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Anthocyanin, pigment, flower

Judit Berman, Yanmin Sheng, Lourdes Gómez Gómez, Tania Veiga, Xiuzhen Ni, Gemma Farré, Teresa Capell, Javier Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G...
2016: PloS One
Sercan Yıldırım, Asım Kadıoğlu, Aykut Sağlam, Ahmet Yaşar, Hasan Erdinç Sellitepe
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that are liable for colors ranging from red to blue of most fruits, vegetables, and flowers. A novel and fast method was developed for the determination of five anthocyanins and free pelargonidin by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection. A 10% formic acid and acetonitrile mixture was employed as mobile phase in the gradient elution mode. Mobile phase composition, column temperature, flow rate, injection volume, and column conditioning time were optimized by employing a stepwise strategy...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Kazuma Suzuki, Tomohiro Suzuki, Takashi Nakatsuka, Hideo Dohra, Masumi Yamagishi, Kohei Matsuyama, Hideyuki Matsuura
BACKGROUND: Color patterns in angiosperm flowers are produced by spatially and temporally restricted deposition of pigments. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for restricted pigment deposition is a topic of broad interest. Some dicots species develop bicolor petals, which are often caused by the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. An Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cultivar Lollypop develops bicolor tepals with pigmented tips and white bases...
2016: BMC Genomics
Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Gyu Tae Park, Jeong Ho Chang, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Hak Soo Seo, Gyuhwa Chung, Jong Tae Song
In soybean, flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) play a crucial role in the production of anthocyanin pigments. Loss-of-function of the W1 locus, which encodes the former, or W3 and W4, which encode the latter, always produces white flowers. In this study, we searched for new genetic components responsible for the production of white flowers in soybean and isolated four white-flowered mutant lines, i.e., two Glycine soja accessions (CW12700 and CW13381) and two EMS-induced mutants of Glycine max (PE1837 and PE636)...
2016: PloS One
Simona Fabroni, Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Paolo Rapisarda
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin-colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation as a result of anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is both tissue- and genotype-dependent. The present study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species...
November 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Linghua Chen, Yining Huang, Ming Xu, Zuxin Cheng, Dasheng Zhang, Jingui Zheng
BACKGROUND: Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. RESULTS: The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L...
2016: PloS One
Yu Jeong Jeong, Chul Han An, Su Gyeong Woo, Ji Hye Park, Ki-Won Lee, Sang-Hoon Lee, Yeonggil Rim, Hyung Jae Jeong, Young Bae Ryu, Cha Young Kim
The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L...
September 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Andrea E Berardi, Sherry B Hildreth, Richard F Helm, Brenda S J Winkel, Stacey D Smith
Plant reproductive and vegetative tissues often use the same biochemical pathways to produce specialized metabolites. In such cases, selection acting on the synthesis of specific products in a particular tissue could result in correlated changes in other products of the pathway, both in the same tissue and in other tissues. This study examined how changes in floral anthocyanin pigmentation affect the production of other compounds of the flavonoid pathway in flowers and in leaves. Focusing on the Iochrominae, a clade of Solanaceae with a wide range of flower colors, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and UV detection was used to profile and quantify the variation in two classes of flavonoids, anthocyanins and flavonols...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
Tom J Ellis, David L Field
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiosperms display remarkable diversity in flower colour, implying that transitions between pigmentation phenotypes must have been common. Despite progress in understanding transitions between anthocyanin (blue, purple, pink or red) and unpigmented (white) flowers, little is known about the evolutionary patterns of flower-colour transitions in lineages with both yellow and anthocyanin-pigmented flowers. This study investigates the relative rates of evolutionary transitions between different combinations of yellow- and anthocyanin-pigmentation phenotypes in the tribe Antirrhineae...
June 2016: Annals of Botany
Winnie W Ho, Stacey D Smith
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic transitions, such as trait gain or loss, are predicted to carry evolutionary consequences for the genes that control their development. For example, trait losses can result in molecular decay of the pathways underlying the trait. Focusing on the Iochrominae clade (Solanaceae), we examine how repeated losses of floral anthocyanin pigmentation associated with flower color transitions have affected the molecular evolution of three anthocyanin pathway genes (Chi, F3h, and Dfr)...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ichiro Kasajima, Katsutomo Sasaki
The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH...
May 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Atsushi Hoshino, Yoshiaki Yoneda, Tsutomu Kuboyama
Floricultural cultivars of the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) carry transposons of the Tpn1 family as active spontaneous mutagens. Half of the characterized mutations related to floricultural traits were caused by insertion of Tpn1 family elements. In addition, mutations comprising insertions of several bp, presumed to be footprints generated by transposon excisions, were also found. Among these, ca-1 and ca-2 are 7-bp insertions at the same position in the InWDR1 gene, which encodes a multifunctional transcription regulator...
July 20, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
Lin Liu, Liang-Ying Zhang, Shu-Li Wang, Xin-Yu Niu
Flower color is one of the major ornamental characteristics of the genus Rhododendron, but few studies on flower color in alpine Rhododendron have been reported. In our study, the flower colors and the pigment constituents of petals from 10 Rhododendron species sampled in the Sygera Mountains of Southeast Tibet were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2)). The color analysis showed that the 10 Rhododendron species could be divided into five color groupings: yellow, red, red-purple, purple-violet, and purple...
July 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kotarou Amamiya, Tsukasa Iwashina
Two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from the black flowers of Cosmos atrosanguineus cultivar 'Choco Mocha', together with three minor anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucoside, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside. A chalcone, butein 4'-O-glucoside and three minor flavanones were isolated from the red flowers of C. atrosanguineis x C. sulphureus cultivar 'Rouge Rouge'. The anthocyanins and chalcone accumulation of cultivar 'Choco Mocha' and its hybrid cultivars 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge', 'Rouge Rouge' and 'Noel Rouge' was surveyed by quantitative HPLC...
January 2016: Natural Product Communications
Yan Hong, Li-Wen Yang, Meng-Ling Li, Si-Lan Dai
Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed...
June 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Inés Casimiro-Soriguer, Eduardo Narbona, M L Buide, José C Del Valle, Justen B Whittall
Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Patrick Trouillas, Juan C Sancho-García, Victor De Freitas, Johannes Gierschner, Michal Otyepka, Olivier Dangles
Natural anthocyanin pigments/dyes and phenolic copigments/co-dyes form noncovalent complexes, which stabilize and modulate (in particular blue, violet, and red) colors in flowers, berries, and food products derived from them (including wines, jams, purees, and syrups). This noncovalent association and their electronic and optical implications constitute the copigmentation phenomenon. Over the past decade, experimental and theoretical studies have enabled a molecular understanding of copigmentation. This review revisits this phenomenon to provide a comprehensive description of the nature of binding (the dispersion and electrostatic components of π-π stacking, the hydrophobic effect, and possible hydrogen-bonding between pigment and copigment) and of spectral modifications occurring in copigmentation complexes, in which charge transfer plays an important role...
May 11, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Zhengkun Qiu, Xiaoxuan Wang, Jianchang Gao, Yanmei Guo, Zejun Huang, Yongchen Du
Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah...
2016: PloS One
Qiu-Yang Yao, Hui Huang, Yan Tong, En-Hua Xia, Li-Zhi Gao
Camellia reticulata, which is native to Southwest China, is famous for its ornamental flowers and high-quality seed oil. However, the lack of genomic information for this species has largely hampered our understanding of its key pathways related to oil production, photoperiodic flowering process and pigment biosynthesis. Here, we first sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of a diploid C. reticulata in an attempt to identify genes potentially involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis (TAGBS), photoperiodic flowering, flavonoid biosynthesis (FlaBS), carotenoid biosynthesis (CrtBS) pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Julienne Ng, Stacey D Smith
Red flowers have evolved repeatedly across angiosperms and are frequently examined in an ecological context. However, less is known about the biochemical basis of red colouration in different taxa. In this study, we examine the spectral properties, anthocyanin composition and carotenoid expression of red flowers in the tomato family, Solanaceae, which have evolved independently multiple times across the group. Our study demonstrates that Solanaceae typically make red flowers either by the sole production of red anthocyanins or, more commonly, by the dual production of purple or blue anthocyanins and orange carotenoids...
2016: AoB Plants
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