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Inflammation, atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819717/mitigation-of-acute-aluminum-toxicity-by-sodium-selenite-and-n-acetylcysteine-in-adult-male-rats
#1
Naglaa H Nour-Eldein, El-Sayed A Hassanin, Wael M El-Sayed
The objective of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum and the potential alleviation of selenite and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on this toxicity. Acute aluminum toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AlCl3 (30 mg Al(3+)/kg) for four consecutive days. Al(3+) damaged the synthetic capability and regeneration power of liver cells and induced inflammation. It also damaged the kidney and disturbed the lipid profile enhancing the total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level increasing the risks of atherosclerosis...
August 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818791/low-density-lipoprotein-modified-by-myeloperoxidase-oxidants-induces-endothelial-dysfunction
#2
Adrian I Abdo, Benjamin S Rayner, David M van Reyk, Clare L Hawkins
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial dysfunction. Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) ions are utilised by MPO to produce the oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), which reacts with LDL in a different manner to HOCl. Whilst the reactivity of HOCl-modified LDL has been previously studied, the role of HOSCN in the modification of LDL in vivo is poorly defined, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties...
August 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812379/dietary-polyphenols-for-atherosclerosis-a-comprehensive-review-and-future-perspectives
#3
Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Farnaz Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Armaghan Baratpourmoghaddam, Pardis Ahmadi Borkani, Pourouchista Rostamiasrabadi, Amir Hosein Rasouli Amirabadi, Roja Rahimi
Atherosclerosis is one of the most prevalent reasons for premature death in adults. Despite the several conventional drugs in the market; many patients are not completely treated. Here we comprehensively review current clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of dietary polyphenols in atherosclerosis and related complications. PubMed, Cochrane library and Scopus were searched from inception until August 2016 to obtain clinical trials in which polyphenols were evaluated in cardiovascular parameters related to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812326/effect-of-dietary-components-from-antarctic-krill-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#4
Cinzia Parolini, Bodil Bjorndal, Marco Busnelli, Stefano Manzini, Giulia S Ganzetti, Federica Dellera, Marie Ramsvik, Inge Bruheim, Rolf Kristian Berge, Giulia Chiesa
SCOPE: Antarctic krill is a great source of n-3 fatty acids and high-quality proteins. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Antarctic krill components on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty apoEKO mice were divided into four groups and fed Western diet (CONTROL) or Western-like diets, differing for protein or fat content. Specifically, casein or fat in CONTROL was partially replaced by krill proteins (PRO), krill oil (KRILL OIL), or both (KRILL OIL+PRO)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812103/re-expression-of-pro-fibrotic-embryonic-preserved-mediators-in-irradiated-arterial-vessels-of-the-head-and-neck-region
#5
Patrick Möbius, Raimund H M Preidl, Manuel Weber, Kerstin Amann, Friedrich W Neukam, Falk Wehrhan
PURPOSE: Surgical treatment of head and neck malignancies frequently includes microvascular free tissue transfer. Preoperative radiotherapy increases postoperative fibrosis-related complications up to transplant loss. Fibrogenesis is associated with re-expression of embryonic preserved tissue developmental mediators: osteopontin (OPN), regulated by sex-determining region Y‑box 9 (Sox9), and homeobox A9 (HoxA9) play important roles in pathologic tissue remodeling and are upregulated in atherosclerotic vascular lesions; dickkopf-1 (DKK1) inhibits pro-fibrotic and atherogenic Wnt signaling...
August 15, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#6
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800625/variability-in-quantitative-analysis-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-inflammation-using-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#7
Karel-Jan D F Lensen, Alper M van Sijl, Alexandre E Voskuyl, Conny J van der Laken, Martijn W Heymans, Emile F I Comans, Mike T Nurmohamed, Yvo M Smulders, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND: 18F-FDG-PET(/CT) is increasingly used in studies aiming at quantifying atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Considerable methodological variability exists. The effect of data acquisition and image analysis parameters on quantitative uptake measures, such as standardized uptake value (SUV) and target-to-background ratio (TBR) has not been investigated extensively. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of several data acquisition and image analysis parameters on quantification of vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake measures, in order to increase awareness of potential variability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799803/nutrition-inflammation-and-liver-spleen-axis
#8
Luigi Barrea, Carolina Di Somma, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giovanni Tarantino, Gian Carlo Tenore, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation represents a mechanism common to many diseases linked to atherosclerosis-related pathways. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the combination of food quantity and quality along with genetic susceptibility are able to induce the aberrant activation of innate immune signalling, which initially contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation. Liver represents the central player to inflammatory response. Dietary/metabolic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the main causes of liver disease in the Western world...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798141/characterization-of-macrophage-polarization-states-using-combined-measurement-of-2-deoxyglucose-and-glutamine-accumulation-implications-for-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Sina Tavakoli, Kevin Downs, John D Short, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Yanlai Lai, Paul A Jerabek, Beth Goins, Jakub Toczek, Mehran M Sadeghi, Reto Asmis
OBJECTIVE: Despite the early promising results of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for assessment of vessel wall inflammation, its accuracy in prospective identification of vulnerable plaques has remained limited. Additionally, previous studies have indicated that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake alone may not allow for accurate identification of specific macrophage activation states. We aimed to determine whether combined measurement of glucose and glutamine accumulation-the 2 most important bioenergetic substrates for macrophages-improves the distinction of macrophage inflammatory states and can be utilized to image atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797175/role-of-lipids-and-intraplaque-hypoxia-in-the-formation-of-neovascularization-in-atherosclerosis
#10
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
According to the current paradigm, chronic vascular inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The plaque progression is typically completed with rupture and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications. Previously, the role of adventitial vasa vasorum in atherogenesis was underestimated. However, investigators then revealed that vasa vasorum neovascularization can be observed when no clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis is present. Vasa vasorum is involved in various proatherogenic processes such as intimal accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes, intimal thickening, necrotic core formation, intraplaque hemorrhage, lesion repture, and atherothrombosis...
August 11, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796886/macrophage-metabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Gael F P Bories, Norbert Leitinger
A key aspect of atherosclerosis is the maladaptive inflammatory response to lipoprotein accumulation in the artery. The failure to decrease lipid accumulation, to clear apoptotic cells and to resolve inflammation ultimately leads to macrophage accumulation within the vascular wall(1,2,3,4) . Several subsets of macrophages are found inside atherosclerotic plaques(5,6,7) : Pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages potentially participate in atherosclerosis initiation and progression; M2-like macrophages are thought to be protective due to their anti-inflammatory and profibrotic properties, presumably stabilizing the plaque(8,9;) Mox macrophages develop in response to oxidized phospholipids and present a glutathione- and potentially redox-regulating phenotype(10) ; Mhem macrophages are found in areas of plaque hemorrhage(11,12) where they are involved in heme clearance...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795494/an-extended-high-frequency-ultrasound-protocol-for-detection-of-vessel-wall-inflammation
#12
H Zachrisson, C Svensson, A Dremetsika, P Eriksson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate an extended protocol of the large vessels using high-frequency duplex ultrasound (DUS) for detection of vessel wall inflammation. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients performed a DUS examination where arteritis could not be excluded. All DUS examinations were performed using ACUSON S2000 TM ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.). High-frequency linear transducers were used (18L6 MHz, 9L4MHz) or curve linear for the aortic arch (6C2 MHz)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794002/klf4-regulation-of-ch25h-and-lxr-mitigates-atherosclerosis-susceptibility
#13
Zhao Li, Marcy Martin, Jin Zhang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Liang Bai, Jiao Zhang, Jian Kang, Ming He, Jie Li, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Guangjin Zhou, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Yong-Jiang Xu, Ting Lei, Hsien-Da Huang, Mohit Jain, Mukesh K Jain, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy
Background -Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory disease involving cells in the vascular wall [e.g., endothelial cells (ECs)] as well as circulating and resident immunogenic cells (e.g., monocytes/macrophages). Acting as a ligand for liver X receptor (LXR), but an inhibitor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and its catalyzing enzyme cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) are important in regulating cellular inflammatory status and cholesterol biosynthesis in both ECs and monocytes/macrophages...
August 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793282/increased-risk-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-sarcoidosis
#14
Elena Bargagli, Elisabetta Rosi, Massimo Pistolesi, Federico Lavorini, Luca Voltolini, Paola Rottoli
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies demonstrated that its pathogenesis is related with enhanced oxidative stress (protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation) and alterations in the circulating lipid profile. Alterations of lipid metabolism (including the reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations) induce plasma membrane, bronchial and lung capillary endothelial cell damage in sarcoidosis patients. Dyslipidemia is associated with increased oxidative stress, diminished overall antioxidative protection and increased risk for atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793219/stiff-substrates-increase-inflammation-induced-endothelial-monolayer-tension-and-permeability
#15
Rebecca Lownes Urbano, Christina Furia, Sarah Basehore, Alisa Morss Clyne
Arterial stiffness and inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis, and each have individually been shown to increase endothelial monolayer tension and permeability. The objective of this study was to determine if substrate stiffness enhanced endothelial monolayer tension and permeability in response to inflammatory cytokines. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured at confluence on polyacrylamide gels of varying stiffness and treated with either tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or thrombin. Monolayer tension was measured through vinculin localization at the cell membrane, traction force microscopy, and phosphorylated myosin light chain quantity and actin fiber colocalization...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792474/the-effects-of-selective-hematopoietic-expression-of-human-il-37-on-systemic-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-deficient-mice
#16
Geerte Hoeke, P Padmini S J Khedoe, Janna A van Diepen, Karin Pike-Overzet, Britt van de Ven, Nadia Vazirpanah, Isabel Mol, Pieter S Hiemstra, Frank J T Staal, Rinke Stienstra, Mihai G Netea, Charles A Dinarello, Patrick C N Rensen, Jimmy F P Berbée
The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 has potent anti-inflammatory capacities, and hematopoietic cell-specific transgenic overexpression of IL-37 in mice protects against septic shock and colitis. In the present study we investigated the effect of hematopoietic expression of IL-37 on atherosclerosis development under low-grade inflammatory conditions. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from IL-37-transgenic or control wild-type mice and fed a Western-type diet (WTD; 1% cholesterol) for eight weeks...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792167/study-of-carotid-artery-intimomedial-thickness-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-co-relation-with-severity-of-the-disease
#17
L A Gauri, Q Fatima, S Diggi, A Khan, A Liyakat, K Nagar
INTRODUCTION: RA is a chronic inflammatory state, predisposing for atherosclerosis as it is an immunoinflammatory process. This study focuses on use of Carotid artery intimomedial thickness (CIMT) as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To study the assessment of atherosclerosis by Carotid Intimo-Medial Thickness (CIMT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Correlation of ultrasonographic findings with severity of disease (using DAS-28 score)...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791506/paeoniflorin-ameliorates-atherosclerosis-by-suppressing-tlr4-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#18
Huan Li, Yabin Jiao, Mingjun Xie
Paeoniflorin, a type of bioactive monoterpene glucoside in Paeoniae Radix, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic properties. However, the underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin in treating atherosclerosis is unclear. A rat model of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and palmitic acid (PA)-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in this study. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined, and the results indicated that paeoniflorin remarkably lowered the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C induced by a high-fat diet...
August 8, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791379/felodipine-inhibits-ox-ldl-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-inflammation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#19
Jie Qi, Jian-Bao Zheng, Wen-Ting Ai, Xiao-Wei Yao, Lei Liang, Gong Cheng, Xi-Ling Shou, Chao-Feng Sun
Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) inhibit the development of atherosclerosis, although the underlying molecular basis has not been completely elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of felodipine, a CCB, on inflammation and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to examine the underlying mechanisms of action. Oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) was used to induce an inflammatory response in HUVECs...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789919/identification-of-long-and-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-plasmalogen-c16-0-and-phytanic-acid-as-new-lipid-biomarkers-in-tunisian-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#20
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Nadia Koubaa, Wafa Kharroubi, Amira Zarrouk, Amira Mnari, Fethi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Sonia Hammami, Gérard Lizard, Mohamed Hammami
Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population...
August 5, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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