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Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
A D Kruchinina, S S Gamzin, M T Tengin
Depression is associated with changes in the levels of some neurotransmitters in various brain structures. Being the key enzyme of peptide processing, carboxypeptidase E regulates their levels in various structures of the nervous system. Single injection of bupropion induced long-lasting changes in carboxypeptidase E activity in all brain structures. The decrease in enzyme activity observed in 12 and 24 h after bupropion injection confirmed the inhibiting effect of the drug on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Chao Zhang, Chendan Wang, Jianbo Ren, Xiangjie Guo, Keming Yun
Glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter but also an important neurotoxin in central nervous system (CNS). Chronic elevation of glutamate induces both neuronal and glial cell apoptosis. However, its effect on astrocytes is complex and still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether morphine, a common opioid ligand, could affect glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence/absence of morphine. It was found that morphine could reduce glutamate-induced apoptosis of astrocytes...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jihui Seo, Jeehye Maeng, Hwa-Jung Kim
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), initially identified as a tumor- and growth-related protein, is also known as a histamine-releasing factor (HRF). TCTP is widely distributed in the neuronal systems, but its function is largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a novel function of TCTP in the neurotransmitter release from a neurosecretory, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) enhanced both basal and depolarization (50 mM KCl)-evoked [³H]dopamine release in concentration- and time-dependent manners...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Keming Zhou, Yishi Jin
Presynaptic ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) have long been proposed to affect neurotransmitter release and to tune neural circuit activity. However, the understanding of their in vivo physiological action remains limited, partly due to the complexity in channel types and scarcity of genetic models. Here we report that C. elegans LGC-46, a member of the Cys-loop acetylcholine (ACh)-gated chloride (ACC) channel family, localizes to presynaptic terminals of cholinergic motor neurons and regulates synaptic vesicle (SV) release kinetics upon evoked release of acetylcholine...
October 26, 2016: ELife
Agustina M Lascano, Christian M Korff, Fabienne Picard
Despite intensive research activity leading to many important discoveries, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizures and epilepsy remain poorly understood. An important number of specific gene defects have been related to various forms of epilepsies, and autoimmunity and epilepsy have been associated for a long time. Certain central nervous system proteins have been involved in epilepsy or acute neurological diseases with seizures either due to underlying gene defects or immune dysfunction. Here, we focus on 2 of them that have been the object of particular attention and in-depth research over the past years: the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and the leucin-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1)...
September 2016: Molecular Syndromology
David W Crumpacker
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a socially debilitating condition that primarily affects people with neurologic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. This condition is characterized by uncontrolled, exaggerated expressions of laughing or crying-often when the situation does not warrant this behavior. Although the true prevalence of PBA is surprisingly high, this condition remains widely misdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. While its exact etiology is unknown, PBA likely results from disruptions in the brain structures and/or neurotransmitters that regulate emotions...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Hao Liu, Wei Ye, Hai-Feng Chen
Acetylcholinesterase is a potent enzyme that regulates neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synapses of the nervous system. As drug target of anti-AD, it has catalytic and peripheral anionic sites. However, the regulation relation between these two sites is unclear. Therefore, we constructed dynamics fluctuation network based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the regulation mechanism. The results suggest that the correlation network in double site system (hAChE/TZ5) is distinctly different from that in the free state and single site systems (hAChE/huprine and hAChE/1YL)...
October 25, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Diogo M Rombo, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião
Physiological network functioning in the hippocampus is dependent on a balance between glutamatergic cell excitability and the activity of diverse local circuit neurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Tuners of neuronal communication such as adenosine, an endogenous modulator of synapses, control hippocampal network operations by regulating excitability. Evidence has been recently accumulating on the influence of adenosine on different aspects of GABAergic transmission to shape hippocampal function...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Paula Honório de Melo Martimiano, André de Sa Braga Oliveira, Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Mikaël Croyal, Audrey Aguesse, Isabelle Grit, Khadija Ouguerram, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Bertrand Kaeffer, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez
Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), Qinolinic (QA) and Xanthurenic (XA) acids...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Xi-Xun DU, Kang Qin, Qian Jiao, Jun-Xia Xie, Hong Jiang
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), as an inward rectifying potassium channel, are widely distributed in many types of tissues. KATP are activated by the depletion of ATP level and the increase in oxidative stress in cells. The activity of KATP couples cell metabolism with electrical activity and results in membrane hyperpolarization. KATP are ubiquitously distributed in the brain, including substantia nigra, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, dorsal nucleus of vagus and glial cells, and participate in neuronal excitability, mitochondria homeostasis and neurotransmitter release...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Ni-Na Song, Wen-Xie Xu
Gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer contains two kinds of interstitial cells with special differentiation, i.e., interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells. The ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells contact with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by gap junctions and regulate contractive function of the SMCs. Therefore, these three kinds of cells constitute a functional syncytium, i.e., the SMC, ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells syncytium (SIP syncytium). Various neurotransmitters, humoral factors, endogenous bioactive molecules, as well as drugs regulate gastrointestinal motility through the SIP syncytium...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
V S Kokhan, M I Matveeva, A S Bazyan, V S Kudrin, A Mukhametov, A S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. In contrast to an orbital flight, leaving the Earth's magnetic field is fraught with the dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation and more specifically, the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays. Microgravity, just another critical non-radiation factor, significantly affects the normal functioning of the CNS. Some morphological structures of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, that are rich in monoaminergic and acetylcholinergic neurones, are the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation and non-radiation spaceflight factors (SFF)...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
M A Sotomayor-Sobrino, A Ochoa-Aguilar, L A Méndez-Cuesta, C Gómez-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world; its incidence is increasing due to increased life expectancy. However, treatment options for these patients are limited since no clinically effective drugs have been developed to date. DEVELOPMENT: According to clinical evidence, a number of neurochemical changes take place after stroke, including energy depletion, increased free radical synthesis, calcium accumulation, neurotransmitter imbalance, excitotoxicity, and, at a later stage, immune system activation leading to inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
A Puzserova, I Bernatova
Stress is considered a risk factor associated with the development of various civilization diseases including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors and mental disorders. Research investigating mechanisms involved in stress-induced hypertension have attracted much attention of physicians and researchers, however, there are still ambiguous results concerning a causal relationship between stress and long-term elevation of blood pressure (BP). Several studies have observed that mechanisms involved in the development of stress-induced hypertension include increased activity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS), glucocorticoid (GC) overload and altered endothelial function including decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Alex Fogli Iseppe, Angela Pignatelli, Ottorino Belluzzi
Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins. Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Csaba Vastagh, Annie Rodolosse, Norbert Solymosi, Zsolt Liposits
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Satoshi Tanaka, Minoru Sakaguchi, Hiroki Yoneyama, Yoshihide Usami, Shinya Harusawa
Histamine is involved in various physiological functions, including its neurotransmitter actions in the central nervous system and its action as a causative agent of inflammation, allergic reactions, and gastric acid secretions. Histamine expression and biosynthesis have been detected in breast cancer cells. It was recently suggested that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) plays a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. We recently developed the non-imidazole H3R antagonist OUP-186 which exhibited a potent and selective human H3R antagonistic activity as well as no activity against the human histamine H4 receptor (H4R)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Aviad Hai, Lili X Cai, Taekwan Lee, Victor S Lelyveld, Alan Jasanoff
Reuptake of neurotransmitters from the brain interstitium shapes chemical signaling processes and is disrupted in several pathologies. Serotonin reuptake in particular is important for mood regulation and is inhibited by first-line drugs for treatment of depression. Here we introduce a molecular-level fMRI technique for micron-scale mapping of serotonin transport in live animals. Intracranial injection of an MRI-detectable serotonin sensor complexed with serotonin, together with serial imaging and compartmental analysis, permits neurotransmitter transport to be quantified as serotonin dissociates from the probe...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
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