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Anthocyanin, pigment, flower

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742202/chemistry-inspired-by-the-colors-of-fruits-flowers-and-wine
#1
Frank H Quina, Erick L Bastos
An overview is provided of the status of research at the frontiers of investigation of the chemistry and photochemistry of two classes of natural plant pigments, the anthocyanins and the betalains, as well as of the pyranoanthocyanin pigments formed from anthocyanins during the maturation of red wine. Together, anthocyanins and betalains are responsible for almost all of the red, purple and blue colors of fruits and flowers and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins are major contributors to the color of red wines...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681755/recent-advances-in-flower-color-variation-and-patterning-of-japanese-morning-glory-and-petunia
#2
REVIEW
Yasumasa Morita, Atsushi Hoshino
The Japanese morning glory ( Ipomoea nil ) and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ), locally called "Asagao" and "Tsukubane-asagao", respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681754/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-diverse-array-of-petal-colors-in-chrysanthemum-flowers
#3
REVIEW
Akemi Ohmiya
Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most important floricultural crops in the world. Although the origin of modern chrysanthemum cultivars is uncertain, several species belonging to the family Asteraceae are considered to have been integrated during the long history of breeding. The flower color of ancestral species is limited to yellow, pink, and white, and is derived from carotenoids, anthocyanins, and the absence of both pigments, respectively. A wide range of flower colors, including purplish-red, orange, red, and dark red, has been developed by increasing the range of pigment content or the combination of both pigments...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681750/recent-advances-in-the-research-and-development-of-blue-flowers
#4
REVIEW
Naonobu Noda
Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681745/breeding-of-fragrant-cyclamen-by-interspecific-hybridization-and-ion-beam-irradiation
#5
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ishizaka
Conventional breeding of cyclamen has relied on crossings among Cyclamen persicum cultivars without consideration of the scent of the flowers. Cyclamen purpurascens is a wild species with the most fragrant flowers in the genus Cyclamen. Allodiploid (2 n = 2 x = 41, AB) and allotriploid (2 n = 3 x = 65, AAB) plants have been produced from crosses of diploid and autotetraploid cultivars of C. persicum (2 n = 2 x = 48, AA; 4 x = 96, AAAA) × diploid wild C. purpurascens (2 n = 2 x = 34, BB) by embryo rescue, but are sterile...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597321/ectopic-overexpression-of-a-novel-r2r3-myb-ntmyb2-from-chinese-narcissus-represses-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-tobacco
#6
Muhammad Anwar, Guiqing Wang, Jiacheng Wu, Saquib Waheed, Andrew C Allan, Lihui Zeng
R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem) and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552650/production-of-anthocyanins-in-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms-current-status-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Jian Zha, Mattheos A G Koffas
Microbial production of plant-derived natural products by engineered microorganisms has achieved great success thanks to large extend to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Anthocyanins, the water-soluble colored pigments found in terrestrial plants that are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many flowers and fruits, are extensively used in food and cosmetics industry; however, their current supply heavily relies on complex extraction from plant-based materials. A promising alternative is their sustainable production in metabolically engineered microbes...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522465/fine-mapping-identifies-smfas-encoding-an-anthocyanidin-synthase-as-a-putative-candidate-gene-for-flower-purple-color-in-solanum-melongena-l
#8
Mengqiang Chen, Mengyun Xu, Yao Xiao, Dandan Cui, Yongqiang Qin, Jiaqi Wu, Wenyi Wang, Guoping Wang
Anthocyanins are the main pigments in flowers and fruits. These pigments are responsible for the red, red-purple, violet, and purple color in plants, and act as insect and animal attractants. In this study, phenotypic analysis of the purple flower color in eggplant indicated that the flower color is controlled by a single dominant gene, FAS . Using an F₂ mapping population derived from a cross between purple-flowered 'Blacknite' and white-flowered 'Small Round', Flower Anthocyanidin Synthase ( FAS ) was fine mapped to an approximately 165...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474693/the-use-of-rna-sequencing-and-correlation-network-analysis-to-study-potential-regulators-of-crabapple-leaf-color-transformation
#9
Tuo Yang, Keting Li, Suxiao Hao, Jie Zhang, Tingting Song, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Anthocyanins are plant pigments that contribute to the color of leaves, flowers and fruits, and that are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. The study of a transformable crabapple cultivar, 'India magic', which has red buds and green mature leaves, using mRNA profiling of four leaf developmental stages, allowed us to characterize molecular mechanisms regulating red color formation in early leaf development and the subsequent rapid down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This analysis of differential gene expression during leaf development revealed that ethylene signaling-responsive genes are up-regulated during leaf pigmentation...
May 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316619/radical-scavenging-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-representative-anthocyanin-groupings-from-pigment-rich-fruits-and-vegetables
#10
Federica Blando, Nadia Calabriso, Helge Berland, Gabriele Maiorano, Carmela Gerardi, Maria Annunziata Carluccio, Øyvind M Andersen
Anthocyanins, the naturally occurring pigments responsible for most red to blue colours of flowers, fruits and vegetables, have also attracted interest because of their potential health effects. With the aim of contributing to major insights into their structure-activity relationship (SAR), we have evaluated the radical scavenging and biological activities of selected purified anthocyanin samples (PASs) from various anthocyanin-rich plant materials: two fruits (mahaleb cherry and blackcurrant) and two vegetables (black carrot and "Sun Black" tomato), differing in anthocyanin content (ranging from 4...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247705/transcriptome-and-metabolic-profiling-provides-insights-into-betalain-biosynthesis-and-evolution-in-mirabilis-jalapa
#11
Guy Polturak, Uwe Heinig, Noam Grossman, Maor Battat, Dena Leshkowitz, Sergey Malitsky, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived pigments that occur solely in one plant order, the Caryophyllales, where they largely replace the anthocyanins in a mutually exclusive manner. In this study, we conducted multi-species transcriptome and metabolic profiling in Mirabilis jalapa and additional betalain-producing species to identify candidate genes possibly involved in betalain biosynthesis. Among the candidates identified, betalain-related cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase-type genes, which catalyze tyrosine hydroxylation or (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-glucose formation, respectively, were further functionally characterized...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244558/loss-of-color-pigmentation-is-maintained-at-high-frequency-in-a-monkey-flower-population
#12
Alex D Twyford, Aaron M Caola, Pratibha Choudhary, Ramesh Raina, Jannice Friedman
Color polymorphisms have long been of evolutionary interest for their diverse roles, including mate choice, predator avoidance, and pollinator attraction. While color variation is often under strong selection, some taxa demonstrate unexpectedly high frequencies of presumed deleterious color forms. Here we show that a genetic variant underlying complete loss of anthocyanin pigmentation has risen to an unexpectedly high frequency of >0.2 in a natural population of the plant Mimulus guttatus. Decreased expression of MYB5 transcription factor is associated with unpigmented morphs...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210634/preventive-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-anthocyanins-in-diabetes-and-associated-complications
#13
Swathi Putta, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Eswar K Kumar, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa, Mohammad A Kamal, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Ghulam Md Ashraf, George E Barreto, B Sasi Bhusana Rao, D Sarala Kumari, Gorla V Reddy, Vadim V Tarasov, Sarat Babu Imandi, Gjumrakch Aliev
Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for diabetes mellitus. In search of preventative and therapeutic strategies, it is to be considering the potential role of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to prevent the pathogenesis associated with metabolic diseases. Human consumption of anthocyanins is among the highest of all flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of diabetes and diabetic complications. Anthocyanins are important natural bioactive pigments responsible for red to blue colour of fruits, leaves, seeds, stems and flowers, which are present in a variety of plant species particularly in berries and cherries...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051190/molecular-basis-of-overdominance-at-a-flower-color-locus
#14
Amy M LaFountain, Wenjie Chen, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen, Harry A Frank, Baoqing Ding, Yao-Wu Yuan
Single-gene overdominance is one of the major mechanisms proposed to explain heterosis ( i.e. , hybrid vigor), the phenomenon that hybrid offspring between two inbred lines or varieties show superior phenotypes to both parents. Although sporadic examples of single-gene overdominance have been reported over the decades, the molecular nature of this phenomenon remains poorly understood and it is unclear whether any generalizable principle underlies the various cases. Through bulk segregant analysis, chemical profiling, and transgenic experiments, we show that loss-of-function alleles of the FLAVONE SYNTHASE ( FNS ) gene cause overdominance in anthocyanin-based flower color intensity in the monkeyflower species Mimulus lewisii FNS negatively affects flower color intensity by competing with the anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes for the same substrates, yet positively affects flower color intensity by producing flavones, the colorless copigments required for anthocyanin stabilization, leading to enhanced pigmentation in the heterozyote ( FNS/fns ) relative to both homozygotes ( FNS/FNS and fns/fns )...
December 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023752/a-novel-r3-myb-transcriptional-repressor-associated-with-the-loss-of-floral-pigmentation-in-iochroma
#15
Daniel J Gates, Bradley J S C Olson, Tom E Clemente, Stacey D Smith
Losses of floral pigmentation represent one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flower color, yet the genetic basis for these changes has been elucidated in only a handful of cases. Here we used crossing studies, bulk-segregant RNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional tests to identify the gene(s) responsible for the transition to white flowers in Iochroma loxense. Crosses between I. loxense and its blue-flowered sister species, I. cyaneum, suggested that a single locus controls the flower color difference and that the white allele causes a nearly complete loss of pigmentation...
February 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966045/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potential-genes-involved-in-flower-pigmentation-in-a-red-flowered-mutant-of-white-clover-trifolium-repens-l
#16
Heshan Zhang, Hong Tian, Mingxin Chen, Junbo Xiong, Hua Cai, Yang Liu
White clover (Trifolium repens L.) has been cultivated for ornamental use because of its flowers, leaf marks and creeping habit. Although a mutation in flower color is very infrequent in this species, the red-flowered mutant of white clover was a novel germplasm for ornamental white clover breeding. The mechanism of flower pigmentation in white clover is still limited because of the rarity of mutation materials and the lack of genomic data. In this study, two cDNA libraries from red-flowered white clover mutant between sunlight-exposed plants and shade-treated plants, respectively, were used for transcriptome sequencing...
September 28, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924499/genome-wide-identification-of-the-mads-box-transcription-factor-family-in-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri-reveals-evolution-and-functional-divergence
#17
Runze Wang, Meiling Ming, Jiaming Li, Dongqing Shi, Xin Qiao, Leiting Li, Shaoling Zhang, Jun Wu
MADS-box transcription factors play significant roles in plant developmental processes such as floral organ conformation, flowering time, and fruit development. Pear (Pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. However, there is limited information about the MADS family and its functional divergence in pear. In this study, a total of 95 MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome, and classified into two types by phylogenetic analysis. Type I MADS-box genes were divided into three subfamilies and type II genes into 14 subfamilies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888431/thermal-pest-control-in-tannat-grapes-effect-on-anthocyanins-sensory-and-color-of-one-year-old-wines
#18
Taísa Ceratti Treptow, Carine Gláucia Comarella, Fernanda Wouters Franco, Eliseu Rodrigues, Fabrício Domingues, Vivian Caetano Bochi, Cláudia Kaehler Sautter
Thermal pest control (TPC) is a technology that applies heated air in the vineyard to reduce pests. However, it can also alter grape anthocyanin synthesis in answer to temperature stress. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of TPC in 'Tannat' grape vineyards on wine quality. The major makers of quality considered in this study were the wine anthocyanin characterization by HPLC-PDA-MS(n), beverage's sensory evaluation by descriptive analysis, and color parameters by instrumental analysis. A total of three experiments were performed in different harvesting years...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885552/structure-of-pigment-metabolic-pathways-and-their-contributions-to-white-tepal-color-formation-of-chinese-narcissus-tazetta-var-chinensis-cv-jinzhanyintai
#19
Yujun Ren, Jingwen Yang, Bingguo Lu, Yaping Jiang, Haiyang Chen, Yuwei Hong, Binghua Wu, Ying Miao
Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797084/the-endogenous-transposable-element-tgm9-is-suitable-for-generating-knockout-mutants-for-functional-analyses-of-soybean-genes-and-genetic-improvement-in-soybean
#20
Devinder Sandhu, Jayadri Ghosh, Callie Johnson, Jordan Baumbach, Eric Baumert, Tyler Cina, David Grant, Reid G Palmer, Madan K Bhattacharyya
In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from Intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase of the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 was mapped to the W4 locus, where the allele containing Tgm9 was termed w4-m. In this study we have demonstrated that previously identified morphological mutants (three chlorophyll deficient mutants, one male sterile-female fertile mutant, and three partial female sterile mutants) were caused by insertion of Tgm9 following its excision from DFR2...
2017: PloS One
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