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Dae-Hwan Kim, Janghyun Kim, Ji-Sun Kwon, Jaspreet Sandhu, Peter Tontonoz, Soo-Kyung Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jae W Lee
The pathophysiologic continuum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease begins with steatosis. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the gene regulatory program directing steatosis, how it is orchestrated at the chromatin level is unclear. PPARγ2 is a hepatic steatotic transcription factor induced by overnutrition. Here, we report that the histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase MLL4/KMT2D directs overnutrition-induced murine steatosis via its coactivator function for PPARγ2. We demonstrate that overnutrition facilitates the recruitment of MLL4 to steatotic target genes of PPARγ2 and their transactivation via H3 lysine 4 methylation because PPARγ2 phosphorylated by overnutrition-activated ABL1 kinase shows enhanced interaction with MLL4...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
Yoichi Munehira, Ze Yang, Or Gozani
Histone methylation dynamics plays a critical role in cellular programming during development. For example, specific lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and lysine demethylases (KDMs) have been implicated in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into various cell lineages. However, a systematic and functional analysis for an entire family of KMT or KDM enzymes has not been performed. Here, we test the function of all the known and candidate KDMs in myoblast and osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 cell differentiation model system...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Chaochen Wang, Ji-Eun Lee, Binbin Lai, Todd S Macfarlan, Shiliyang Xu, Lenan Zhuang, Chengyu Liu, Weiqun Peng, Kai Ge
Transcriptional enhancers control cell-type-specific gene expression. Primed enhancers are marked by histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) mono/di-methylation (H3K4me1/2). Active enhancers are further marked by H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac). Mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4/KMT2D) is a major enhancer H3K4me1/2 methyltransferase with functional redundancy with MLL3 (KMT2C). However, its role in cell fate maintenance and transition is poorly understood. Here, we show in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that MLL4 associates with, but is surprisingly dispensable for the maintenance of, active enhancers of cell-identity genes...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christie C Sze, Ali Shilatifard
During development, precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression are coordinately controlled by cis-regulatory modules known as enhancers. Their crucial role in development helped spur numerous studies aiming to elucidate the functional properties of enhancers within their physiological and disease contexts. In recent years, the role of enhancer malfunction in tissue-specific tumorigenesis is increasingly investigated. Here, we direct our focus to two primary players in enhancer regulation and their role in cancer pathogenesis: MLL3 and MLL4, members of the COMPASS family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases, and their complex-specific subunit UTX, a histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase...
September 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Jinho Kim, Sung-Hun Lee, Ji Hwan Jang, Mee-Seon Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young Zoon Kim
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epigenetic and prognostic roles of an H3K4 methyltransferase (mixed lineage leukemia 4 [MLL4]) and H3K27 demethylase (ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on X chromosome [UTX]) in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) who were treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both after resection. In addition, the authors examined methylation at the promoter of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and other prognostic factors predicting length of PFS and OS in these patients...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Angad Johar, Juan C Sarmiento-Monroy, Adriana Rojas-Villarraga, Maria F Silva-Lara, Hardip R Patel, Ruben D Mantilla, Jorge I Velez, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Claudio Mastronardi, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Juan-Manuel Anaya
OBJECTIVES: Familial autoimmunity and polyautoimmunity represent extreme phenotypes ideal for identifying major genomic variants contributing to autoimmunity. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis are well suited for this purpose due to its strong resolution upon familial segregation patterns of functional protein coding and splice variants. The primary objective of this study was to identify potentially autoimmune causative variants using WES data from extreme pedigrees segregating polyautoimmunity phenotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Muhammad Zaki Hidayatullah Fadlullah, Ivy Kim-Ni Chiang, Kalen R Dionne, Pei San Yee, Chai Phei Gan, Kin Kit Sam, Kai Hung Tiong, Adrian Kwok Wen Ng, Daniel Martin, Kue Peng Lim, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa, Shin Hin Lau, Mannil Thomas Abraham, Rosnah Binti Zain, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Alfredo Molinolo, Vyomesh Patel, J Silvio Gutkind, Aik Choon Tan, Sok Ching Cheong
Emerging biological and translational insights from large sequencing efforts underscore the need for genetically-relevant cell lines to study the relationships between genomic alterations of tumors, and therapeutic dependencies. Here, we report a detailed characterization of a novel panel of clinically annotated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, derived from patients with diverse ethnicity and risk habits. Molecular analysis by RNAseq and copy number alterations (CNA) identified that the cell lines harbour CNA that have been previously reported in OSCC, for example focal amplications in 3q, 7p, 8q, 11q, 20q and deletions in 3p, 5q, 8p, 18q...
May 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Yanjing Li, Jianming Han, Yuebin Zhang, Fang Cao, Zhijun Liu, Shuai Li, Jian Wu, Chunyi Hu, Yan Wang, Jin Shuai, Juan Chen, Liaoran Cao, Dangsheng Li, Pan Shi, Changlin Tian, Jian Zhang, Yali Dou, Guohui Li, Yong Chen, Ming Lei
The mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) family of proteins (including MLL1-MLL4, SET1A and SET1B) specifically methylate histone 3 Lys4, and have pivotal roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in haematopoiesis and development. The methyltransferase activity of MLL1, by itself severely compromised, is stimulated by the three conserved factors WDR5, RBBP5 and ASH2L, which are shared by all MLL family complexes. However, the molecular mechanism of how these factors regulate the activity of MLL proteins still remains poorly understood...
February 25, 2016: Nature
Chien-Hung Yeh, Xue Tao Bai, Ramona Moles, Lee Ratner, Thomas A Waldmann, Toshiki Watanabe, Watanabe Toshiki, Christophe Nicot
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulators play a critical role in the maintenance of specific chromatin domains in an active or repressed state. Disruption of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms is widespread in cancer cells and largely contributes to the transformation process through active repression of tumor suppressor genes. While mutations of epigenetic regulators have been reported in various lymphoid malignancies and solid cancers, mutation of these genes in HTLV-I-associated T-cell leukemia has not been investigated...
2016: Molecular Cancer
Linda M Starnes, Dan Su, Laura M Pikkupeura, Brian T Weinert, Margarida A Santos, Andreas Mund, Rebeca Soria, Young-Wook Cho, Irina Pozdnyakova, Martina Kubec Højfeldt, Andrea Vala, Wenjing Yang, Blanca López-Méndez, Ji-Eun Lee, Weiqun Peng, Joan Yuan, Kai Ge, Guillermo Montoya, André Nussenzweig, Chunaram Choudhary, Jeremy A Daniel
Class switch recombination (CSR) diversifies antibodies for productive immune responses while maintaining stability of the B-cell genome. Transcription at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus targets CSR-associated DNA damage and is promoted by the BRCT domain-containing PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein). Although PTIP is a unique component of the mixed-lineage leukemia 3 (MLL3)/MLL4 chromatin-modifying complex, the mechanisms for how PTIP promotes transcription remain unclear. Here we dissected the minimal structural requirements of PTIP and its different protein complexes using quantitative proteomics in primary lymphocytes...
January 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Ying Zhang, Anshumali Mittal, James Reid, Stephanie Reich, Steven J Gamblin, Jon R Wilson
Methylation of histone H3 lysine-4 is a hallmark of chromatin associated with active gene expression. The activity of H3K4-specific modification enzymes, in higher eukaryotes the MLL (or KMT2) family, is tightly regulated. The MLL family has six members, each with a specialized function. All contain a catalytic SET domain that associates with a core multiprotein complex for activation. These SET domains segregate into three classes that correlate with the arrangement of targeting domains that populate the rest of the protein...
October 6, 2015: Structure
Hee-Joo Choi, Ji-Hye Park, Mikyung Park, Hee-Young Won, Hyeong-Seok Joo, Chang Hoon Lee, Jeong-Yeon Lee, Gu Kong
The histone H3K27 demethylase, UTX, is a known component of the H3K4 methyltransferase MLL complex, but its functional association with H3K4 methylation in human cancers remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that UTX loss induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediated breast cancer stem cell (CSC) properties by increasing the expression of the SNAIL, ZEB1 and ZEB2 EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and of the transcriptional repressor CDH1. UTX facilitates the epigenetic silencing of EMT-TFs by inducing competition between MLL4 and the H3K4 demethylase LSD1...
October 2015: EMBO Reports
Palaniraja Thandapani, Jingwen Song, Valentina Gandin, Yutian Cai, Samuel G Rouleau, Jean-Michel Garant, Francois-Michel Boisvert, Zhenbao Yu, Jean-Pierre Perreault, Ivan Topisirovic, Stéphane Richard
G-quadruplexes (G4) are extremely stable secondary structures forming stacks of guanine tetrads. DNA G4 structures have been extensively studied, however, less is known about G4 motifs in mRNAs, especially in their coding sequences. Herein, we show that Aven stimulates the mRNA translation of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proto-oncogene in an arginine methylation-dependent manner. The Aven RGG/RG motif bound G4 structures within the coding regions of the MLL1 and MLL4 mRNAs increasing their polysomal association and translation, resulting in the induction of transcription of leukemic genes...
2015: ELife
David W Scoville, Holly A Cyphert, Lan Liao, Jianming Xu, Al Reynolds, Shuangli Guo, Roland Stein
Insulin produced by islet β-cells plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis, with type 1 and type 2 diabetes both resulting from inactivation and/or loss of this cell population. Islet-enriched transcription factors regulate β-cell formation and function, yet little is known about the molecules recruited to mediate control. An unbiased in-cell biochemical and mass spectrometry strategy was used to isolate MafA transcription factor-binding proteins. Among the many coregulators identified were all of the subunits of the mixed-lineage leukemia 3 (Mll3) and 4 (Mll4) complexes, with histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferases strongly associated with gene activation...
November 2015: Diabetes
Samaneh Sabiani, Tim Geppert, Christian Engelbrecht, Eric Kowarz, Gisbert Schneider, Rolf Marschalek
We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4-MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα)...
May 2015: EBioMedicine
Jessica N Haladyna, Taylor Yamauchi, Tobias Neff, Kathrin M Bernt
Genome scale sequencing in patients with cancer has revealed a lower frequency of genetic aberrations in hematologic disorders compared with most other malignancies, suggesting a prominent role for epigenetic mechanisms. In parallel, epigenetic modifiers that are altered in cancer play critical roles in normal hematopoietic development, influencing both self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and differentiation into the different lineages. In this review, we aim to compare the role of several key DNA or histone modifying enzymes and complexes in normal development and hematopoietic malignancies, including DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, IDH2, MLL1, MLL4, DOT1L, PRC1/2 and WSHC1/NSD2/MMSET...
2015: Epigenomics
Wenchu Lin, Hideo Watanabe, Shouyong Peng, Joshua M Francis, Nathan Kaplan, Chandra Sekhar Pedamallu, Aruna Ramachandran, Agoston Agoston, Adam J Bass, Matthew Meyerson
UNLABELLED: The tumor suppressor gene MEN1 is frequently mutated in sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) and is responsible for the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) cancer syndrome. Menin, the protein product of MEN1, associates with the histone methyltransferases (HMT) MLL1 (KMT2A) and MLL4 (KMT2B) to form menin-HMT complexes in both human and mouse model systems. To elucidate the role of methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) mediated by menin-HMT complexes during PanNET formation, genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) signals were mapped in pancreatic islets using unbiased chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
April 2015: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Yuichi Shiraishi, Akihiro Fujimoto, Mayuko Furuta, Hiroko Tanaka, Ken-ichi Chiba, Keith A Boroevich, Tetsuo Abe, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Masaki Ueno, Kunihito Gotoh, Shun-ichi Ariizumi, Tetsuo Shibuya, Kaoru Nakano, Aya Sasaki, Kazuhiro Maejima, Rina Kitada, Shinya Hayami, Yoshinobu Shigekawa, Shigeru Marubashi, Terumasa Yamada, Michiaki Kubo, Osamu Ishikawa, Hiroshi Aikata, Koji Arihiro, Hideki Ohdan, Masakazu Yamamoto, Hiroki Yamaue, Kazuaki Chayama, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Satoru Miyano, Hidewaki Nakagawa
Recent studies applying high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified several recurrently mutated genes and pathways in multiple cancer genomes. However, transcriptional consequences from these genomic alterations in cancer genome remain unclear. In this study, we performed integrated and comparative analyses of whole genomes and transcriptomes of 22 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their matched controls. Comparison of whole genome sequence (WGS) and RNA-Seq revealed much evidence that various types of genomic mutations triggered diverse transcriptional changes...
2014: PloS One
Dae-Hwan Kim, Jennifer Chiyeon Rhee, Sujeong Yeo, Rongkun Shen, Soo-Kyung Lee, Jae W Lee, Seunghee Lee
UNLABELLED: The histone H3-lysine-4 methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia 3 (MLL3) and its closest homolog, MLL4 (aka KMT2D), belong to two homologous transcriptional coactivator complexes, named MLL3 and MLL4 complexes, respectively. MLL3 plays crucial roles in multiple metabolic processes. However, the physiological roles of MLL4 in metabolism and the relationship between MLL3 and MLL4 in metabolic gene regulation are unclear. To address these issues, we analyzed the phenotypes of newly generated MLL4 mutant mice, along with MLL3 mutant and MLL3;MLL4 compound mutant mice...
March 2015: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Elaine O'Meara, Deirdre Stack, Susan Phelan, Naomi McDonagh, Lorna Kelly, Raf Sciot, Maria Debiec-Rychter, Thomas Morris, Doug Cochrane, Poul Sorensen, Maureen J O'Sullivan
Undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma (UDS) is a poorly defined or understood entity, essentially a waste-basket for cases failing to fulfill criteria for better-established diagnoses based on combined histology, immunohistochemistry, and tumor genetic assays. We identified a novel chromosomal translocation t(17;19)(p13;q13) in a pediatric UDS and have characterized this alteration to show rearrangement of the MLL4 and GPS2 genes, resulting in an in-frame fusion gene MLL4-GPS2, the expression of which promotes anchorage-independent growth...
December 2014: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
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