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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516252/chronic-eccentric-arm-cycling-improves-maximum-upper-body-strength-and-power
#1
Steven J Elmer, Dakota J Anderson, Travis R Wakeham, Matthew A Kilgas, John J Durocher, Stan L Lindstedt, Paul C LaStayo
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. PURPOSE: We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECCarm) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECCarm would alter arterial function...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513270/physiological-and-performance-measures-for-baseline-concussion-assessment
#2
Danielle M Dobney, Scott G Thomas, Tim Taha, Michelle Keightley
CONTEXT: Baseline testing is a common strategy for concussion assessment and management. Research continues to evaluate novel measures for potential to improve baseline testing methods. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to; 1) determine the feasibility of including physiological, neuromuscular and mood measures as part of baseline concussion testing protocol, 2) describe typical values in a varsity athlete sample, and 3) estimate the influence of concussion history on these baseline measures...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513092/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-meldonium-in-exercised-thoroughbred-horses
#3
Heather K Knych, Scott D Stanley, Dan S McKemie, Rick M Arthur, Ulf Bondesson, Mikael Hedeland, Mario Thevis, Philip H Kass
Although developed as a therapeutic medication, meldonium has found widespread use in human sports and was recently added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. It's reported abuse potential in human sports, has led to concern by regulatory authorities about the possible misuse of meldonium in equine athletics. The potential abuse in equine athletes along with the limited data available regarding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meldonium in horses necessitates further study...
May 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511954/high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-improves-resting-blood-pressure-metabolic-met-capacity-and-heart-rate-reserve-without-compromising-resting-myocardial-function-in-sedentary-aging-men
#4
Fergal M Grace, Peter Herbert, Adrian D Elliott, Jo Richards, Alexander Beaumont, Nicholas F Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: This study examined the combination of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). METHODS: Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C)...
May 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507165/reliability-and-validity-of-an-agility-like-incremental-exercise-test-with-multidirectional-change-of-direction-movements-in-response-to-a-visual-stimulus
#5
Dennis-Peter Born, Philipp Kunz, Billy Sperlich
The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, that is, peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak) and heart rate (HRpeak), obtained from an agility-like incremental exercise test for team sport athletes. To investigate the test-retest reliability, 25 team sport athletes (age: 22 ± 3 years, body mass: 75 ± 7 kg, height: 182 ± 6 cm) performed an agility-like incremental exercise test on the SpeedCourt (SC) system incorporating multidirectional change-of-direction (COD) movements twice...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502848/exercise-training-in-athletes-with-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
Antonio B Fernandez, Paul D Thompson
Exercise events and sport participation have increased over recent decades. The average age of sports participants has also increased with a potential parallel increase in the number of exercise participants with both occult and diagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual physical activity and exercise training reduce atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk in a curvilinear fashion by affecting multiple ASCVD risk factors. Nonetheless, exercise also increases the risk of sudden cardiac death in both young and adult individuals with occult CVD making it important to balance the risks and benefits of exercise and exercise training in these individuals...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497583/evaluation-of-athletes-with-complex-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Benjamin A Bates, Camille Richards, Michael Hall, Edmund K Kerut, William Campbell, Michael R McMullan
As a result of improvements in congenital heart surgery, there are more adults alive today with congenital heart disease (CHD) than children. Individuals with cardiac birth defects may be able to participate in physical activities but require proper cardiovascular evaluation. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology released guidelines in 2015 for athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. The guidelines express that although restriction from competitive athletics may be indicated for some, the majority of individuals with CHD can and should engage in some form of physical activity...
May 12, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495249/heart-rate-variability-to-monitor-performance-in-elite-athletes-criticalities-and-avoidable-pitfalls
#8
Daniela Lucini, Ilaria Marchetti, Antonio Spataro, Mara Malacarne, Manuela Benzi, Stefano Tamorri, Roberto Sala, Massimo Pagani
BACKGROUND: Spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a simple, non-invasive technique that is widely used in sport to assess sympatho-vagal regulation of the heart. Its employment is increasing partly due to the rising usage of wearable devices. However data acquisition using these devices may be suboptimal because they cannot discriminate between sinus and non-sinus beats and do not record any data regarding respiratory frequency. This information is mandatory for a correct clinical interpretation...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480859/the-effects-of-non-functional-overreaching-and-overtraining-on-autonomic-nervous-system-function-in-highly-trained-athletes
#9
T Kajaia, L Maskhulia, K Chelidze, V Akhalkatsi, Z Kakhabrishvili
Aim of the study was to compare the ANS functioning, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in athletes with non-functional overreaching (NFO) and overtraining syndrome (OTS) and in athletes without NFO/OTS. In 43 athletes with NFO/OTS, 40 athletes without NFO/OTS, as well as in 35 sedentary subjects the ANS function was evaluated with the Autonomic Balance Test, based on the HRV analysis of resting heart rate recordings. Results of the study show lower HRV and lower vagal influence along with increased sympathetic cardiovascular control in athletes with non-functional overreaching and particularly in athletes with overtraining, than in highly trained athletes without NFO/OTS...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480694/long-term-high-intensity-sport-practice-modulates-adaptative-changes-in-athletes-heart-and-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system-profile
#10
Witold Slomko, Joanna Slomko, Tomasz Kowalik, Jacek J Klawe, Malgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Julia L Newton, Pawel Zalewski
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation changes in athletes exposed to high intensity and uninterrupted training for extended periods of time. METHODS: We assessed hemodynamic profile and cardiac function in 22 international master-level athletes, free of cardiovascular disease who experienced particularly intensive and uninterrupted training over a 8- to 21-year-period. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed that in athletes, extreme and uninterrupted strength and endurance training over long periods of time (up to 21 years) causes an increase in resting heart rate (50...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480692/effects-of-lymphatic-drainage-and-cryotherapy-on-indirect-markers-of-muscle-damage
#11
Michael Behringer, Diana Jedlicka, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP, 15 kDa) in the blood. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: After 4x20 unilateral, eccentric accentuated knee extensions (with one-third of the maximal isometric force) 30 sports students randomly received either a 30 min MLD, CRY or they rested (RST) for the same amount of time...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469745/adequacy-of-the-ultra-short-term-hrv-to-assess-adaptive-processes-in-youth-female-basketball-players
#12
Fabio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Cesar C Cal Abad, Igor F Cruz, Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Irineu Loturco
Heart rate variability has been widely used to monitor athletes' cardiac autonomic control changes induced by training and competition, and recently shorter recording times have been sought to improve its practicality. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between the (ultra-short-term) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD - measured in only 1 min post-1 min stabilization) and the criterion lnRMSSD (measured in the last 5 min out of 10 min of recording) in young female basketball players...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452637/incidence-and-etiology-of-sudden-cardiac-death-new-updates-for-athletic-departments
#13
Irfan M Asif, Kimberly G Harmon
CONTEXT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete is a tragic event and is the leading medical cause of death in this population. The precise incidence of SCD in young athletes has been subject of debate, with studies reporting drastically different rates (1:917,000 athlete-years (AYs) to 1:3000 AYs) depending on the methodological design of the investigation or the targeted population. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms: incidence, sudden cardiac death, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, etiology, pathology, registry, athlete, young, children, and adolescents...
May 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452146/autonomic-testing-for-prediction-of-competition-performance-in-paralympic-athletes
#14
Jordan W Squair, Aaron A Phillips, Katharine D Currie, Cameron Gee, Andrei V Krassioukov
PURPOSE: While we now appreciate that autonomic dysfunction can impact Wheelchair Rugby performance, this is currently not being assessed during classification, largely due to lack of a standardized and evidence-based strategy to assess autonomic function. Our aim, therefore, was to establish the optimal autonomic testing protocol that best predicts cardiovascular capacity during competition by comprehensively examining autonomic function in elite Wheelchair Rugby athletes with cervical SCI and thereby enhance the standardized classification...
April 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441760/supplementation-with-a-polyphenol-rich-extract-perfload-%C3%A2-improves-physical-performance-during-high-intensity-exercise-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial
#15
Julien Cases, Cindy Romain, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Linda H Chung, José Miguel Rubio-Pérez, Caroline Laurent, Sylvie Gaillet, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Michel Prost, Pedro E Alcaraz
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad(®), was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation...
April 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435337/treatment-strategies-for-the-female-athlete-triad-in-the-adolescent-athlete-current-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, Erin Hammer
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422523/can-the-lamberts-submaximal-cycle-test-reflect-overreaching-in-professional-cyclists
#17
Lieselot Decroix, Robert P Lamberts, Romain Meeusen
PURPOSE: The Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) consists of 3 stages during which cyclist's cycle for 6 minutes at 60%, 6 minutes at 80% and 3 minutes at 90% of their maximal heart rate, followed by one-minute recovery. It was the aim of this study to determine if the LSCT is able to reflect a state of functional overreaching in professional female cyclists during an 8-day training camp and the following recovery days. METHODS: Six professional female cyclists performed an LSCT on day 1, day 5 and day 8 of the training camp and 3 days after the training camp...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402191/sand-training-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-and-inflammatory-responses-to-matched-intensity-exercise
#18
Henry Brown, Brian Dawson, Martyn J Binnie, Hugh Pinnington, Marc Sim, Tristan D Clemons, Peter Peeling
This study compared markers of muscle damage and inflammation elevated by a matched-intensity interval running session on soft sand and grass surfaces. In a counterbalanced, repeated-measures and crossover design, 10 well-trained female athletes completed 2 interval-based running sessions 1 week apart on either a grass or a sand surface. Exercise heart rate (HR) was fixed at 83-88% of HR maximum. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 24 h post-exercise, and analysed for myoglobin (Mb) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
July 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393630/pain-perception-and-cardiovascular-system-response-among-athletes-playing-contact-sports
#19
Katarzyna Leźnicka, Matthias Pawlak, Monika Białecka, Krzysztof Safranow, Paweł Cięszczyk
The aim of this study was to determine whether the contact sports change the perception of pain as assessed by the cold pressor test (CPT), and if the test induces the same reaction of the cardiovascular system in contact athletes and non-athletes. The study involved 321 healthy men; 140 contact athletes and 181 students of the University of Szczecin (control). Pain threshold and pain tolerance were evaluated using CPT. Cardiovascular measurements were made during CPT. The contact athletes showed a much higher tolerance to pain than the control group (median time 120 vs...
April 10, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378431/left-ventricular-biomechanics-in-professional-football-players
#20
T G von Lueder, A Hodt, G F Gjerdalen, K Steine
Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode...
April 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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