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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717188/targeting-ptprz-inhibits-stem-cell-like-properties-and-tumorigenicity-in-glioblastoma-cells
#1
Akihiro Fujikawa, Hajime Sugawara, Taisaku Tanaka, Masahito Matsumoto, Kazuya Kuboyama, Ryoko Suzuki, Naomi Tanga, Atsuto Ogata, Makoto Masumura, Masaharu Noda
The R5 subfamily of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprises PTPRZ and PTPRG. A recent study on primary human glioblastomas suggested a close association between PTPRZ1 (human PTPRZ) expression and cancer stemness. However, the functional roles of PTPRZ activity in glioma stem cells have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that sphere-forming cells from the rat C6 and human U251 glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression levels of PTPRZ-B, the short receptor isoform of PTPRZ...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698869/effects-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-inhibition-in-a-neonatal-rodent-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#2
Melanie Klöfers, Jules Kohaut, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Vinzenz Boos, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia ischemia (HI) to the developing brain occurs in 1-6 in 1000 live births. Large numbers of survivors have neurological long-term sequelae. However, mechanisms of recovery after HI are not understood and preventive measures or clinical treatments are not effective. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is overactivated in response to ischemia. In neonatal mice HI activates PARP-1 but its role in perinatal brain injury remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to explore the effect of TES448 (PARP-1-inhibitor) and hypothermia after an ischemic insult...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696296/multiplexed-rnai-therapy-against-brain-tumor-initiating-cells-via-lipopolymeric-nanoparticle-infusion-delays-glioblastoma-progression
#3
Dou Yu, Omar F Khan, Mario L Suvà, Biqin Dong, Wojciech K Panek, Ting Xiao, Meijing Wu, Yu Han, Atique U Ahmed, Irina V Balyasnikova, Hao F Zhang, Cheng Sun, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson, Maciej S Lesniak
Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) have been identified as key contributors to therapy resistance, recurrence, and progression of diffuse gliomas, particularly glioblastoma (GBM). BTICs are elusive therapeutic targets that reside across the blood-brain barrier, underscoring the urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Additionally, intratumoral heterogeneity and adaptations to therapeutic pressure by BTICs impede the discovery of effective anti-BTIC therapies and limit the efficacy of individual gene targeting...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695768/expression-of-oligodendrocyte-marker-during-peripheral-central-transitional-zone-formation-of-the-postnatal-mouse-cochlear-nerve
#4
Dennis Bojrab, Baofu Zhang, Hui Jiang, Lei Zhang, David S Cohen, Xuemei Luo, Zhengqing Hu
Objective To better understand oligodendrocyte protein expression along the mouse cochlear nerve in postnatal mice. Study Design In vivo murine study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects and Methods Swiss Webster mice used at multiple postnatal days (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 30, and 60). There were 5 replicates at each postnatal day. Cryosection was done to produce sections that included the cochlear nucleus, cochlear nerve, and cochlea in a single sample. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to the oligodendrocyte protein Olig2 were used to study the cochlear nerve of Swiss Webster mice at postnatal days...
July 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691208/transcriptomic-profile-analysis-of-mouse-neural-tube-development-by-rna-seq
#5
Juan Yu, Jianbing Mu, Qian Guo, Lihong Yang, Juan Zhang, Zhizhen Liu, Baofeng Yu, Ting Zhang, Jun Xie
The neural tube is the primordium of the central nervous system (CNS) in which its development is not entirely clear. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of neural tube development could, therefore, provide vital clues to the mechanism of neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we investigated the gene expression profiles of three different time points (embryonic day (E) 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5) of mouse neural tube by using RNA-seq approach. About 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened during mouse neural tube development, including 45 DEGs involved in CNS development, among which Bmp2, Ascl1, Olig2, Lhx1, Wnt7b and Eomes might play the important roles...
July 10, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664402/reduced-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-postnatal-brain-of-dystonia-musculorum-mice
#6
M Ibrahim Hossain, Masao Horie, Hirohide Takebayashi
Dystonia musculorum (dt) mice show sensory neurodegeneration and movement disorder, such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. The causative gene Dystonin (Dst) encodes a cytoskeleton linker protein. Although sensory neurodegeneration has been well studied, glial cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated cell proliferation in the CNS of Dst (Gt) homozygous mice using newly generated in situ hybridization (ISH) probes-Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) probes-both of which effectively detect proliferating cells...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634226/phostine-pst3-1a-targets-mgat5-and-inhibits-glioblastoma-initiating-cell-invasiveness-and-proliferation
#7
Zahra Hassani, Ali Saleh, Soumaya Turpault, Salim Khiati, Willy Morelle, Jacques Vignon, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Philippe Legrand, Marcel Delaforge, Séverine Loiseau, Ludovic Clarion, Marc Lecouvey, Jean-Noël Volle, David Virieux, Jean-Luc Pirat, Hugues Duffau, Norbert Bakalara
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and accounts for a significant proportion of all primary brain tumors. Median survival after treatment is around 15 months. Remodeling of N-glycans by the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyltransferase (MGAT5) regulates tumoral development. Here, perturbation of MGAT5 enzymatic activity by the small-molecule inhibitor 3-Hydroxy-4,5-bis-benzyloxy-6-benzyloxymethyl-2-phenyl2-oxo-2λ5-[1,2]oxaphosphinane (PST3.1a) restrains GBM growth. In cell based assays it is demonstrated that PST3...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625858/stem-cells-pluripotency-and-glial-cell-markers-in-peripheral-blood-of-bipolar-patients-on-long-term-lithium-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of long-term lithium treatment on very-small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the mRNA expression of pluripotency and glial markers, in peripheral blood, in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Fifteen BD patients (aged 53±7years) not treated with lithium, with duration of illness >10years, 15 BD patients (aged 55±6years) treated with lithium for 8-40years (mean 16years) and 15 control subjects (aged 50±5years) were included...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625489/diosmin-reduces-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#9
Mariana M Bertozzi, Ana C Rossaneis, Victor Fattori, Daniela T Longhi-Balbinot, Andressa Freitas, Fernando Q Cunha, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Injury or dysfunction of somatosensory system induces a complex syndrome called neuropathic pain, which still needs adequate pharmacological control. The current pharmacological treatments were in part developed from natural compounds. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic molecules presenting varied biological activities and low toxicity. The flavonoid diosmin is a safe compound with good tolerability and low toxicity. This study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of diosmin in the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain model...
June 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620864/adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-adsc-express-oligodendrocyte-and-myelin-markers-but-they-do-not-function-as-oligodendrocytes
#10
Lara Vellosillo, Maria Paz Muñoz, Carlos Luis Paíno
Mesenchymal cells cultured from the vasculo-stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ADSC) show adult stem cell characteristics and several groups have claimed generating neural cells from them. However, we have observed that many markers commonly used for the identification of neural cells are spontaneously expressed by ADSC in culture. In the present study, we have examined the expression of characteristic oligodendrocyte molecules in cultured ADSC, aiming to test if myelinating cells could be generated from accessible non-neural adult tissues...
June 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614773/assessment-of-neurotoxicity-of-pharmacological-compounds-during-early-neural-development-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
H Y Kang, E J Hong, H S Kang, C Ahn, E B Jeung
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with the potential for differentiation, have been used to evaluate the embryotoxicity of various compounds. The effects of pharmacological compounds (cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, indomethacin, and dexamethasone) on neurogenesis of hESCs over 28 days were examined based on cytotoxicity (half-maximal inhibitory concentration of viability, IC50) and expression of neural markers. Cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea showed strong cytotoxicity (IC50 < 10 μM), whereas indomethacin and dexamethasone had weaker cytotoxic effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614724/post-translational-modifications-of-olig2-regulate-glioma-invasion-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Shiv K Singh, Roberto Fiorelli, Robert Kupp, Sindhu Rajan, Emily Szeto, Costanza Lo Cascio, Cecile L Maire, Yu Sun, John A Alberta, Jennifer M Eschbacher, Keith L Ligon, Michael E Berens, Nader Sanai, Shwetal Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605832/comparison-of-reprogramming-methods-for-generation-of-induced-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#13
Eun-Hye Lee, Chang-Hwan Park
Direct conversion by trans-differentiation is of growing interest in cell therapy for incurable diseases. The efficiency of cell reprogramming and functionality of converted cells are important considerations in cell transplantation therapy. Here, we compared two representative protocols for the generation of induced-oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) from mouse and rat fibroblasts. Then, we showed that induction of Nkx6.2, Olig2, and Sox10 (NOS) was more effective in mouse fibroblasts and that induction of Olig2, Sox10, and Zfp536 (OSZ) was more effective at reprogramming iOPCs from rat fibroblasts...
July 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552605/defined-and-scalable-differentiation-of-human-oligodendrocyte-precursors-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-a-3d-culture-system
#14
Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Thomas Gaj, Maroof M Adil, Joyce Wahba, Antara T Rao, Franziska K Lorbeer, Rishi U Kulkarni, Maria Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral, Evan W Miller, Dirk Hockemeyer, David V Schaffer
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) offer considerable potential for the treatment of demyelinating diseases and injuries of the CNS. However, generating large quantities of high-quality OPCs remains a substantial challenge that impedes their therapeutic application. Here, we show that OPCs can be generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D), scalable, and fully defined thermoresponsive biomaterial system. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create a NKX2.2-EGFP human embryonic stem cell reporter line that enabled fine-tuning of early OPC specification and identification of conditions that markedly increased the number of OLIG2(+) and NKX2...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#15
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529944/optimization-of-time-for-neural-stem-cells-transplantation-for-brain-stroke-in-rats
#16
Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Parisa Tabeshmehr, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Majidreza Farrokhi, Abdolhamid Shariat, Atena Amiri, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging data in terms of neurological outcome, stem cell based therapy for ischemic stroke in experimental models and human patients is still hampered by multiple as yet un-optimized variables, i.e., time of intervention, that significantly influence the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to delineate the optimum time for neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The NSCs were isolated from 14 days embryo rat ganglion eminence and were cultured in NSA medium (neurobasal medium, 2% B27, 1% N2, bFGF 10 ng/mL, EGF 20 ng/mL and 1% pen/strep)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#17
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521040/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500734/differentiation-of-human-olfactory-bulb-derived-neural-stem-cells-toward-oligodendrocyte
#19
Hany E Marei, Zeinab Shouman, Asma Althani, Nahla Afifi, Abd-Elmaksoud A, Samah Lashen, Anwarul Hasan, Thomas Caceci, Roberto Rizzi, Carlo Cenciarelli, Patrizia Casalbore
In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes are the glial element in charge of myelin formation. Obtaining an overall presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells/oligodendrocytes (OPCs/OLs) in culture from different sources of NSCs is an important research area, because OPCs/OLs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases affecting myelination of axons. The present study was designed to differentiate human olfactory bulb NSCs (OBNSCs) into OPCs/OLs and using expression profiling (RT-qPCR) gene, immunocytochemistry, and specific protein expression to highlight molecular mechanism(s) underlying differentiation of human OBNSCs into OPCs/OLs...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464811/effect-of-catalpol-on-remyelination-through-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-acting-to-promote-olig1-and-olig2-expressions-in-mice
#20
Tao Yang, Qi Zheng, Su Wang, Ling Fang, Lei Liu, Hui Zhao, Lei Wang, Yongping Fan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) as an autoimmune disorder is a common disease occurring in central nervous system (CNS) and the remyelination plays a pivotal role in the alleviating neurological impairment in the MS. Catalpol, an effective component extracted from the Chinese herb Radix Rehmanniae, which has been proved protective in cerebral diseases. METHODS: To determine the protective effects and mechanisms of Catalpol on MS, the mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55, as a model for human MS...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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