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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161197/icariin-enhances-remyelination-process-after-acute-demyelination-induced-by-cuprizone-exposure
#1
Yifan Zhang, Linlin Yin, Na Zheng, Li Zhang, Jianghong Liu, Weixiong Liang, Qi Wang
Pathology are still progressive and cumulative in the remission course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), thus drug treatment during the remission period may play a great role for the regeneration of the myelin sheath. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone (CPZ, 0.2% w/w) for 5 weeks to induce acute demyelination and oligodendrocytes degeneration, after which CPZ was withdrawn to allow recovery. Icariin (ICA, 6.25, 12.5 and 25mg/kg/day), vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution) or water was administrated orally to mice for 1 week after CPZ withdrawal...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148827/mutant-idh1-disrupts-the-mouse-subventricular-zone-and-alters-brain-tumor-progression
#2
Christopher J Pirozzi, Austin B Carpenter, Matthew S Waitkus, Catherine Y Wang, Huishan Zhu, Landon J Hansen, Lee H Chen, Paula K Greer, Jie Feng, Yu Wang, Cheryl B Bock, Ping Fan, Ivan Spasojevic, Roger E McLendon, Darell D Bigner, Yiping He, Hai Yan
: IDH1 mutations occur in the majority of low-grade gliomas and lead to the production of the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). To understand the effects of tumor-associated mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) on both the neural stem cell (NSC) population and brain tumorigenesis, genetically faithful cell lines and mouse model systems were generated. Here, it is reported that mouse NSCs expressing Idh1-R132H displayed reduced proliferation due to p53-mediated cell cycle arrest as well as a decreased ability to undergo neuronal differentiation...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122245/oncogenes-activate-an-autonomous-transcriptional-regulatory-circuit-that-drives-glioblastoma
#3
Dinesh K Singh, Rahul K Kollipara, Vamsidara Vemireddy, Xiao-Li Yang, Yuxiao Sun, Nanda Regmi, Stefan Klingler, Kimmo J Hatanpaa, Jack Raisanen, Steve K Cho, Shyam Sirasanagandla, Suraj Nannepaga, Sara Piccirillo, Tomoyuki Mashimo, Shan Wang, Caroline G Humphries, Bruce Mickey, Elizabeth A Maher, Hongwu Zheng, Ryung S Kim, Ralf Kittler, Robert M Bachoo
Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM) drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2) transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070830/mesenchymal-subtype-of-glioblastomas-with-high-dna-pkcs-expression-is-associated-with-better-response-to-radiotherapy-and-temozolomide
#4
Baptiste Pinel, Mathilde Duchesne, Julie Godet, Serge Milin, Antoine Berger, Michel Wager, Lucie Karayan-Tapon
A better understanding of the relationship between glioblastomas molecular subtypes and radio-chemotherapy is needed for the development of individualized strategies. In this study, we aimed to assess whether non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein expression is associated and could predict responses to treatment of mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN) subtypes. Tumors from 122 patients with a glioblastoma treated at the University Hospital of Poitiers between 2002-2013 by an association of radiotherapy and temozolomide were collected...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058491/evaluating-the-impact-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-aberrations-on-survival-and-response-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-receiving-epigenetic-therapy
#5
Jan K Hiller, Claudia Schmoor, Verena I Gaidzik, Charlotte Schmidt-Salzmann, Arzu Yalcin, Mahmoud Abdelkarim, Nadja Blagitko-Dorfs, Konstanze Döhner, Lars Bullinger, Justus Duyster, Michael Lübbert, Björn Hackanson
Treatment with hypomethylating agents such as decitabine, which results in overall response rates of up to 50%, has become standard of care in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for intensive chemotherapy. However, there still exists a lack of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers that enable selection of patients who are likely to benefit from epigenetic therapy. Here, we investigated distinct genetic (FLT3-ITD, NPM1, DNMT3A) and epigenetic (estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), C/EBPα, and OLIG2) aberrations in 87 AML patients from the recently published phase II decitabine trial (AML00331) to identify potential biomarkers for patients receiving hypomethylating therapy...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#6
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001323/prenatal-transplantation-of-epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cells-in-malformation-of-cortical-development-mouse-model
#7
Ameneh Omidi, Mohammad Akbari, Keywan Mortezaee, Ehsan Eqlimi, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Prenatal interventions may offer an immense opportunity in therapeutic protocols of malformations of cortical development (MCD). Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) of the hair follicle bulge exhibit features of both embryonic and adult stem cells; these cells maintain their neurologic differentiation capability because of their neural crest origin. However, it is unknown if prenatal use of EPI-NCSCs could be beneficial in targeting methylazoxymethanol (MAM)-induced MCD, which further addressed in the present work...
December 21, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923998/interplay-between-h1-and-hmgn-epigenetically-regulates-olig1-2-expression-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#8
Tao Deng, Yuri Postnikov, Shaofei Zhang, Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Ildikó Rácz, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Michael Bustin
An interplay between the nucleosome binding proteins H1 and HMGN is known to affect chromatin dynamics, but the biological significance of this interplay is still not clear. We find that during embryonic stem cell differentiation loss of HMGNs leads to down regulation of genes involved in neural differentiation, and that the transcription factor OLIG2 is a central node in the affected pathway. Loss of HMGNs affects the expression of OLIG2 as well as that of OLIG1, two transcription factors that are crucial for oligodendrocyte lineage specification and nerve myelination...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911079/trans-acting-epigenetic-effects-of-chromosomal-aneuploidies-lessons-from-down-syndrome-and-mouse-models
#9
Catherine Do, Zhuo Xing, Y Eugene Yu, Benjamin Tycko
An important line of postgenomic research seeks to understand how genetic factors can influence epigenetic patterning. Here we review epigenetic effects of chromosomal aneuploidies, focusing on findings in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Recent work in human DS and mouse models has shown that the extra chromosome 21 acts in trans to produce epigenetic changes, including differential CpG methylation (DS-DM), in specific sets of downstream target genes, mostly on other chromosomes. Mechanistic hypotheses emerging from these data include roles of chromosome 21-linked methylation pathway genes (DNMT3L and others) and transcription factor genes (RUNX1, OLIG2, GABPA, ERG and ETS2) in shaping the patterns of DS-DM...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905041/new-xymedon-analogues-for-stimulation-of-posttraumatic-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#10
T V Povysheva, V E Semenov, I V Galyametdinova, V S Reznik, K S Knni, P E Kolesnikov, Yu A Chelyshev
Effect of systemic administration of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon and compounds 29D and 34D, was studied in rats with experimental dosed contusion spinal cord injury. Xymedon promoted recovery of motor function after injury. Compounds 29D and 34D more effectively restored the parameters of open-field and Rotarod tests in comparison with xymedon. Compound 29D more effectively than xymedon maintained the number of Olig2(+) oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and NG2 cells in all investigated areas of the white matter...
December 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#11
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#12
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861899/sulfatide-species-with-various-fatty-acid-chains-in-oligodendrocytes-at-different-developmental-stages-determined-by-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#13
Yukie Hirahara, Taketoshi Wakabayashi, Tetsuji Mori, Taro Koike, Ikuko Yao, Masayuki Tsuda, Koichi Honke, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono, Hisao Yamada
HSO3-3-galactosylceramide (Sulfatide) species comprise the major glycosphingolipid components of oligodendrocytes and myelin and play functional roles in the regulation of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin formation. Although various sulfatide species contain different fatty acids, it is unclear how these sulfatide species affect oligodendrogenesis and myelination. The O4 monoclonal antibody reaction with sulfatide has been widely used as a useful marker for oligodendrocytes and myelin. However, sulfatide synthesis during the pro-oligodendroblast stage, where differentiation into the oligodendrocyte lineage has already occurred, has not been examined...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859041/increased-subcortical-oligodendroglia-like-cells-in-pharmacoresistant-focal-epilepsy-in-children-correlate-with-extensive-epileptogenic-zones
#14
Satoru Sakuma, William C Halliday, Ruka Nomura, Shiro Baba, Yosuke Sato, Kazuo Okanari, Midori Nakajima, Elysa Widjaja, Cyrus Boelman, Ayako Ochi, O Carter Snead, James T Rutka, James Drake, Steven Miller, Hiroshi Otsubo
OBJECTIVE: Cortical resections in epilepsy surgery tend to involve multiple lobes in children, compared to adults, partly due to underlying pathology. Oligodendroglia-like cells (OLCs) have been observed in surgical specimens from children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We hypothesize that OLCs recruit multiple-lobe epileptogenic zones in pediatric pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. METHODS: We examined the surgical specimens from 30 children who underwent epilepsy surgery (1...
December 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852622/resetting-cancer-stem-cell-regulatory-nodes-upon-myc-inhibition
#15
Silvia Galardi, Mauro Savino, Fiorella Scagnoli, Serena Pellegatta, Federica Pisati, Federico Zambelli, Barbara Illi, Daniela Annibali, Sara Beji, Elisa Orecchini, Maria Adele Alberelli, Clara Apicella, Rosaria Anna Fontanella, Alessandro Michienzi, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Maria Giulia Farace, Giulio Pavesi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Sergio Nasi
MYC deregulation is common in human cancer and has a role in sustaining the aggressive cancer stem cell populations. MYC mediates a broad transcriptional response controlling normal biological programmes, but its activity is not clearly understood. We address MYC function in cancer stem cells through the inducible expression of Omomyc-a MYC-derived polypeptide interfering with MYC activity-taking as model the most lethal brain tumour, glioblastoma. Omomyc bridles the key cancer stemlike cell features and affects the tumour microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821299/biomarkers-related-with-seizure-risk-in-glioma-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Xing-Wang Zhou, Xiang Wang, Yuan Yang, Jie-Wen Luo, Hui Dong, Yan-Hui Liu, Qing Mao
Increasing evidence indicates that genetic biomarkers play important roles in the development of glioma-associated seizures. Thus, we performed a systematic review to summarise biomarkers that are associated with seizures in glioma patients. An electronic literature search of public databases (PubMed, Embase and Medline) was performed using the keywords glioma, seizure and epilepsy. A totall of 26 eligible studies with 2224 cases were included in this systematic review of publications to 20 June, 2016. Genetic biomarkers such as isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations, low expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), high xCT expression, overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK) and low expression of very large G-protein-coupled receptor-1 (VLGR1) are primarily involved in synaptic transmission, whereas BRAF mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification, miR-196b expression and low ki-67 expression are associated with regulation of cell proliferation...
December 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808258/significant-glial-alterations-in-response-to-iron-loading-in-a-novel-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-culture-model
#17
Sinead Healy, Jill McMahon, Peter Owens, Una FitzGerald
Aberrant iron deposition in the brain is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. To study the collective response to iron loading, we have used hippocampal organotypic slices as a platform to develop a novel ex vivo model of iron accumulation. We demonstrated differential uptake and toxicity of iron after 12 h exposure to 10 μM ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferric citrate or ferrocene. Having established the supremacy of ferrocene in this model, the cultures were then loaded with 0...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803196/corrigendum-characterization-of-the-neural-stem-cell-gene-regulatory-network-identifies-olig2-as-a-multifunctional-regulator-of-self-renewal
#18
Juan L Mateo, Debbie L C van den Berg, Maximilian Haeussler, Daniela Drechsel, Zachary B Gaber, Diogo S Castro, Paul Robson, Q Richard Lu, Gregory E Crawford, Paul Flicek, Laurence Ettwiller, Joachim Wittbrodt, François Guillemot, Ben Martynoga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785726/accelerated-generation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-forced-expression-of-sox10-and-olig2
#19
Pengyan Li, Mo Li, Xihe Tang, Shuyan Wang, Y Alex Zhang, Zhiguo Chen
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) hold great promise for treatment of dysmyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. Recent studies on generation of human OPCs mainly use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or neural stem cells (NSCs) as starter cell sources for the differentiation process. However, NSCs are restricted in availability and the present method for generation of oligodendrocytes (OLs) from ESCs often requires a lengthy period of time. Here, we demonstrated a protocol to efficiently derive OPCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by forced expression of two transcription factors (2TFs), Sox10 and Olig2...
November 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783941/mek-inhibitors-reverse-growth-of-embryonal-brain-tumors-derived-from-oligoneural-precursor-cells
#20
Katarzyna Modzelewska, Elena F Boer, Timothy L Mosbruger, Daniel Picard, Daniela Anderson, Rodney R Miles, Mitchell Kroll, William Oslund, Theodore J Pysher, Joshua D Schiffman, Randy Jensen, Cicely A Jette, Annie Huang, Rodney A Stewart
Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the CNS (CNS-PNETs) are particularly aggressive embryonal tumors of unknown cellular origin. Recent genomic studies have classified CNS-PNETs into molecularly distinct subgroups that promise to improve diagnosis and treatment; however, the lack of cell- or animal-based models for these subgroups prevents testing of rationally designed therapies. Here, we show that a subset of CNS-PNETs co-express oligoneural precursor cell (OPC) markers OLIG2 and SOX10 with coincident activation of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
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