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Athlete's heart

Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
David Herzig, Moreno Testorelli, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Daniel Erlacher, Peter Achermann, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is increasing popularity for athletes to use heart rate variability (HRV) to tailor training. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. The aim was to validate the selection of deep sleep segments identified by RR-intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. METHODS: In 11 world class alpine- skiers, RR-intervals were monitored during ten nights and simultaneous EEGs were recorded in 2-4 nights...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Noortje H Rijken, Remko Soer, Ewold de Maar, Hilco Prins, Wouter B Teeuw, Jan Peuscher, Frits G J Oosterveld
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B)...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Shannon Jordan, Justin Karcher, Rebecca Rogers, Kathleen Kennedy, Anne Lawrence, Jenny Adams
PURPOSE: Updated cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and return-to-work guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) now include specificity of training for industrial athletes (exercise training that involves the muscle groups, movements, and energy systems that these patients use during occupational tasks). However, many CR facilities do not apply this principle, relying instead on the traditional protocol that consists primarily of aerobic exercise. This study was conducted to measure the metabolic cost of typical farming tasks and to compare 2 methods of calculating training intensities...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Courtney N Gleason, Deanna L Kerkhof, Elizabeth A Cilia, Maria A Lanyi, Jonathan Finnoff, Dai Sugimoto, Gianmichel D Corrado
OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable ECG by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Asghar Tofighi, Minoo Shirpoor, M H Khadem Ansari, Alireza Shirpoor, Mitra Zerehpoosh
OBJECTIVE: Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) consumption increases incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in athletes and mechanisms underlying those abnormalities continue to be investigated. This study examines whether nandrolone consumption induced cardiac and coronary artery wall abnormalities via oxidative stress. It was also designed to determine whether enforced swimming augmented possible cardiotoxic effects of nandrolone in rat heart. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, nandrolone, and nandrolone with enforced swimming...
October 12, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Ljiljana S Sulovic, Meho Mahmutovic, Snezana Lazic, Nenad Sulovic
: Aims "Athlete's heart" is a cardiac adaptation to long-term intensive training. The aims of this study were to show the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in teenagers who participate in sports, to define the different types of cardiac re-modelling, and to differentiate between physiological and pathological hypertrophy. METHOD: Echocardiographic measurements were obtained by M-mode, two dimensional, and Doppler techniques of participants from sports and control groups...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Charles H Tegeler, Catherine L Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Sung W Lee, Lee Gerdes, Hossam A Shaltout, Christopher M Miles, Sean L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed for individuals with persisting post-concussion symptoms. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is an allostatic, closed-loop, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology, designed to facilitate relaxation and self-optimization of neural oscillations. METHODS: Fifteen athletes (seven females, mean age 18.1 years, SD 2.6) with persisting post-concussion symptoms received 18.7 (SD 6...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Balraj Singh, Jennifer M Treece, Ghulam Murtaza, Samit Bhatheja, Steven J Lavine, Timir K Paul
A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring autonomic nervous system status and training adaptation in athletes. It is believed that increases in HRV indicate effective training adaptation, but these are not always apparent in elite athletes. METHODS: Resting HRV was recorded in 4 elite rowers (Rower A, B, C and D) over the 7-week period prior to 2015 World Rowing Championship success. The natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD), Ln rMSSD:R-R ratio trends, and the Ln rMSSD to R-R interval relationship were assessed for each champion-winning rower...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephen Crowcroft, Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess measurement sensitivity and diagnostic characteristics of athlete monitoring tools to identify performance change. METHODS: Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 males, 3 females, age: 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 months. The "Self-report" group (n=7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness and wellness. The "Combined" group (n=7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR) and heart rate variability measures...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sander P M Ganzevles, Arnold de Haan, Peter J Beek, Hein A M Daanen, Martin J Truijens
For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the predictive value of heart rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and five male swimmers of Dutch national level participated in the study...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Amir Hadi, Makan Pourmasoumi, Marzieh Kafeshani, Jahangir Karimian, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mohammad Hasan Entezari
OBJECTIVE: Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
D S Trachsel, A Giraudet, D Maso, G Hervé, D D Hauri, E Barrey, C Robert
BACKGROUND: The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data on the relationships between heart dimensions and growth or aerobic training in Arabian and Arabian-related endurance horses. Therefore the objective of the present study was to describe the influence of body dimensions (body length (BL), thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH)), BWT, age, gender, breed (purebred Arabians, part-bred Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, and Others) and the initiation of endurance training on echocardiographic measurements in competition-fit endurance horses aged 4 to 6 years...
October 10, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Angira Patel, Gregory Webster, Kendra Ward, John Lantos
: Aim The aim of the present study was to determine general paediatrician knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards electrocardiogram (ECG) screening in school athletes during pre-participation screening exam (PPSE). METHODS: Paediatricians affiliated with a tertiary children's hospital completed a survey about ECGs for PPSE. RESULTS: In total, 205/498 (41%) responded; 92% of the paediatricians did not include an ECG as part of PPSE; 56% were aware of a case in which a student athlete in their own community had died of sudden unexplained death; 4% had an athlete in their practice die...
October 10, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Martin Cox, Mike Smith
In many sport and exercise situations, cognitive performance is required under conditions of high physiological load and high cognitive anxiety. However, few studies have assessed all these components in situ. The current study sought to address this issue. Fourteen adults (9 males, 5 females) completed 2 incremental exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived practice) in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive performance, via a test of visual discrimination, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (Bla), and anxiety scores, was recorded at rest, 70% [Formula: see text] and 90% [Formula: see text]...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
E E Koenders, C P G Franken, J D Cotter, S N Thornton, N J Rehrer
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na(+) ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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