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Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carmen Scheibenbogen, Madlen Loebel, Helma Freitag, Anne Krueger, Sandra Bauer, Michaela Antelmann, Wolfram Doehner, Nadja Scherbakov, Harald Heidecke, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Patricia Grabowski
INTRODUCTION: Infection-triggered disease onset, chronic immune activation and autonomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) point to an autoimmune disease directed against neurotransmitter receptors. We had observed elevated autoantibodies against ß2 adrenergic receptors, and muscarinic 3 and 4 acetylcholine receptors in a subset of patients. Immunoadsorption (IA) was shown to be effective in removing autoantibodies and improve outcome in various autoimmune diseases...
2018: PloS One
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Charles E Norton, Steven S Segal
The sensory neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with vasodilation of systemic arteries through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), however its effects on endothelial cell (EC) membrane potential (Vm) are unresolved. In pulmonary arteries (PAs) of C57BL/6J mice, we questioned whether CGRP would hyperpolarize ECs as well as SMCs. Intact PAs were isolated and immunostained for CGRP to confirm sensory innervation; vessel segments (length, 1-2 mm; diameter ∼150 µm) with intact or denuded endothelium were cannulated and pressurized to 16 cm H2O at 37{degree sign}C...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sujin Hyung, Kyuhwan Jung, Sung-Rae Cho, Noo Li Jeon
The Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system are indispensable for the formation, maintenance, and modulation of synapses over the life cycle. They not only recognize neuron-glia signaling molecules, but also secrete gliotransmitters. Through these processes, they regulate neuronal excitability and thus the release of neurotransmitters from the nerve terminal at the neuromuscular junction. Gliotransmitters strongly affect nerve communication, and their secretion is mainly triggered by synchronized Ca2+ signaling, implicating Ca2+ waves in synapse function...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Veronica Harsh, Anita H Clayton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex differences in the treatment of sexual dysfunction are partly due to neurobiological differences, as well as, the central and peripheral physiological effects of hormones and neurotransmitter actions on reproductive systems in men and women. Differences in epidemiology of complaints and diagnostic considerations, variance in medical comorbidities, and interference from related medications also contribute to the need for different strategies for treatments of sexual dysfunction according to gender...
March 14, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Kevin C Kemp, Rimi Dey, Johan Verhagen, Neil J Scolding, Maria M Usowicz, Alastair Wilkins
Bone marrow-derived cells are known to infiltrate the adult brain and fuse with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Histological observations that such heterotypic cell fusion events are substantially more frequent following cerebellar injury suggest they could have a role in the protection of mature brain neurons. To date, the possibility that cell fusion can preserve or restore the structure and function of adult brain neurons has not been directly addressed; indeed, though frequently suggested, the possibility of benefit has always been rather speculative...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Aleksander H Erga, Ingvild Dalen, Anastasia Ushakova, Janete Chung, Charalampos Tzoulis, Ole Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves, Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Jodi Maple-Grødem
Introduction: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are frequent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), with potential negative effects on the quality of life and social functioning. ICDs are closely associated with dopaminergic therapy, and genetic polymorphisms in several neurotransmitter pathways may increase the risk of addictive behaviors in PD. However, clinical differentiation between patients at risk and patients without risk of ICDs is still troublesome. The aim of this study was to investigate if genetic polymorphisms across several neurotransmitter pathways were associated with ICD status in patients with PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Asghar M Razavi, George Khelashvili, Harel Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Much of the structure-based mechanistic understandings of the function of SLC6A neurotransmitter transporters emerged from the study of their bacterial LeuT-fold homologs. It has become evident, however, that structural differences such as the long N- and C-termini of the eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters are involved in an expanded set of functional properties to the eukaryotic transporters. These functional properties are not shared by the bacterial homologs, which lack the structural elements that appeared later in evolution...
March 14, 2018: BMC Biology
Ji-Won Kim, Sungbin Im, Ha-Ram Jeong, Young-Seung Jung, Inil Lee, Kwan Joong Kim, Seung Kook Park, Dae-Ok Kim
Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Victor Matveev
Fundamental cell processes such as synaptic neurotransmitter release, endocrine hormone secretion, and myocyte contraction are controlled by highly localized calcium (Ca2+ ) signals resulting from brief openings of trans-membrane Ca2+ channels. On short temporal and spatial scales, the corresponding local Ca2+ nanodomains formed in the vicinity of a single or several open Ca2+ channels can be effectively approximated by quasi-stationary solutions. The rapid buffering approximation (RBA) is one of the most powerful of such approximations, and is based on the assumption of instantaneous equilibration of the bimolecular Ca2+ buffering reaction, combined with the conservation condition for the total Ca2+ and buffer molecule numbers...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Li Xu, Hong-Bo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Ying Xiong, Xue-Ping Lu, Yu-Xia Pei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Biogenic amines perform many kinds of important physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS) of insects, acting as neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones. The five most abundant types of biogenic amines in invertebrates are dopamine, histamine, serotonin, tyramine, and octopamine (OA). However, in beetles, an important group of model and pest insects, the role of tyramine β-hydroxylase (TβH) in the OA biosynthesis pathway and the regulation of behavior remains unknown so far...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Anthony Watts
Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR constitutes one of the most popular ligand-based NMR techniques for the study of protein-ligand interactions. This is due to its robustness and the fact that it is focused on the signals of the ligand, without any need for NMR information of the macromolecular target. This technique is most commonly applied to systems involving different types of ligands (e.g. small organic molecules, carbohydrates, or lipids) and a protein as the target, where the latter is selectively saturated...
March 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Thomas Møhl, Maria J Miranda
Ketogenic diet (KD) has for a long time been known as an effective treatment for medically intractable epilepsy. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Recent work indicates, that several mechanisms exist for KD, including neurotransmitter regulation, glucose restriction, effects of fatty acids, altered mitochondrial function and mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Revealing the mechanisms of KD provides a better insight in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and helps the development of new treatments of epilepsy and other neurological disorders...
March 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Eating disorders and some forms of obesity are characterized by addictive-like, compulsive eating behavior which contains numerous similarities with compulsive drug use. Food intake is in part mediated by reward and reinforcement processes that can become dysregulated in these disorders. Additionally, impairments in inhibitory control regulation of reward-related responding can cause or further exacerbate binge and compulsive eating. Dysfunctions in two neurotransmitter systems in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, dopamine and glutamate, are thought to contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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