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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340138/a-life-without-worms
#1
Richard E Sanya, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Irene Andia Biraro, Harriet Mpairwe, Alison M Elliott
Worms have co-evolved with humans over millions of years. To survive, they manipulate host systems by modulating immune responses so that they cause (in the majority of hosts) relatively subtle harm. Anthelminthic treatment has been promoted as a measure for averting worm specific pathology and to mitigate subtle morbidities which may include effects on anaemia, growth, cognitive function and economic activity. With our changing environment marked by rapid population growth, urbanisation, better hygiene practices and anthelminthic treatment, there has been a decline in worm infections and other infectious diseases and a rise in non-communicable diseases such as allergy, diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#2
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339582/hypoxia-in-the-glioblastoma-microenvironment-shaping-the-phenotype-of-cancer-stem-like-cells
#3
Nicole Colwell, Mioara Larion, Amber J Giles, Ashlee N Seldomridge, Saman Sizdahkhani, Mark R Gilbert, Deric M Park
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Cellular heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of the disease and contributes to the difficulty in formulating effective therapies. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been identified as a subpopulation of tumor cells that are thought to be largely responsible for resistance to treatment. Intratumoral hypoxia contributes to maintenance of the GSCs by supporting the critical stem cell traits of multipotency, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity...
January 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339489/human-subtilisin-kexin-isozyme-1-ski-1-site-1-protease-s1p-regulates-cytoplasmic-lipid-droplet-abundance-a-potential-target-for-indirect-acting-anti-dengue-virus-agents
#4
Anastasia Hyrina, Fanrui Meng, Steven J McArthur, Sharlene Eivemark, Ivan R Nabi, François Jean
Viral hijacking and manipulation of host-cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are shared molecular events essential for the viral lifecycle. For Flaviviridae members such as hepatitis C virus and dengue virus (DENV), one of the key subsets of cellular pathways that undergo manipulation is the lipid metabolic pathways, underlining the importance of cellular lipids and, in particular, lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. Here, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes that act as key regulators of lipid homeostasis and LD formation could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with all DENV serotypes (1-4) circulating around the world...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339176/identification-of-likely-associations-between-cerebral-folate-deficiency-and-complex-genetic-and-metabolic-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-by-utilization-of-a-pilot-interaction-modeling-approach
#5
Daniel Krsička, Jan Geryk, Markéta Vlčková, Markéta Havlovicová, Milan Macek, Radka Pourová
Recently, cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) was suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the exact role of folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of ASD, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and impaired metabolic pathways remain unexplained. The aim of our study was to develop and test a novel, unbiased, bioinformatics approach in order to identify links between ASD and disturbed cerebral metabolism by focusing on abnormal folate metabolism, which could foster patient stratification and novel therapeutic interventions...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338935/impact-of-the-ion-transportome-of-chloroplasts-on-the-optimization-of-photosynthesis
#6
Ildikò Szabò, Cornelia Spetea
Ions play fundamental roles in all living cells, and their gradients are often essential to fuel transport, regulate enzyme activities, and transduce energy within cells. Regulation of their homeostasis is essential for cell metabolism. Recent results indicate that modulation of ion fluxes might also represent a useful strategy to regulate one of the most important physiological processes taking place in chloroplasts, photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is highly regulated, due to its unique role as a cellular engine for growth in the light...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338719/the-legume-mir1514a-modulates-a-nac-transcription-factor-transcript-to-trigger-phasirna-formation-in-response-to-drought
#7
Guadalupe Sosa-Valencia, Miguel Palomar, Alejandra A Covarrubias, José L Reyes
Recent studies have identified microRNAs as post-transcriptional regulators involved in stress responses. miR1514a is a legume microRNA that is induced in response to drought stress in Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and shows differential accumulation levels in roots during water deficit in two cultivars with different drought tolerance phenotypes. A recent degradome analysis revealed that miR1514a targets the transcripts of two NAC transcription factors (TFs), Phvul.010g121000 and Phvul.010g120700. Furthermore, expression studies and small RNA-seq data indicate that only Phvul...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337785/transcriptomic-and-metabolic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-chilling-injury-in-peach-fruit
#8
Ke Wang, Xue-Ren Yin, Bo Zhang, Don Grierson, Chang-Jie Xu, Kun-Song Chen
Low temperature conditioning (LTC) alleviates peach fruit chilling injury but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. Here, changes in transcriptome, ethylene production, flesh softening, internal browning, and membrane lipids were compared in fruit maintained in constant 0 °C and LTC (pre-storage at 8 °C for 5 days before storage at 0 °C). LTC resulted in a higher rate of ethylene production and a more rapid flesh softening as a result of higher expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and a series of cell wall hydrolases...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337772/anti-fatigue-activity-of-sea-cucumber-peptides-prepared-from-stichopus-japonicas-in-an-endurance-swimming-rat-model
#9
Jing Ye, Shen Caihong, Huang Yayan, Xueqin Zhang, Xiao Meitian
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from Stichopus japonicas was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. RESULTS: The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (<2 kDa)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337257/subcutaneous-liraglutide-ameliorates-methylglyoxal-induced-alzheimer-like-tau-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-by-modulating-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE
#10
Liqin Qi, Zhou Chen, Yanping Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Xiaohong Liu, Linfang Ke, Zhongjie Zheng, Xiaowei Lin, Yu Zhou, Lijuan Wu, Libin Liu
Memory deterioration and synapse damage with accumulation of β-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methylglyoxal (MG), a key intermediate of glucose metabolism, is elevated in AD brains and modifies Aβ42, increasing misfolding and leading to the accumulation of senile plaques. Liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is neurotrophic and neuroprotective. However, whether liraglutide can protect against AD-like memory-related deficits and tau hyperphosphorylation caused by MG in vivo is not known...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337182/new-insights-into-the-anti-pathogenic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-against-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-rna-sequencing-profiling
#11
Pierre Delpech, Etienne Rifa, Graham Ball, Sabine Nidelet, Emeric Dubois, Geneviève Gagne, Marie-Christine Montel, Céline Delbès, Stéphanie Bornes
The bio-preservation potential of Lactococcus garvieae lies in its capacity to inhibit the growth of staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, in dairy products and in vitro. In vitro, inhibition is modulated by the level of aeration, owing to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by L. garvieae under aeration. The S. aureus response to this inhibition has already been studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of L. garvieae underlying the antagonism against S. aureus have never been explored. This study provides evidence of the presence of another extracellular inhibition effector in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337174/regulation-of-mammalian-physiology-by-interconnected-circadian-and-feeding-rhythms
#12
REVIEW
Florian Atger, Daniel Mauvoisin, Benjamin Weger, Cédric Gobet, Frédéric Gachon
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping systems that adapt in an anticipatory fashion the physiology and behavior of most living organisms. In mammals, the master pacemaker resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and entrains peripheral clocks using a wide range of signals that differentially schedule physiology and gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. The peripheral clocks, such as those found in the liver, are particularly sensitive to rhythmic external cues like feeding behavior, which modulate the phase and amplitude of rhythmic gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336548/nutrient-sensing-by-absorptive-and-secretory-progenies-of-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#13
Kunihiro Kishida, Sarah C Pearce, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown, hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling, differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336489/current-applications-selection-and-possible-mechanisms-of-actions-of-synbiotics-in-improving-the-growth-and-health-status-in-aquaculture-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu
Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host...
March 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336451/effect-of-soybean-phosphatidylcholine-on-lipid-profile-of-bovine-oocytes-matured-in-vitro
#15
Caroline P Pitangui-Molina, Alessandra A Vireque, Alessandra Tata, Katia Roberta A Belaz, Vanessa G Santos, Christina R Ferreira, Marcos N Eberlin, Marcos Felipe S Sá, Rui A Ferriani, Ana Carolina J S Rosa-E-Silva
The phospholipid (PL) composition of embryo and oocyte membranes affects thermal phase behavior and several physicochemical properties such as fluidity and permeability. The characterization of PL profiles and the development of suitable in vitro maturation (IVM) protocols, that are able to modify membrane's composition, may result in significant improvements in oocyte developmental potential and cryotolerance. Using soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a model supplement, we evaluated the effect of PL supplementation during IVM on bovine cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC)...
March 20, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#16
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336188/identification-characterization-and-modulation-of-ferritin-h-in-the-sub-antarctic-notothenioid-eleginops-maclovinus-challenged-with-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#17
D Martínez, R Oyarzún, C Vargas-Lagos, J P Pontigo, M Soto-Dávila, J Saravia, A Romero, J J Núñez, A J Yáñez, L Vargas-Chacoff
Ferritin is a major iron storage protein essential not only in the infectious process, but also in any circumstance generating oxidative stress. In this study, the cDNA coding sequence of ferritin-H was obtained from the sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus through transcriptomic analysis of the head kidney. This sequence contained a 534 bp open reading frame that coded for a 177 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 20,786.2 Da and a theoretical pI of 5.56. The protein displayed a region of iron putative response elements in the 5'UTR, two putative ferritin iron-binding region signatures, and seven characteristic amino acids with ferroxidase functions...
March 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335761/the-effects-of-jiao-tai-wan-on-sleep-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-resistant-rats-with-chronic-partial-sleep-deprivation
#18
Xin Zou, Wenya Huang, Fuer Lu, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shuyong Zhao, Jiming Jia, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Nan Wang, Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay...
March 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335738/genome-wide-expression-profiling-establishes-novel-modulatory-roles-of-vitamin-c-in-thp-1-human-monocytic-cell-line
#19
Sakshi Dhingra Batra, Malobi Nandi, Kriti Sikri, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (vit C) is an essential dietary nutrient, which is a potent antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. Vit C is also considered to enhance the immune effector function of macrophages, which are regarded to be the first line of defence in response to any pathogen. The THP-1 cell line is widely used for studying macrophage functions and for analyzing host cell-pathogen interactions. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide temporal gene expression and functional enrichment analysis of THP-1 cells treated with 100 μM of vit C, a physiologically relevant concentration of the vitamin...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335584/atrap-expression-in-brown-adipose-tissue-does-not-influence-the-development-of-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#20
Kohji Ohki, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Miyuki Matsuda, Masato Ohsawa, Akinobu Maeda, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akio Yamashita, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions as an endogenous inhibitor to prevent excessive activation of tissue RAS. In the present study, we newly generated ATRAP/Agtrap-floxed (ATRAP(fl/fl)) mice and adipose tissue-specific ATRAP downregulated (ATRAP(adipoq)) mice by the Cre/loxP system using Adipoq-Cre...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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