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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#1
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145734/two-dopaminergic-genes-drd4-and-slc6a3-are-associated-with-body-mass-index-in-a-colombian-sample-of-young-adults
#2
Yeimy González-Giraldo, Martha L Trujillo, Diego A Forero
Obesity is becoming an epidemic in Latin American countries. Genetic analyses of endophenotypes for obesity, such as body mass index (BMI), are quite useful for research. In this study, we analysed two functional polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genes. A sample of 232 Colombian young subjects were recruited and evaluated for BMI. Two functional polymorphisms in the DRD4 and SLC6A3 and genes were genotyped by PCR and electrophoresis. A significant association was found between BMI and the polymorphisms in DRD4 and SLC6A3 genes...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#3
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145140/fluoxetine-modulates-the-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-serotonin-dopamine-and-adrenergic-signalling-in-zebrafish-embryos
#4
V Cunha, P Rodrigues, M M Santos, P Moradas-Ferreira, M Ferreira
Neurotransmitters pathways in fish and mammals are phylogenetically conserved. Therefore, the environmental presence of psychopharmaceuticals, such as fluoxetine (FLU), are likely to interact with fish serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, affecting their response and associated biological functions. Hence, the present work aimed at evaluating the effects of FLU in the transcription of genes involved in serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic transporters and receptors signalling in early stages of Danio rerio development...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142341/in-house-preparation-and-quality-control-of-tc99m-trodat-1-for-diagnostic-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-computed-tomography-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Rakhee Vatsa, Jaya Shukla, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Apurva Sood, Raman Kumar Joshi, Kanchan Palarwal, Priya Bhusari, Manish Modi
Purpose of Study: Loss of dopamine neurons in the brain is a characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). TRODAT-1 is a tropane derivative that binds to dopamine transporter (DAT) receptors. It can be used for noninvasive in vivo imaging of DAT receptors leading to the early detection of PD. The present study aims to optimize the in-house radiolabeling of TRODAT-1 with Tc-99 m in hospital radiopharmacy set up along with performing single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with PD...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140741/comparative-in-vitro-study-of-11-c-methionine-and-11-c-deuterodeprenyl-uptake-in-three-human-glioma-cell-lines
#6
Elena Vasilskis, Ingrid Kreimerman, Silvia Olivera, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
AIM: To compare the uptake of (11)C-deuterodeprenyl ((11)C-DED) and (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) in three human glioma cell lines and study the relationship with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) expression. (11)C-DED is used in positron emission tomography imaging as a marker of astrocytosis in various central nervous system pathologies. It binds irreversibly to MAO B, a glial dimeric enzyme with increased activity in some neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Binding and internalization studies of (11)C-MET and (11)C-DED were performed in astrocytoma grade III, glioblastoma grade IV, and radio-resistant glioblastoma grade IV cells...
November 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137186/dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mammalian-dopamine-neurons-induced-by-simazine-neurotoxicity
#7
Xueting Li, Jia Yu, Jianan Li, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
Many studies have shown that the pollutant simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), which has been overused, inhibits the proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic cells, and affects the developmental differentiation of mammalian dopaminergic neurons. However, few studies have shown the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism in these cells. Therefore, we aim to examine the metabolic effects of simazine exposure in mouse dopaminergic progenitor neurons (MN9D) at different exposure times...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135937/relax-cool-down-and-scaffold-how-to-restore-surface-expression-of-folding-deficient-mutant-gpcrs-and-slc6-transporters
#8
REVIEW
H M Mazhar Asjad, Shahrooz Nasrollahi-Shirazi, Sonja Sucic, Michael Freissmuth, Christian Nanoff
Many diseases arise from mutations, which impair protein folding. The study of folding-deficient variants of G protein-coupled receptors and solute carrier 6 (SLC6) transporters has shed light on the folding trajectory, how it is monitored and how misfolding can be remedied. Reducing the temperature lowers the energy barrier between folding intermediates and thereby eliminates stalling along the folding trajectory. For obvious reasons, cooling down is not a therapeutic option. One approach to rescue misfolded variants is to use membrane-permeable orthosteric ligands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#9
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#10
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129597/cocaine-and-desipramine-elicit-distinct-striatal-noradrenergic-and-behavioral-responses-in-selectively-bred-obesity-resistant-and-obesity-prone-rats
#11
Peter J Vollbrecht, Kathryn M Nesbitt, Omar S Mabrouk, Aaron M Chadderdon, Emily M Jutkiewicz, Robert T Kennedy, Carrie R Ferrario
Previous studies have demonstrated a role for norepinephrine (NE) in energy regulation and feeding, and basal differences have been observed in hypothalamic NE systems in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant rats. Differences in the function of brain reward circuits, including in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been shown in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant populations, leading many researchers to explore the role of striatal dopamine in obesity. However, alterations in NE transmission also affect NAc mediated behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126889/impaired-glutamatergic-projection-from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#12
Yan-Yan Wang, Yong Wang, Hai-Fei Jiang, Jun-Hua Liu, Jun Jia, Ke Wang, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo, Min-Min Luo, Xiao-Min Wang
The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126628/effect-of-transportation-on-the-sympatho-adrenal-system-responses-in-horses
#13
Pietro Medica, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Cristina Cravana, Adriana Ferlazzo, Esterina Fazio
The objective of current study was to evaluate the effect of transportation stress on the circulating adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) responses of stallions, according to the different distances. Forty-two stallions were studied before and after road transportation of 100, 200 and 300km, for a period of 1-3h. An increase in plasma A after 100km (P<0.001) was observed. A similar result was seen in plasma NA after 100km (P<0.001), and 300km (P<0.001). Increases in plasma DA after 100 and 200km (P<0...
October 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#14
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120604/molecular-determinants-for-substrate-interactions-with-the-glycine-transporter-glyt2
#15
Jane E Carland, Michael Thomas, Shannon N Mostyn, Nandhitha Subramanian, Megan Louise O'Mara, Renae M Ryan, Robert J Vandenberg
Transporters in the SLC6 family play key roles in regulating neurotransmission and are the targets for a wide range of therapeutics. Important insights into the transport mechanisms and the specificity of drug interactions of SLC6 transporters have been obtained from the crystal structures of a bacterial homolog of the family, LeuTAa, and more recently the Drosophila dopamine transporter and the human serotonin transporter. However, there is disputed evidence that the bacterial leucine transporter, LeuTAa, contains two substrate binding sites that work cooperatively in the mechanism of transport, with the binding of a second substrate being required for the release of the substrate from the primary site...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120264/treatment-options-for-chorea
#16
H Bashir, J Jankovic
Chorea is defined as jerk-like movements that move randomly from one body part to another. It is due to a variety of disorders and although current symptomatic therapy is quite effective there are few etiology- or pathogenesis-targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize our own experience and published evidence in the treatment of chorea. Areas covered: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical practices for chorea of all etiologies, PubMed was searched for the most recent clinical trials and reviews using the term 'chorea' cross referenced with specific drug names...
November 9, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119704/pharmacokinetics-of-rp5063-following-single-doses-to-normal-healthy-volunteers-and-multiple-doses-over-10-days-to-stable-schizophrenic-patients
#17
Marc Cantillon, Robert Ings, Laxminarayan Bhat
RP5063, a multimodal dopamine (D)-serotonin (5-HT) stabilizer, possesses high affinity for D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptors and moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter. Two phase I studies characterized the pharmacokinetics of a single dose (10 and 15 mg fasting, 15 mg fed/fasting) in healthy volunteers and multiple doses (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg fed) over 10 days in patients with stable schizophrenia. RP5063 displayed a dose-dependent Cmax at 4 to 6 h, linear dose proportionality for both Cmax and AUC, and a half-life between 40 and 71 h...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117778/serotonin-a-mediator-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Tsveta S Malinova, Christine D Dijkstra, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115391/effect-on-the-dopaminergic-metabolism-induced-by-oral-exposure-to-simazine-during-the-prepubertal-period-in-rats
#19
Xueting Li, Jia Yu, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
The herbicide simazine is widely used in agricultural and non-agricultural fields. Studies have shown that simazine inhibits the proliferation of dopaminergic cells and affects the developmental differentiation of dopamine neurons. However, little is known about the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of simazine on Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats from weaning to puberty (40 days exposure). Simazine was administered orally to SD rats at doses of 0, 12...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114100/successful-treatment-of-severe-tardive-dyskinesia-with-valbenazine-including-a-patient-s-perspective
#20
Richard C Josiassen, Dawn M Filmyer, Jack Gillean, Syed Sikandar Shah, Tyler E Dietterich, Rita A Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a chronic involuntary movement disorder frequently induced by dopamine receptor blockers, particularly first-generation antipsychotics. Until recently, management of TD was restricted to lowering the dose of the current medication, switching to another medication, or using off-label treatments with insufficient evidence of efficacy. Valbenazine, a vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, became the first drug to be approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of TD...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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