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Epinephrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042718/are-local-anesthesia-vials-similar-to-champagne-do-they-lose-their-potency-once-opened-an-in-vitro-study
#1
P S Gopinath Thilak, Sameep S Shetty, Jagadeesh Chandra, Kavana Gowda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epinephrine is volatile and unstable on exposure to air. Addition of sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant has been effective, but there are no clear-cut consensus on its efficiency in retarding the oxidation that sets in once the anesthetic vials are kept open with a needle in situ. There is a paucity of scientific data regarding the risks of reuse of anesthetic vials following the use of cartridges, a common practice in western countries. It is our endeavor to shed light on the constant change in pH, drug deterioration, and instability that sets in an anesthetic vial with a needle in situ...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040433/low-end-tidal-co2-as-a-real-time-severity-marker-of-intra-anaesthetic-acute-hypersensitivity-reactions
#2
A Gouel-Chéron, L de Chaisemartin, F Jönsson, P Nicaise-Roland, V Granger, A Sabahov, M-T Guinnepain, S Chollet-Martin, P Bruhns, C Neukirch, D Longrois
Background: Prompt diagnosis of intra-anaesthetic acute hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) is challenging because of the possible absence and/or difficulty in detecting the usual clinical signs and because of the higher prevalence of alternative diagnoses. Delayed epinephrine administration during AHR, because of incorrect/delayed diagnosis, can be associated with poor prognosis. Low end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) is known to be linked to low cardiac output. Yet, its clinical utility during suspected intra-anaesthetic AHR is not well documented...
October 10, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040212/vasopressor-cumulative-dose-requirement-and-risk-of-early-death-during-septic-shock-an-analysis-from-the-episs-cohort
#3
Auguste Dargent, Maxime Nguyen, Isabelle Fournel, Abderrahmane Bourredjem, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles, Jean-Pierre Quenot
Septic shock is the primary cause of death in intensive care units, with about 20% of patients dying in the first 3 days. To design future trials focused on early mortality, we require knowledge of early indicators that can detect patients at high risk of early death from refractory septic shock.The aim of this study was to assess whether the cumulative dose of vasopressors (CDV), calculated as the cumulative dose of epinephrine + norepinephrine, is a predictor of early death (within 72 hours) attributable to refractory septic shock (EDASS)...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040203/the-temporal-response-and-mechanism-of-action-of-tranexamic-acid-in-endothelial-glycocalyx-degradation
#4
Mark E Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) plays an important role in vascular barrier function. Damage to the GCX occurs due to a variety of causes including hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion, stress related sympathoadrenal activation, and inflammation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may prevent GCX degradation. The therapeutic window for TXA administration and the mechanism of action has been under review. Membrane-anchored proteases (sheddases) are key components in endothelial cell biology including the regulation of vascular permeability...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037819/drug-induced-paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion
#5
Marlene Garcia-Neuer, Donna Marie Lynch, Kathleen Marquis, Jayme Dowdall, Mariana Castells, David Edward Sloane
Vocal cord dysfunction, also known as paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM), is a disorder characterized by abnormal vocal cord adduction during inspiration. PVFM is commonly misdiagnosed as asthma because of the similarity of symptoms: cough, wheezing, chest pain, and dyspnea. We present the clinical vignette of a 36-year-old woman with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and multiple adverse drug reactions who presented with recurrent episodes of unrecognized PVFM during skin testing for drug allergy, omalizumab treatment, and tocilizumab desensitization...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036580/time-to-epinephrine-and-survival-after-paediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#6
Tatsuma Fukuda, Yutaka Kondo, Kei Hayashida, Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Ichiro Kukita
Aims: Delay in administration of epinephrine is associated with decreased survival among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial non-shockable rhythm. Whether this association is applicable to paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) population remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether time to epinephrine administration is associated with outcomes in paediatric OHCA. Methods and results: This was a nation-wide population-based study of paediatric OHCA in Japan from 2005 to 2012 based on data from the All-Japan Utstein Registry...
July 11, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036023/percutaneous-mesh-expansion-pme-a-regenerative-wound-closure-alternative
#7
Kimberly S Khouri, Eufemiano Cardoso, Roger K Khouri
BACKGROUND: Puncture wounds in the 1-mm range usually heal without scars. Stacking rows of these punctures offers a scarless method to generate tissue by mesh expansion. We developed a percutaneous mesh expansion (PME) procedure and present our experience for its wound closure application. METHODS: Over a six-year period we applied PME to 65 consecutive patients 58-101 years-old (mean, 72) with 67 full thickness calvarial defects 2.5x3-7x8cm (mean, 14cm2) that would have all required flaps for closure...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034735/failure-of-outpatient-management-with-different-observation-times-after-racemic-epinephrine-for-croup
#8
Nadine Smith, Kathryn Giordano, Amy Thompson, Andrew DePiero
BACKGROUND: Observation is necessary following racemic epinephrine (RE) for patients with croup. The ideal length of this observation period is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of failed outpatient management utilizing different observation times after RE administration for croup. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of children with croup who required RE. Failure of treatment was defined as requiring a second RE treatment and/or returning to the pediatric emergency department for croup symptoms within 24 hours of discharge...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033721/an-audit-of-in-hospital-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-saudi-arabia-a-retrospective-study
#9
Abdullah Mohammed Kaki, Kamal Waheeb Alghalayini, Mohamed Nabil Alama, Adnan Abdullah Almazroaa, Norah Abdullah A Khathlan, Hassan Sembawa, Beena M Ouseph
OBJECTIVES: Data reflecting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts in Saudi Arabia are limited. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics, and estimated the outcome, of in-hospital CPR in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia over 4 years. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2012 and included 4361 patients with sudden cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitation forms were reviewed. Demographic data, resuscitation characteristics, and survival outcomes were recorded...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033152/intraoperative-infiltration-of-liposomal-bupivacaine-vs-bupivacaine-hydrochloride-for-pain-management-in-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#10
Itay Perets, John P Walsh, Brian H Mu, Leslie C Yuen, Lyall Ashberg, Muriel R Battaglia, Benjamin G Domb
BACKGROUND: Pain management after total hip arthroplasty is well studied. Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the "cocktail" to use in periarticular infiltration (PAI). Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a slow release local anesthetic that can be infiltrated during surgery. In this study, we compared LB to bupivacaine hydrochloride (HCL). METHODS: Between September 2014 and March 2016, 181 patients were screened for this prospective randomized trial. A total of 107 patients were enrolled and studied...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032494/the-effects-of-add-on-exenatide-to-insulin-on-glycemic-variability-and-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#11
L-L Jiang, S-Q Wang, B Ding, J Zhu, T Jing, L Ye, K-O Lee, J-D Wu, J-H Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of add-on exenatide to insulin on glycemic excursion and the counter-regulatory hormone in response to hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: 30 patients with T1DM were recruited and randomly assigned to exenatide + insulin-treated group (group 1, n = 15) or insulin-only-treated group (group 2, n = 15) for 4 weeks. All patients had continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS) applied at before (week-0) and after (week-4) treatment to evaluate the glycemic variability...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032334/anti-hypersensitivity-effects-of-the-phthalimide-derivative-n-4methyl-phenyl-4-methylphthalimide-in-different-pain-models-in-mice
#12
Gislaine Francieli da Silva, Mariana Ferreira Dos Anjos, Lilian Wunsch Rocha, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello Ferreira, Dorimar Serafim Stiz, Rogério Corrêa, Jose Roberto Santin, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Marcelo Zaldini Hernandes, Nara Lins Meira Quintão
The treatment of chronic pain remains a challenge for clinicians worldwide, independent of its pathogenesis. It motivates several studies attempting to discover strategies to treat the disease. The in silico analysis using molecular docking approach demonstrated that the phthalimide N-(4methyl-phenyl)-4-methylphthalimide (MPMPH-1) presented high affinity to adenylyl-cyclase enzyme (AC). It also prominently reduced the mechanical hypersensitivity of mice challenged by Forskolin, an AC activator. This effect lasted for up to 48h after Forskolin injection, presenting activity longer than MDL-12330A (AC inhibitor)...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030665/development-and-validation-of-a-simple-rapid-and-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-measurement-of-urinary-neurotransmitters-and-their-metabolites
#13
Jingya Yan, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparambil, Sushil Bandodkar, Nadia Solowij, Shanlin Fu
Neurotransmitters play crucial roles in physiological functions and their imbalances have demonstrated association in the pathology of several diseases. The measurement of neurotransmitters possesses a great potential as a significant clinical tool. This study presents the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of multi-class neurotransmitters associated with dopamine, tryptophan and glutamate-γ-aminobutyric acid pathways. A total of ten neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, epinephrine, metanephrine, tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenic acid, kynurenine, anthranilic acid, GABA, glutamic acid) were determined based on a simple and rapid 'dilute and shoot' method using minimal urine volume...
October 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027462/dual-signal-microbial-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-dopamine-without-inference-from-other-catecholamine-neurotransmitters
#14
Yu-Kuan Lin, Yi-Chun Yeh
Dopamine, one of catecholamine neurotransmitters, plays an important role in many brain functions and behavioral responses. In this study, we developed a novel dual-signal whole-cell biosensor for the detection of dopamine through the generation of red fluorescent proteins and 6-decarboxylated betaxanthin pigments. The proposed system responses specifically to dopamine with a detection limit of 1.43 μM. Furthermore, a combination of dual output signals makes it possible to reduce the interference from other catecholamine neurotransmitters, including L-DOPA, epinephrine, and norepinephrine...
October 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021703/ginsenoside-rg3-enriched-red-ginseng-extract-inhibits-platelet-activation-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-thrombus-formation
#15
Dahye Jeong, Muhammad Irfan, Sung-Dae Kim, Suk Kim, Jun-Hwan Oh, Chae-Kyu Park, Hyun-Kyoung Kim, Man Hee Rhee
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng has been used for several decades to treat many diseases, enhancing both immunity and physical strength. Previous studies have documented the therapeutic effects of ginseng, including its anticancer, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities are mediated by ginsenosides present in the ginseng plant. Ginsenoside Rg3, an effective compound from red ginseng, has been shown to have antiplatelet activity in addition to its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019905/bezold-jarisch-reflex-occurred-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-giant-intra-abdominal-teratoma-during-induction-of-anesthesia-a-case-report
#16
Kai-Ming Yuan, Shu-Ying Fu, Jun Li, Wang-Ning Shangguan, Qing-Quan Lian
RATIONALE: Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) occurs when the cardioinhibitory receptors in the walls of ventricles are activated by various stimuli, with typical features of bradycardia, vasorelaxation, and hypotension. This reflex usually happens in parturient intrathecal anesthesia, as a result of decreased venous return by compression of inferior vena cava, but it is only rarely reported during general anesthesia. PATIENT CONCERNS: Severe bradycardia and hypotension, indicating BJR, occurred during the induction of general anesthesia in a 3-month-old female child with giant intra-abdominal teratoma...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018364/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-oct%C3%AE-2-receptor-and-tyr1-receptor-in-the-chagas-disease-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#17
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
Octopamine and tyramine, both biogenic amines, are bioactive chemicals important in diverse physiological processes in invertebrates. In insects, octopamine and tyramine operate analogously to epinephrine and norepinephrine in the vertebrates. Octopamine and tyramine bind to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leading to changes in second messenger levels and thereby modifying the function in target tissues and insect behavior. In this paper, we report the cDNA sequences of two GPCRs, RhoprOctβ2-R, and RhoprTyr1-R, have been cloned and functionally characterized from Rhodnius prolixus...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017902/small-percentage-of-anaphylactic-reactions-treated-with-epinephrine-during-food-challenges-in-dutch-children
#18
Johanna P M van der Valk, Irene Berends, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Nicolette J T Arends, Maurits S van Maaren, Hans de Groot, Harry J Wichers, Joyce A M Emons, Anthony E J Dubois, Nicolette W de Jong
BACKGROUND: Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, occur during oral food challenges (OFCs) and the first-line treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentage of anaphylactic reactions treated with epinephrine during OFCs and to identify associated factors for the administration of epinephrine. METHODS: Children who underwent an OFC with peanut, hazelnut, cow's milk, hen's egg, or cashew nut from 2005 through 2015 in the Netherlands were evaluated...
October 7, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017289/comparative-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-lignocaine-containing-topical-anesthetic-agents-during-extraction-of-deciduous-anterior-teeth
#19
Mythri Sarpangala, Ashwin Devasya, Ashford L George
To evaluate the efficacy of 2%, 4% Lignocaine, EMLA mixture and Precaine topical anaesthetic agents (with 1:1, 00,000 epinephrine) during the extraction of deciduous anterior tooth. Eighty patients with pre-shedding mobility of deciduous anterior tooth were divided randomly into four groups. Lignocaine, in amount of 2% and 4%, Precaine and EMLA topical anaesthetic agents were applied and the tooth was extracted. VAS has been used to assess the subjective pain while Wong-Baker faces scale and SEM pain scale have been used to record the objective pain to check the efficacy of these topical anaesthetic agents...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016551/pectoral-fascial-pecs-i-and-ii-blocks-as-rescue-analgesia-in-a-patient-undergoing-minimally-invasive-cardiac-surgery
#20
Suraj Yalamuri, Rebecca Y Klinger, W Michael Bullock, Donald D Glower, Brandi A Bottiger, Jeffrey C Gadsden
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery have the potential for significant pain from the thoracotomy site. We report the successful use of pectoral nerve block types I and II (Pecs I and II) as rescue analgesia in a patient undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair. CASE REPORT: In this case, a 78-year-old man, with no history of chronic pain, underwent mitral valve repair via right anterior thoracotomy for severe mitral regurgitation...
October 6, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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