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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822725/berberine-modulates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-generation-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#1
Haijing Zhang, Chunhui Zhao, Guoqiong Cao, Limin Guo, Shuai Zhang, Yuexia Liang, Chunxia Qin, Ping Su, Hang Li, Wensheng Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregates and forms soluble oligomers and insoluble cerebral amyloid plaques, which is widely thought to be the underlying pathogenic mechanism of AD. Therefore, effective regulation of Aβ metabolism is an important aspect of preventing and improving AD. Berberine, which is the main active component of the traditional medicinal herb Coptidis rhizoma, has a positive effect on reducing Aβ levels...
August 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822685/28-homocastasterone-down-regulates-blood-glucose-cholesterol-triglycerides-srebp1c-and-activates-lxr-expression-in-normal-diabetic-male-rat
#2
Velan Athithan, Kotteazeth Srikumar
Plant steroids are being recognized as influential secondary bio factors, assimilating in animal tissues through diet and affecting their cellular metabolic function to varying degree. They modulate catalytic and signaling functions in mammalian cells, affecting cellular homeostasis. The effect of phyto brassinosteroid ketoisoform 28-homocastasterone (28-HC), was assessed for its influence on blood glucose, plasma lipid and selective signal marker levels in normal and diabetic male wistar rat models. A 15 day oral feed regimen employing the experimental rat, noted that circulating blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride level in diabetic rat were markedly reduced by this compound...
August 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#3
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822126/dimethyl-labeling-based-quantification-of-the-lysine-acetylome-and-proteome-of-plants
#4
Ines Lassowskat, Markus Hartl, Fabian Hosp, Paul J Boersema, Matthias Mann, Iris Finkemeier
Photorespiratory enzymes in different cellular compartments have been reported to be posttranslational modified by phosphorylation, disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, glutathionylation, and lysine acetylation. However, not much is known yet about the function of these modifications to regulate the activities, localizations, or interactions of the proteins in this metabolic pathway. Hence, it will be of great importance to study these modifications and their temporal and conditional occurrence in more detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#5
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#6
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821621/protein-kinase-g-confers-survival-advantage-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-latency-like-conditions
#7
Mehak Zahoor Khan, Ashima Bhaskar, Sandeep Upadhyay, Pooja Kumari, Raju S Rajmani, Preeti Jain, Amit Singh, Dhiraj Kumar, Neel Sarovar Bhavesh, Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
Protein Kinase G (PknG), a thioredoxin-fold containing eukaryotic like serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK), is a virulence factor in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, required for inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion. Here, we unravelled novel functional facets of PknG during latency like conditions. We find that PknG mediates persistence under stressful conditions like hypoxia and abets drug tolerance. PknG mutant displayed minimal growth in nutrient limiting conditions suggesting its role in modulating cellular metabolism...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821603/a-simple-light-isotope-metabolic-labeling-slim-labeling-strategy-a-powerful-tool-to-address-the-dynamics-of-proteome-variations-in-vivo
#8
Thibaut Léger, Camille Garcia, Laetitia Collomb, Jean-Michel Camadro
Many quantitative proteomics strategies rely on in vivo metabolic incorporation of amino acids with modified stable isotope profiles into proteins. These methods give rise to multiple ions for each peptide, with possible distortion of the isotopolog distribution, making the overall analytical process complex. We validated an alternative strategy, simple light isotope metabolic labeling (SLIM-labeling), which alleviates many of these problems. SLIM-labeling is based on the in vivo reduction of the isotopic composition of proteins using metabolic precursors with a unique light isotope composition to label all amino acids...
August 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821550/crystal-structure-of-the-tetr-family-repressor-alkx-from-dietzia-sp-dq12-45-1b-implicated-in-biodegradation-of-n-alkanes
#9
Jie-Liang Liang, Yuan Gao, Zheng He, Yong Nie, Meng Wang, Jing-Hong JiangYang, Xuejun C Zhang, Wen-Sheng Shu, Xiao-Lei Wu
n-Alkanes are ubiquitous in nature and are widely used by microorganisms as carbon sources. Alkane hydroxylation by alkane monooxygenases is a critical step in the aerobic biodegradation of n-alkanes, which plays important roles in natural alkane attenuation and is used in industrial and environmental applications. The alkane oxidation operon, alkW1-alkX, in an alkane-degrading strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b, is negatively auto-regulated by the TetR family repressor, AlkX, via a product positive feedback mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821548/the-transcriptional-regulator-phlh-modulates-2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthesis-in-response-to-the-biosynthetic-intermediate-and-end-product
#10
Xu Yan, Rui Yang, Rui-Xue Zhao, Jian-Ting Han, Wen-Juan Jia, Di-Yin Li, Yong Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Wu, Li-Qun Zhang, Yong-Xing He
Certain strains of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens produce the secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) to antagonize the soil-borne phytopathogens in the rhizosphere. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is named phlACBDEFGH and it is still unclear how the pathway-specific regulator phlH within this gene cluster regulates the metabolism of 2,4-DAPG. Here, we found that PhlH in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2P24 represses the expression of the phlG gene encoding the 2,4-DAPG hydrolase by binding to a sequence motif overlapping with the -35 site recognized by σ(70) factors...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821417/single-species-versus-dual-species-probiotic-supplementation-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-strategy-for-obesity
#11
G Karimi, R Jamaluddin, N Mohtarrudin, Z Ahmad, H Khazaai, M Parvaneh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species...
July 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821397/cardiac-metabolism-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-heart-failure
#12
REVIEW
Hannah Noordali, Brodie L Loudon, Michael P Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although many established pharmacological interventions exist for those patients with HFrEF, hospitalization and death rates remain high, and in those with HFpEF (over half of all heart failure patients), there are no effective therapies. Recently, the role of impaired cardiac energetic status in heart failure has gained increasing recognition with the identification of reduced metabolic capacity for carbohydrates and fatty acids, impaired function of the electron transport chain, reduced capacity to transfer ATP to the cytosol, and inefficient utilization of the energy produced...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821013/rictor-positively-regulates-b-cell-receptor-signaling-by-modulating-actin-reorganization-via-ezrin
#13
Lu Huang, Yongjie Zhang, Chenguang Xu, Xiaomei Gu, Linlin Niu, Jinzhi Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Xiaoming Bai, Xingtian Xuan, Qubei Li, Chunwei Shi, Bing Yu, Heather Miller, Gangyi Yang, Lisa S Westerberg, Wanli Liu, Wenxia Song, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu
As the central hub of the metabolism machinery, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been well studied in lymphocytes. As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive. Rictor is involved in B cell development, especially the peripheral development. However, the role of Rictor on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling as well as the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study used B cell-specfic Rictor knockout (KO) mice to investigate how Rictor regulates BCR signaling...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819865/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Daniel P Cardinali, Daniel E Vigo
A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS...
August 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819366/paracrine-potential-of-the-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-to-modulate-balance-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-the-osteoarthritic-cartilage-in-vitro
#15
Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Ilona Kusleviciute, Zygmunt Mackiewicz, Ausra Unguryte, Narunas Porvaneckas, Sandrine Fleury, Algirdas Venalis, Christian Jorgensen, Eiva Bernotiene
Adipose tissue represents an abundant source of stem cells. Along with anti-inflammatory effects, ASC secrete various factors that may modulate metabolism of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, suggesting that the presence of ASC could be advantageous for OA cartilage due to the recovery of homeostasis between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). To evaluate these effects, cartilage explants (CE) were cocultured with ASC for 3 and 7 days under stimulation with or without IL-1β...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819354/mediating-roles-of-ppars-in-the-effects-of-environmental-chemicals-on-sex-steroids
#16
REVIEW
Qiansheng Huang, Qionghua Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that are widely involved in various physiological functions. They are widely expressed through the reproductive system. Their roles in the metabolism and function of sex steroids and thus the etiology of reproductive disorders receive great concern. Various kinds of exogenous chemicals, especially environmental pollutants, exert their adverse impact on the reproductive system through disturbing the PPAR signaling pathway...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819251/g9a-regulates-breast-cancer-growth-by-modulating-iron-homeostasis-through-the-repression-of-ferroxidase-hephaestin
#17
Ya-Fang Wang, Jie Zhang, Yi Su, Yan-Yan Shen, Dong-Xian Jiang, Ying-Yong Hou, Mei-Yu Geng, Jian Ding, Yi Chen
G9a, a H3K9 methyltransferase, shows elevated expression in many types of human cancers, particularly breast cancer. However, the tumorigenic mechanism of G9a is still far from clear. Here we report that G9a exerts its oncogenic function in breast cancer by repressing hephaestin and destruction cellular iron homeostasis. In the case of pharmacological inhibition or short hairpin RNA interference-mediated suppression of G9a, the expression and activity of hephaestin increases, leading to the observed decrease of intracellular labile iron content and the disturbance of breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819197/mortierella-alpina-cs10e4-an-oleaginous-fungal-endophyte-of-crocus-sativus-l-enhances-apocarotenoid-biosynthesis-and-stress-tolerance-in-the-host-plant
#18
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Amit Kumar, Phalisteen Sultan, Kushal Bindu, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Nasheeman Ashraf
Crocus sativus is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in significant amounts. These compounds impart organoleptic properties to saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus flower) making it world's costliest spice. Crocus apocarotenoids have tremendous medicinal properties as well. Effect of endophytes on Crocus apocarotenoid production and the molecular mechanism involved has not been reported so far. Here we studied the effect of an oleaginous fungal endophyte, Mortierella alpina CS10E4 on Crocus growth, apocarotenoid metabolism and tolerance to corm rot disease...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819187/administration-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-before-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-attenuates-kidney-injury-and-may-modulate-renal-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#19
Pauline Erpicum, Pascal Rowart, Laurence Poma, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Olivier Detry, François Jouret
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been demonstrated to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in rodent models. The mechanisms of such nephro-protection remain largely unknown. Furthermore, the optimal timing of MSC administration has been poorly investigated. Here, we compare the impact of MSC injection 7 days before (MSCD - 7) versus 1 day after (MSCD + 1) renal I/R in rats. Control groups received equivalent volumes of saline at similar time-points (SD - 7 and SD + 1). Right nephrectomy was performed, and left renal ischemia lasted 45 min...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819168/resistance-training-regulates-gene-expression-of-molecules-associated-with-intramyocellular-lipids-glucose-signaling-and-fiber-size-in-old-rats
#20
Manoel Benício Teixeira Ribeiro, Vinicius Guzzoni, Jeffrey M Hord, Gisele Nunes Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela Vieira de Andrade, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, João Luiz Q Durigan
Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial process, some of which involves fat infiltration. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is postulated to play a role on sarcopenia during aging, which is believed to be due alterations in glucose homeostasis in the skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia, along with intramuscular lipids, is associated with physical inactivity. Resistance training (RT) has been indicated to minimize the age-induced muscle skeletal adaptations. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT on mRNA levels of regulatory components related to intramyocellular lipid, glucose metabolism and fiber size in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of aged rats...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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