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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921694/protease-activated-receptor-2-controls-myelin-development-resiliency-and-repair
#1
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Grant Walters, Alex R Paulsen, Kristen Drucker, Phillip Starski, Jianmin Wu, David P Fairlie, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912684/distinct-activities-of-tfap2a-and-tfap2b-in-the-specification-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-developing-cerebellum
#2
Norliyana Zainolabidin, Sandhya P Kamath, Ayesha R Thanawalla, Albert I Chen
GABAergic inhibitory neurons in the cerebellum are subdivided into Purkinje cells and distinct subtypes of interneurons from the same pool of progenitors, but the determinants of this diversification process are not well defined. To explore the transcriptional regulation of the development of cerebellar inhibitory neurons, we examined the role of Tfap2A and Tfap2B in the specification of GABAergic neuronal subtypes in mice. We show that Tfap2A and Tfap2B are expressed in inhibitory precursors during embryonic development and that their expression persists into adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900829/clinical-radiological-pathological-and-prognostic-aspects-of-intraventricular-oligodendroglioma-comparison-with-central-neurocytoma
#3
Xiang Xiao, Jun Zhou, Jun Wang, Lei Yang, Chunhong Wang, Yikai Xu, Yuankui Wu
Studies comparing intraventricular oligodendroglioma (IVO) and central neurocytoma (CN) in terms of their clinical, radiological and pathological features are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the similarities and differences between these types of tumors to get a better understanding of how they may be more properly diagnosed and treated. The clinical manifestations, CT/MRI findings, pathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of 8 cases of IVOs and 12 cases of CNs were analyzed retrospectively. Both IVO and CN occurred most commonly in young adults and manifested with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894416/insm1a-regulates-motor-neuron-development-in-zebrafish
#4
Jie Gong, Xin Wang, Chenwen Zhu, Xiaohua Dong, Qinxin Zhang, Xiaoning Wang, Xuchu Duan, Fuping Qian, Yunwei Shi, Yu Gao, Qingshun Zhao, Renjie Chai, Dong Liu
Insulinoma-associated1a (insm1a) is a zinc-finger transcription factor playing a series of functions in cell formation and differentiation of vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems and neuroendocrine system. However, its roles on the development of motor neuron have still remained uncovered. Here, we provided evidences that insm1a was a vital regulator of motor neuron development, and provided a mechanistic understanding of how it contributes to this process. Firstly, we showed the localization of insm1a in spinal cord, and primary motor neurons (PMNs) of zebrafish embryos by in situ hybridization, and imaging analysis of transgenic reporter line Tg(insm1a: mCherry)(ntu805) ...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878627/optic-nerve-degeneration-after-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rodent-model
#5
Marina Renner, Gesa Stute, Mohammad Alzureiqi, Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Heiko Schmid, Andreas Faissner, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia is a common pathomechanism in many ocular disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or retinal vascular occlusion. Several studies demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to morphological and functional changes of different retinal cell types. However, little is known about the ischemic effects on the optic nerve. The goal of this study was to evaluate these effects. Ischemia was induced by raising the intraocular pressure (IOP) in one eye of rats to 140 mmHg for 1 h followed by natural reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855704/effects-of-light-emitting-diode-irradiation-on-neural-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-cells
#6
Samereh Dehghani-Soltani, Mohammad Shojaee, Mahshid Jalalkamali, Abdolreza Babaee, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani
Recently, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been introduced as a potential physical factor for proliferation and differentiation of various stem cells. Among the mesenchymal stem cells human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cells are easily propagated in the laboratory and their low immunogenicity make them more appropriate for regenerative medicine procedures. We aimed at this study to evaluate the effect of red and green light emitted from LED on the neural lineage differentiation of hUCM cells in the presence or absence of retinoic acid (RA)...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841245/marked-accumulation-of-oligodendroglia-like-cells-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-amygdala-enlargement-and-hippocampal-sclerosis
#7
Daichi Sone, Masako Ikemura, Yuko Saito, Go Taniguchi, Naoto Kunii
Although an increasing number of cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have been reported, there are few pathological reports, and no clear consensus has been established. Oligodendroglia or oligodendroglia-like cells (OLCs) have recently attracted attention in epilepsy studies. Here, we report the clinical and pathological findings of a 40-year-old male TLE patient with AE and hippocampal sclerosis, in whom histopathological study demonstrated remarkable clustering of OLCs around the uncus...
August 25, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumours-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#8
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumours of the CNS. There are fifteen reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic versus malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterised epilepsy associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy associated tumours (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814342/septal-contributions-to-olfactory-bulb-interneuron-diversity-in-the-embryonic-mouse-telencephalon-role-of-the-homeobox-gene-gsx2
#9
Shenyue Qin, Stephanie M Ware, Ronald R Waclaw, Kenneth Campbell
BACKGROUND: Olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are known to represent diverse neuronal subtypes, which are thought to originate from a number of telencephalic regions including the embryonic dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence (dLGE) and septum. These cells migrate rostrally toward the OB, where they then radially migrate to populate different OB layers including the granule cell layer (GCL) and the outer glomerular layer (GL). Although previous studies have attempted to investigate regional contributions to OB interneuron diversity, few genetic tools have been used to address this question at embryonic time points when the earliest populations are specified...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#10
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
September 17, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804038/subependymomas-are-low-grade-heterogeneous-glial-neoplasms-defined-by-subventricular-zone-lineage-markers
#11
Randy S D'Amico, Moshe Praver, George J Zanazzi, Zachary Englander, Jennifer S Sims, Jorge L Samanamud, Alfred T Ogden, Paul C McCormick, Neil A Feldstein, Guy M McKhann, Michael B Sisti, Peter Canoll, Jeffrey N Bruce
OBJECTIVE: Subependymomas are infrequent, low-grade gliomas associated with the ventricular system and the spinal cord. Little is known about the origin and natural history of these slow-growing lesions. METHODS: We identified all patients with pathologically proven subependymomas presenting to our institution between 1998 and 2016. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiographic, histological, and surgical outcomes data in all patients who underwent surgical resection...
August 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802717/chronic-d609-treatment-interferes-with-cell-cycle-and-targets-the-expression-of-olig2-in-glioma-stem-like-cells
#12
Haviryaji S G Kalluri, John S Kuo, Robert J Dempsey
Glioma Stem-like Cells (GSCs) isolated from patient derived tumors have high metabolic activity and survive in the absence of exogenous growth factors. We recently demonstrated that acute D609 (Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate), a PC-PLC inhibitor with anti-oxidative property, can decrease the ATP content & GADD45β protein in GSCs cultured without growth factors, but not in the presence of growth factors. In this study we examined the effect of chronic D609 treatment on GSCs cultured in complete medium containing growth factors...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790308/transcriptome-profiling-of-mouse-brains-with-qki-deficient-oligodendrocytes-reveals-major-alternative-splicing-defects-including-self-splicing
#13
Lama Darbelli, Karine Choquet, Stéphane Richard, Claudia L Kleinman
The qkI gene encodes a family of RNA binding proteins alternatively spliced at its 3' end, giving rise to three major spliced isoforms: QKI-5, QKI-6 and QKI-7. Their expression is tightly regulated during brain development with nuclear QKI-5 being the most abundant during embryogenesis followed by QKI-6 and QKI-7 that peak during myelination. Previously, we generated a mouse conditional qkI allele where exon 2 is excised using Olig2-Cre resulting in QKI-deficient oligodendrocytes (OLs). These mice have dysmyelination and die at the third post-natal week...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777696/exercise-in-adulthood-after-irradiation-of-the-juvenile-brain-ameliorates-long-term-depletion-of-oligodendroglial-cells
#14
Cecilia Bull, Christiana Cooper, Veronica Lindahl, Sylvia Fitting, Anders I Persson, Rita Grandér, Ann-Marie Alborn, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, H Georg Kuhn, Klas Blomgren
Cranial radiation severely affects brain health and function, including glial cell production and myelination. Recent studies indicate that voluntary exercise has beneficial effects on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Here, we hypothesized that voluntary running would increase oligodendrocyte numbers in the corpus callosum after irradiation of the juvenile mouse brain. The brains of C57Bl/6J male mice were 6 Gy irradiated on postnatal day 9 during the main gliogenic developmental phase, resulting in a loss of oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
August 4, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760862/myelinogenic-plasticity-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#15
P Assinck, G J Duncan, J R Plemel, M J Lee, J S Stratton, S B Manesh, J Liu, L M Ramer, S H Kang, D E Bergles, J Biernaskie, W Tetzlaff
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping PDGFRα+, Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter three months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760688/the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-transcription-factor-2-olig2-is-epigenetically-regulated-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Arzu Yalcin, Marlon Kovarbasic, Julius Wehrle, Rainer Claus, Heiko Becker, Mahmoud Abdelkarim, Verena I Gaidzik, Andrea Schmidts, Ralph Wäsch, Heike L Pahl, Konstanze Döhner, Lars Bullinger, Justus Duyster, Michael Lübbert, Björn Hackanson
DNA methylation differences between normal tissue and cancerous tissue resulting in differential expression of genes are a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and can provide malignant cells with a growth advantage via silencing of specific genes, for example, transcription factors. Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) was reported to be differentially methylated and associated with prognosis in AML and, as reported for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant glioma, may play a role in malignant transformation...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751716/static-magnetic-field-stimulation-enhances-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-secretion-of-neurotrophic-factors
#17
Ankshita Prasad, Daniel B Loong Teh, Agata Blasiak, Chou Chai, Yang Wu, Payam M Gharibani, In Hong Yang, Thang T Phan, Kah Leong Lim, Hyunsoo Yang, Xiaogang Liu, Angelo H All
The cellular-level effects of low/high frequency oscillating magnetic field on excitable cells such as neurons are well established. In contrast, the effects of a homogeneous, static magnetic field (SMF) on Central Nervous System (CNS) glial cells are less investigated. Here, we have developed an in vitro SMF stimulation set-up to investigate the genomic effects of SMF exposure on oligodendrocyte differentiation and neurotrophic factors secretion. Human oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) were stimulated with moderate intensity SMF (0...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749472/retinoic-acid-induced-upregulation-of-mir-219-promotes-the-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-neural-cells
#18
Haibo Wu, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Songna Yin, Chao Song, Jingcheng Zhang, Shanting Zhao, Yong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate critical cell processes, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and development. However, the role of miRNAs in embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA) and factors that govern neural directional differentiation remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-219 is sufficient in promoting mouse ESCs to undergo neural differentiation. We discovered that Foxj3 and Zbtb18, two target genes of miR-219, are not able to determine the process of RA-induced differentiation, however they prevent ESCs from differentiating into neural cells...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717188/targeting-ptprz-inhibits-stem-cell-like-properties-and-tumorigenicity-in-glioblastoma-cells
#19
Akihiro Fujikawa, Hajime Sugawara, Taisaku Tanaka, Masahito Matsumoto, Kazuya Kuboyama, Ryoko Suzuki, Naomi Tanga, Atsuto Ogata, Makoto Masumura, Masaharu Noda
The R5 subfamily of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprises PTPRZ and PTPRG. A recent study on primary human glioblastomas suggested a close association between PTPRZ1 (human PTPRZ) expression and cancer stemness. However, the functional roles of PTPRZ activity in glioma stem cells have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that sphere-forming cells from the rat C6 and human U251 glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression levels of PTPRZ-B, the short receptor isoform of PTPRZ...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698869/effects-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-inhibition-in-a-neonatal-rodent-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#20
Melanie Klöfers, Jules Kohaut, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Vinzenz Boos, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia ischemia (HI) to the developing brain occurs in 1-6 in 1000 live births. Large numbers of survivors have neurological long-term sequelae. However, mechanisms of recovery after HI are not understood and preventive measures or clinical treatments are not effective. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is overactivated in response to ischemia. In neonatal mice HI activates PARP-1 but its role in perinatal brain injury remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to explore the effect of TES448 (PARP-1-inhibitor) and hypothermia after an ischemic insult...
2017: BioMed Research International
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