechanism
#16
Rai Ajit K Srivastava, Joseph A Cornicelli, Bruce Markham, Charles L Bisgaier
Inflammation plays a key role in setting the stage leading to atherosclerosis progression, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) has been recognized as a predictor of cardiovascular risk. As a monotherapy and in combination with statins, gemcabene markedly reduced CRP in humans. Present investigation was undertaken to understand the mechanism of CRP reduction. In human hepatoma cells, gemcabene inhibited IL-6 plus IL-1β-induced CRP production in a concentration-dependent manner, reaching 70% inhibition at 2 mM...
April 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644507/the-impact-of-obesity-on-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644229/cantos-a-breakthrough-that-proves-the-inflammatory-hypothesis-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Mohamed Hassan
Atherosclerosis is no longer considered solely a disorder of subintimal deposition of modified low-density lipoprotein particles in the arterial wall. Rather, it is known to be a chronic inflammatory disorder. No evidence has shown that reducing vascular inflammation in the absence of concomitant lowering of lipoproteins levels reduces the rates of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. Canakinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes interleukin (IL)-1β, significantly reduced the rate of recurrent CV events in patients with prior myocardial infarction in the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS)...
March 14, 2018: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642385/micrornas-as-potential-mediators-for-cigarette-smoking-induced-atherosclerosis
#19
Yuka Yokoyama, Nathan Mise, Yuka Suzuki, Saeko Tada-Oikawa, Kiyora Izuoka, Lingyi Zhang, Cai Zong, Akira Takai, Yoshiji Yamada, Sahoko Ichihara
Smoking increases the risk of atherosclerosis-related events, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Recent studies have examined the expression levels of altered microRNAs (miRNAs) in various diseases. The profiles of tissue miRNAs can be potentially used in diagnosis or prognosis. However, there are limited studies on miRNAs following exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). The present study was designed to dissect the effects and cellular/molecular mechanisms of CS-induced atherosclerogenesis. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice were exposed to CS for five days a week for two months at low (two puffs/min for 40 min/day) or high dose (two puffs/min for 120 min/day)...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626941/imaging-macrophage-associated-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Catherine A Foss, Julian Sanchez-Bautista, Sanjay K Jain
Macrophages belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system comprising closely related cells of bone marrow origin. Activated macrophages are critical in several diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, and atherosclerosis. Noninvasive imaging techniques that can specifically image activated macrophages could therefore help in differentiating various forms of inflammatory diseases and to monitor therapeutic responses.
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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