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Anthocyanin, pigment, flower

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095853/crispri-mediated-metabolic-engineering-of-e-coli-for-o-methylated-anthocyanin-production
#1
Brady F Cress, Quentin D Leitz, Daniel C Kim, Teresita D Amore, Jon Y Suzuki, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095782/genome-scale-transcriptional-study-of-hybrid-effects-and-regulatory-divergence-in-an-f1-hybrid-ruellia-wild-petunias-acanthaceae-and-its-parents
#2
Yongbin Zhuang, Erin A Tripp
BACKGROUND: New combinations of divergent genomes can give rise to novel genetic functions in resulting hybrid progeny. Such functions may yield opportunities for ecological divergence, contributing ultimately to reproductive isolation and evolutionary longevity of nascent hybrid lineages. In plants, the degree to which transgressive genotypes contribute to floral novelty remains a question of key interest. Here, we generated an F1 hybrid plant between the red-flowered Ruellia elegans and yellow flowered R...
January 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057690/related-allopolyploids-display-distinct-floral-pigment-profiles-and-transgressive-pigments
#3
Elizabeth W McCarthy, Andrea E Berardi, Stacey D Smith, Amy Litt
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. METHODS: We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053648/harnessing-anthocyanin-rich-fruit-a-visible-reporter-for-tracing-virus-induced-gene-silencing-in-pepper-fruit
#4
Jihyun Kim, Minkyu Park, Eun Soo Jeong, Je Min Lee, Doil Choi
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become a powerful tool for post-genomic technology in plant species. This is important, especially in select plants, such as the pepper plant, that are recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Although VIGS in plants has been widely employed as a powerful tool for functional genomics, scattering phenotypic effects by uneven gene silencing has been implemented in order to overcome challenges in experiments with fruit tissues...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051907/novel-r2r3-myb-transcription-factors-from-prunus-americana-regulate-differential-patterns-of-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-tobacco-and-citrus
#5
Kasturi Dasgupta, Roger Thilmony, Ed Stover, Maria Luiza Oliveira, James Thomson
The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, PamMybA.1, PamMybA.3 and PamMybA.5 from Prunus americana. The anthocyanin accumulation patterns mediated by CaMV double35S promoter (db35Sp) controlled expression of the TFs in transgenic tobacco were compared to citrus-MoroMybA, Arabidopsis-AtMybA1 and grapevine-VvMybA1 transgenics during their entire growth cycles...
January 4, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968988/spatial-genetic-structure-in-wild-cardoon-the-ancestor-of-cultivated-globe-artichoke-limited-gene-flow-fragmentation-and-population-history
#6
D Rau, M Rodriguez, E Rapposelli, M L Murgia, R Papa, A H D Brown, G Attene
Nuclear and chloroplast markers and phenotypic characters were integrated to analyse the population genetic structure of wild cardoon, Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated globe artichoke, Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The spatial scale ranged from a few metres to ∼200km. Wild cardoon appears to be genetically fragmented, with significant genetic divergence at various scales, indicating that gene flow is insufficient to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift or founder effects...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879624/transcriptome-analysis-identifies-key-candidate-genes-mediating-purple-ovary-coloration-in-asiatic-hybrid-lilies
#7
Leifeng Xu, Panpan Yang, Suxia Yuan, Yayan Feng, Hua Xu, Yuwei Cao, Jun Ming
Lily tepals have a short lifespan. Once the tepals senesce, the ornamental value of the flower is lost. Some cultivars have attractive purple ovaries and fruits which greatly enhance the ornamental value of Asiatic hybrid lilies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. To investigate the transcriptional network that governs purple ovary coloration in Asiatic hybrid lilies, we obtained transcriptome data from green ovaries (S1) and purple ovaries (S2) of Asiatic "Tiny Padhye"...
November 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818667/multiple-r2r3-myb-transcription-factors-involved-in-the-regulation-of-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-peach-flower
#8
Hui Zhou, Qian Peng, Jianbo Zhao, Albert Owiti, Fei Ren, Liao Liao, Lu Wang, Xianbao Deng, Quan Jiang, Yuepeng Han
Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19, and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA) biosynthetic genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795693/inheritance-and-qtl-analysis-of-the-determinants-of-flower-color-in-tetraploid-cut-roses
#9
Virginia W Gitonga, Robert Stolker, Carole F S Koning-Boucoiran, Mitra Aelaei, Richard G F Visser, Chris Maliepaard, Frans A Krens
The success of cut rose cultivars is a direct result of their aesthetic value. The rose industry thrives on novelty, and the production of novel flower color has been extensively studied. The most popular color is red, and it is, therefore, important for breeders to produce a good red cultivar. The final visible color of the flower is a combination of a number of factors including the type of anthocyanin accumulating, modifications to the anthocyanidin molecule, co-pigmentation and vacuolar pH. Here, we analyze the quantitative variation of the biochemical constituents of flower color in a tetraploid rose population and combine this with marker information in the segregating rose population to map the chromosomal locations of putative QTLs for flower color traits...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790222/transcriptome-analysis-of-a-new-peanut-seed-coat-mutant-for-the-physiological-regulatory-mechanism-involved-in-seed-coat-cracking-and-pigmentation
#10
Liyun Wan, Bei Li, Manish K Pandey, Yanshan Wu, Yong Lei, Liying Yan, Xiaofeng Dai, Huifang Jiang, Juncheng Zhang, Guo Wei, Rajeev K Varshney, Boshou Liao
Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as "peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb)." The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788164/effect-of-debagging-time-on-pigment-patterns-in-the-peel-and-sugar-and-organic-acid-contents-in-the-pulp-of-golden-delicious-and-qinguan-apple-fruit-at-mid-and-late-stages-of-development
#11
Chenjuan Jing, Changqing Ma, Juan Zhang, Shujuan Jing, Xiaobing Jiang, Yazhou Yang, Zhengyang Zhao
This study examined the effect of debagging time on color and flavor / taste compounds in the non-red apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious' and red cultivar 'Qinguan' at mid and late stages of fruit development. Debagging briefly improved the red color in both cultivars, the peel of 'Golden Delicious' presenting pale-pink hue. However, rapid anthocyanin accumulation occurred in apple peel at a specific time (after 179 days after flowering (DAF) in 'Qinguan') and was unaltered by debagging time in the red cultivar 'Qinguan'...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589396/red-anthocyanins-and-yellow-carotenoids-form-the-color-of-orange-flower-gentian-gentiana-lutea-l-var-aurantiaca
#12
Judit Berman, Yanmin Sheng, Lourdes Gómez Gómez, Tania Veiga, Xiuzhen Ni, Gemma Farré, Teresa Capell, Javier Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550473/fast-determination-of-anthocyanins-and-free-pelargonidin-in-fruits-fruit-juices-and-fruit-wines-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-using-a-core-shell-column
#13
Sercan Yıldırım, Asım Kadıoğlu, Aykut Sağlam, Ahmet Yaşar, Hasan Erdinç Sellitepe
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that are liable for colors ranging from red to blue of most fruits, vegetables, and flowers. A novel and fast method was developed for the determination of five anthocyanins and free pelargonidin by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection. A 10% formic acid and acetonitrile mixture was employed as mobile phase in the gradient elution mode. Mobile phase composition, column temperature, flow rate, injection volume, and column conditioning time were optimized by employing a stepwise strategy...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516339/rna-seq-based-evaluation-of-bicolor-tepal-pigmentation-in-asiatic-hybrid-lilies-lilium-spp
#14
Kazuma Suzuki, Tomohiro Suzuki, Takashi Nakatsuka, Hideo Dohra, Masumi Yamagishi, Kohei Matsuyama, Hideyuki Matsuura
BACKGROUND: Color patterns in angiosperm flowers are produced by spatially and temporally restricted deposition of pigments. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for restricted pigment deposition is a topic of broad interest. Some dicots species develop bicolor petals, which are often caused by the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. An Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cultivar Lollypop develops bicolor tepals with pigmented tips and white bases...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442124/identification-and-molecular-analysis-of-four-new-alleles-at-the-w1-locus-associated-with-flower-color-in-soybean
#15
Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Gyu Tae Park, Jeong Ho Chang, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Hak Soo Seo, Gyuhwa Chung, Jong Tae Song
In soybean, flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) play a crucial role in the production of anthocyanin pigments. Loss-of-function of the W1 locus, which encodes the former, or W3 and W4, which encode the latter, always produces white flowers. In this study, we searched for new genetic components responsible for the production of white flowers in soybean and isolated four white-flowered mutant lines, i.e., two Glycine soja accessions (CW12700 and CW13381) and two EMS-induced mutants of Glycine max (PE1837 and PE636)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435016/anthocyanins-in-different-citrus-species-an-uhplc-pda-esi-ms-n-assisted-qualitative-and-quantitative-investigation
#16
Simona Fabroni, Gabriele Ballistreri, Margherita Amenta, Paolo Rapisarda
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin-colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation as a result of anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is both tissue- and genotype-dependent. The present study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species...
November 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415428/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-black-rice-grain-development-reveals-metabolic-pathways-associated-with-anthocyanin-biosynthesis
#17
Linghua Chen, Yining Huang, Ming Xu, Zuxin Cheng, Dasheng Zhang, Jingui Zheng
BACKGROUND: Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. RESULTS: The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338256/enhanced-production-of-resveratrol-derivatives-in-tobacco-plants-by-improving-the-metabolic-flux-of-intermediates-in-the-phenylpropanoid-pathway
#18
Yu Jeong Jeong, Chul Han An, Su Gyeong Woo, Ji Hye Park, Ki-Won Lee, Sang-Hoon Lee, Yeonggil Rim, Hyung Jae Jeong, Young Bae Ryu, Cha Young Kim
The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L...
September 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291343/evolutionary-correlations-in-flavonoid-production-across-flowers-and-leaves-in-the-iochrominae-solanaceae
#19
Andrea E Berardi, Sherry B Hildreth, Richard F Helm, Brenda S J Winkel, Stacey D Smith
Plant reproductive and vegetative tissues often use the same biochemical pathways to produce specialized metabolites. In such cases, selection acting on the synthesis of specific products in a particular tissue could result in correlated changes in other products of the pathway, both in the same tissue and in other tissues. This study examined how changes in floral anthocyanin pigmentation affect the production of other compounds of the flavonoid pathway in flowers and in leaves. Focusing on the Iochrominae, a clade of Solanaceae with a wide range of flower colors, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and UV detection was used to profile and quantify the variation in two classes of flavonoids, anthocyanins and flavonols...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192708/repeated-gains-in-yellow-and-anthocyanin-pigmentation-in-flower-colour-transitions-in-the-antirrhineae
#20
Tom J Ellis, David L Field
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiosperms display remarkable diversity in flower colour, implying that transitions between pigmentation phenotypes must have been common. Despite progress in understanding transitions between anthocyanin (blue, purple, pink or red) and unpigmented (white) flowers, little is known about the evolutionary patterns of flower-colour transitions in lineages with both yellow and anthocyanin-pigmented flowers. This study investigates the relative rates of evolutionary transitions between different combinations of yellow- and anthocyanin-pigmentation phenotypes in the tribe Antirrhineae...
June 2016: Annals of Botany
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