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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#1
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450917/factors-predictive-of-the-onset-and-duration-of-action-of-local-anesthesia-in-mandibular-third-molar-surgery-a-prospective-study
#2
Mohammad H Al-Shayyab, Zaid H Baqain
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of patients' and surgical variables on the onset and duration of action of local anesthesia (LA) in mandibular third-molar (M3) surgery. Patients scheduled for mandibular M3 surgery were considered for inclusion in this prospective cohort study. Patients' and surgical variables were recorded. Two per cent (2%) lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was used to block the nerves for extraction of mandibular M3. Then, the onset of action and duration of LA were monitored...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449164/patients-taking-%C3%AE-blockers-do-not-require-increased-doses-of-epinephrine-for-anaphylaxis
#3
Jennifer L White, Katie C Greger, Sangil Lee, Robert J Kahoud, James T Li, Christine M Lohse, Ronna L Campbell
BACKGROUND: β-Blocker use has been associated with increased anaphylaxis severity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess for an association between β-blocker use and requirement for more than 1 dose of epinephrine for anaphylaxis management. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients seen in our emergency department for anaphylaxis between April 2008 and January 2015. The primary outcome measure was the number of doses of epinephrine...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440873/effect-of-phenylephrine-ketorolac-on-iris-fixation-ring-use-and-surgical-times-in-patients-at-risk-of-intraoperative-miosis
#4
Denise Visco
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intracameral phenylephrine/ketorolac (1%/0.3%) during cataract surgery on the use of iris fixation ring and surgical time in patients with poor pupil dilation (≤5.0 mm) or intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS). Setting: Private practice outpatient surgical center. Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted from January 1, 2014 to October 7, 2015. Materials and methods: The use of iris fixation rings was evaluated in a retrospective analysis of 46 patients who underwent cataract surgery from January 1, 2014, to October 7, 2015, and who were identified before surgery to be at risk for intraoperative miosis...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439456/epinephrine-in-anaphylaxis-preclinical-study-of-pharmacokinetics-after-sublingual-administration-of-taste-masked-tablets-for-potential-pediatric-use
#5
Ousama Rachid, Mutasem Rawas-Qalaji, Keith J Simons
Epinephrine is a life-saving treatment in anaphylaxis. In community settings, a first-aid dose of epinephrine is injected from an auto-injector (EAI). Needle phobia highly contributes to EAI underuse, leading to fatalities-especially in children. A novel rapidly-disintegrating sublingual tablet (RDST) of epinephrine was developed in our laboratory as a potential alternative dosage form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sublingual bioavailability of epinephrine 30 mg as a potential pediatric dose incorporated in our novel taste-masked RDST in comparison with intramuscular (IM) epinephrine 0...
February 11, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438766/in-office-compounding-of-lidocaine-epinephrine-an-option-for-anesthesia-preparation-prior-to-skin-biopsy
#6
Ross Pearlman, Steven R Feldman, Leah Cardwell, Katarina R Kesty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436138/the-incidence-of-postoperative-respiratory-complications-a-retrospective-analysis-of-cuffed-vs-uncuffed-tracheal-tubes-in-children-0-7-years-of-age
#7
Michel de Wit, Linda M Peelen, Leo van Wolfswinkel, Jurgen C de Graaff
BACKGROUND: The use of cuffed vs uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric anesthesia is widely debated. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of cuffed vs uncuffed tubes is associated with an increased incidence of acute postoperative respiratory complications. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all children aged 0-7 years in which the trachea was intubated between September 28, 2006 and August 26, 2016 in a pediatric university hospital. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between tube design (cuffed vs uncuffed) and the incidence of acute postoperative respiratory complications (stridor, wheezing, or dyspnea; desaturations ≤90%) in need of intervention (epinephrine, dexamethasone, nebulizers, supplementary oxygen, or reintubation), adjusting for potential confounders...
March 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434688/nalbuphine-for-analgesia-after-fracture-surgery-and-its-effect-on-circulating-inflammatory-factors
#8
Yong Gong, Yang Zhang, Shoujun Tao
The present study evaluated the use of nalbuphine for analgesia after fraction reduction surgery. Eighty lower limb fracture patients needing open reduction and internal fixation were selected in the First People's Hospital of Jingzhou from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients were randomly divided into observation and control groups (with 40 cases in each). After surgery, the patients in the observation group were treated with nalbuphine (2 mg/kg) for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), while sufentanil (2...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430523/plasma-catecholamine-levels-on-the-morning-of-surgery-predict-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Ethan J Anderson, Jimmy T Efird, Andy C Kiser, Patricia B Crane, Wesley T O'Neal, T Bruce Ferguson, Hazaim Alwair, Kendal Carter, J Mark Williams, Anil K Gehi, Alan P Kypson
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether plasma catecholamines and monoamine oxidase-B (MOA-B) are associated with post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: Although intra- and post-operative adrenergic tone has been demonstrated to be an causative factor for POAF, the role and association of pre-operative plasma catecholamines remains unclear. METHODS: Prior to administration of anesthesia on the morning of surgery, blood samples were obtained from 324 patients undergoing nonemergent coronary artery bypass graft and/or aortic valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at East Carolina Heart Institute...
December 11, 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429513/protective-roles-of-rutin-against-restraint-stress-on-spermatogenesis-in-testes-of-adult-mice
#10
Asif Mehfooz, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Gracijela Maltasic, Fangxiong Shi
In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429229/-analysis-of-adverse-reaction-induced-by-articaine-hydrochloride-and-epinephrine-tartrate-injection-in-75-cases
#11
L J Ren, X Y Song, J S Sun, X Q Sun
Objective: To investigate the causes and clinical manifestation of adverse reaction of articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the adverse drug reactions (ADR) of local anesthetic articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injection. Results: In 75 cases of adverse reactions, there were 40 cases of female and 35 cases of male. Adverse reactions occured more frequently at the age of 3-10 [33% (25/75)] and 1-10 min and one day after injection, respectively accounting for 20% (15/75), and two days, accounting for 15% (15/75), 10-21 days accounting for 8% (6/75)...
February 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427818/mutation-linked-excessively-tight-interaction-between-the-calmodulin-binding-domain-and-c-terminal-domain-of-the-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor-as-a-novel-cause-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#12
Shigehiko Nishimura, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshihide Nakamura, Michiaki Kohno, Yoriomi Hamada, Yoko Sufu, Go Fukui, Takuma Nanno, Hironori Ishiguchi, Takayoshi Kato, Xiaojuan Xu, Makoto Ono, Tetsuro Oda, Shinichi Okuda, Shigeki Kobayashi, Masafumi Yano
BACKGROUND: Ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is known to be a causal gene of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) as an important inherited disease. Some of the human CPVT-associated mutations were found in a domain (4026-4172), which has EF hand motifs; so-called calmodulin (CaM)-like domain (CaMLD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying mechanism by which CPVT is induced with mutation at CaMLD. METHODS: We newly generated N4103K/+ knock-in (KI) mice model...
February 7, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426400/role-of-the-stress-associated-chemicals-norepinephrine-epinephrine-and-substance-p-in-dispersal-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-from-biofilms
#13
Deepti K Pillai, Elva Cha, Derek Mosier
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major problem for the cattle industry that is triggered by various environmental stressors, pathogens and host responses. Mannheimia hemolytica, an important bacterial component of BRD, are present within the nasopharayngeal region of normal calves as commensal biofilm communities. However, following stress there are changes in the nasopharyngeal microenvironment that triggers the transition of the commensal M. haemolytica into a pulmonary pathogen. The factors responsible for this transition in- vivo are unknown...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425976/non-invasive-characterization-of-hemodynamics-in-adult-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients-soon-after-return-of-spontaneous-circulation
#14
Joseph P Ornato, Tammy Nguyen, Peter Moffett, Stephen Miller, Michael J Vitto, David Evans, Alan Payne, Kathy Baker, Mary Schaeffer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about hemodynamics in adult, out-of-hospital (OHCA) patients following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). A 1994 study when "high-dose epinephrine" use was common showed consistently elevated systemic vascular resistance (SVR) lasting ≥6 hours in 49 adult patients after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). STUDY AIM: To characterize hemodynamic abnormalities in adult OHCA patients soon after ROSC. Our hypothesis was that, unlike the consistently high SVR values reported when "high-dose" epinephrine was in common use, there would be a more heterogenous distribution of SVR values using current adrenergic therapy...
February 6, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424419/neurotransmitter-diversity-in-pre-synaptic-terminals-located-in-the-parvicellular-neuroendocrine-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-and-mouse-hypothalamus
#15
Caroline S Johnson, Jaideep S Bains, Alan G Watts
Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423252/extracapsular-local-infiltration-analgesia-in-hip-arthroscopy-a-retrospective-study
#16
Matthew T Philippi, Timothy L Kahn, Temitope F Adeyemi, Travis G Maak, Stephen K Aoki
Many hip arthroscopy patients experience significant pain in the immediate postoperative period. Although peripheral nerve blocks have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating some of this pain, they come with significant costs. Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) may be a significantly cheaper and efficacious treatment modality. Although LIA has been well studied in hip and knee arthroplasty, its efficacy in hip arthroscopy is unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the efficacy of a single extracapsular injection of bupivacaine-epinephrine during hip arthroscopy in reducing the rate of elective postoperative femoral nerve blocks...
January 2018: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419933/a-serious-adverse-event-secondary-to-rapid-intravenous-levetiracetam-injection-in-a-dog
#17
Allison A Biddick, Lenore M Bacek, Amanda R Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To describe a serious adverse event as a result of rapid intravenous injection of undiluted levetiracetam in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old female spayed Chihuahua was evaluated for cluster seizures and tachypnea. The patient was administered an intravenous dose of undiluted levetiracetam (60 mg/kg) and immediately developed tachycardia, hyperglycemia, hypotension, and a dull mentation. The patient's blood pressure and mentation did not respond to intravenous fluid boluses but improved immediately after administration of epinephrine intravenously...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419590/extended-release-liposomal-bupivacaine-injection-exparel-for-early-postoperative-pain-control-following-pharyngoplasty
#18
Kristopher M Day, Narayanan M Nair, Devan Griner, Larry A Sargent
BACKGROUND: Liposomal bupivacaine (LB, Exparel) is a long-acting local anesthetic reported to decrease postoperative. The authors demonstrate the first safe use of LB in pediatric patients with improved pain control following pharyngoplasty. METHODS: Retrospective case-control of all the patients who underwent pharyngoplasty at a tertiary craniofacial center from March 2010 to June 2016. Treatment group (TG) administered 1.3% LB and 0.5% bupivacaine and 1:200,000 epinephrine...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416372/effect-of-bupivacaine-and-adjuvant-drugs-for-regional-anesthesia-on-nerve-tissue-oximetry-and-nerve-blood-flow
#19
Thomas Wiesmann, Stefan Müller, Hans-Helge Müller, Hinnerk Wulf, Thorsten Steinfeldt
Background: Nerve blood flow has a critical role in acute and chronic pathologies in peripheral nerves. Influences of local anesthetics and adjuvants on tissue perfusion and oxygenation are deemed as relevant factors for nerve damage after peripheral regional anesthesia. The link between low tissue perfusion due to local anesthetics and resulting tissue oxygenation is unclear. Methods: Combined tissue spectrophotometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used to assess nerve blood flow in 40 surgically exposed median nerves in pigs, as well as nerve tissue oximetry for 60 min...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415679/downstream-consequences-of-diagnostic-error-in-pediatric-anaphylaxis
#20
H Thomson, R Seith, S Craig
BACKGROUND: Pediatric anaphylaxis is commonly misdiagnosed in the Emergency Department (ED). We aimed to determine the impact of inaccurate diagnosis on the management and follow-up of pediatric anaphylaxis presenting to the ED. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of ED management of children aged 0-18 years with allergic presentations to three EDs in Melbourne, Australia in 2014. Cases were included if an ED diagnosis of anaphylaxis was recorded, or the presentation met international consensus criteria for anaphylaxis...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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