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Venkatesan, arun

Ryan E Tomlinson, Zhi Li, Zhu Li, Liliana Minichiello, Ryan C Riddle, Arun Venkatesan, Thomas L Clemens
Sensory nerves emanating from the dorsal root extensively innervate the surfaces of mammalian bone, a privileged location for the regulation of biomechanical signaling. Here, we show that NGF-TrkA signaling in skeletal sensory nerves is an early response to mechanical loading of bone and is required to achieve maximal load-induced bone formation. First, the elimination of TrkA signaling in mice harboring mutant TrkA(F592A) alleles was found to greatly attenuate load-induced bone formation induced by axial forelimb compression...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lilja B Solnes, Krystyna M Jones, Steven P Rowe, Puskar Pattanayak, Abhinav Nalluri, Arun Venkatesan, John C Probasco, Mehrbod Som Javadi
Introduction: Diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis presents some challenges in the clinical setting due to varied clinical presentations and delay in obtaining antibody panel results. We examined the role of neuroimaging in the setting of autoimmune encephalitides comparing the utility (18)F-FDG PET/CT versus conventional brain imaging with MRI. Methods: A retrospective study was performed assessing the positivity rate of MRI versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT during the initial work-up of 23 patients proven to have antibody positive autoimmune encephalitis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Mackenzie C Cervenka, Sara Hocker, Matthew Koenig, Barak Bar, Bobbie Henry-Barron, Eric H Kossoff, Adam L Hartman, John C Probasco, David R Benavides, Arun Venkatesan, Eliza C Hagen, Denise Dittrich, Tracy Stern, Batya Radzik, Marie Depew, Filissa M Caserta, Paul Nyquist, Peter W Kaplan, Romergryko G Geocadin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD) for superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) in adults. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicenter study of patients 18 to 80 years of age with SRSE treated with a KD treatment algorithm. The primary outcome measure was significant urine and serum ketone body production as a biomarker of feasibility. Secondary measures included resolution of SRSE, disposition at discharge, KD-related side effects, and long-term outcomes...
March 7, 2017: Neurology
Venkatesan Kathiresan, Swathika Subburaman, Arun Venkatesh Krishna, Mathivanan Natarajan, Gandhidasan Rathinasamy, Kumaresan Ganesan, Murugesan Ramachandran
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known cytotoxic agent used extensively as a chemotherapeutic drug to eradicate a wide variety of human cancers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress during DOX treatment can induce cardiac, renal, and hepatic toxicities, which can constrain its use as a potential cytotoxic agent. The present work investigates the antioxidant potential of naringenin (NAR) against DOXinduced toxicities of a Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor-bearing mouse model. Mice were randomized into four groups: a negative control, positive control, DOX (2...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Deanna Saylor, Arun Venkatesan
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV). The disease occurs virtually exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, and, prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, was seen most commonly in the setting of HIV/AIDS. More recently, however, the incidence of PML in HIV-uninfected persons has increased with broader use of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory medications utilized in a variety of systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Ryan E Tomlinson, Zhi Li, Qian Zhang, Brian C Goh, Zhu Li, Daniel L J Thorek, Labchan Rajbhandari, Thomas M Brushart, Liliana Minichiello, Fengquan Zhou, Arun Venkatesan, Thomas L Clemens
Developing tissues dictate the amount and type of innervation they require by secreting neurotrophins, which promote neuronal survival by activating distinct tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling through neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA) directs innervation of the developing mouse femur to promote vascularization and osteoprogenitor lineage progression. At the start of primary ossification, TrkA-positive axons were observed at perichondrial bone surfaces, coincident with NGF expression in cells adjacent to centers of incipient ossification...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Diederik L H Koelman, Salim Chahin, Soe S Mar, Arun Venkatesan, George M Hoganson, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Paula Barreras, Bittu Majmudar, Joshua P Klein, Tanuja Chitnis, David C Benkeser, Marco Carone, Farrah J Mateen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the range of demographic, clinical, MRI, and CSF features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), a rare, typically monophasic demyelinating disorder, and analyze long-term outcomes including time and risk factors for subsequent clinical events as well as competing diagnoses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study in 4 US academic medical centers of all patients clinically diagnosed with ADEM. Initial presentation of pediatric and adult ADEM and monophasic and multiphasic disease were compared...
May 31, 2016: Neurology
Michael J Bradshaw, Arun Venkatesan
Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Clinicians should be able to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of the infection and familiarize themselves with a rational diagnostic approach and therapeutic modalities, as early recognition and treatment are key to improving outcomes...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Tomohiko Sadaoka, Daniel P Depledge, Labchan Rajbhandari, Arun Venkatesan, Judith Breuer, Jeffrey I Cohen
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establishes latency in human sensory and cranial nerve ganglia during primary infection (varicella), and the virus can reactivate and cause zoster after primary infection. The mechanism of how the virus establishes and maintains latency and how it reactivates is poorly understood, largely due to the lack of robust models. We found that axonal infection of neurons derived from hESCs in a microfluidic device with cell-free parental Oka (POka) VZV resulted in latent infection with inability to detect several viral mRNAs by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR, no production of infectious virus, and maintenance of the viral DNA genome in endless configuration, consistent with an episome configuration...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arun Venkatesan, Edward P Lemay, Stephanie W Zuo, Cody Cichowitz, Christopher B Ruff, Robert B Shochet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medical Education
Francesc Graus, Maarten J Titulaer, Ramani Balu, Susanne Benseler, Christian G Bien, Tania Cellucci, Irene Cortese, Russell C Dale, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Michael Geschwind, Carol A Glaser, Jerome Honnorat, Romana Höftberger, Takahiro Iizuka, Sarosh R Irani, Eric Lancaster, Frank Leypoldt, Harald Prüss, Alexander Rae-Grant, Markus Reindl, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Kevin Rostásy, Albert Saiz, Arun Venkatesan, Angela Vincent, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis...
April 2016: Lancet Neurology
Andrew Z Mo, Anthony O Asemota, Arun Venkatesan, Eva K Ritzl, Dolores B Njoku, Paul D Sponseller
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is widely used to reduce postoperative neurological complications during scoliosis correction. IONM allows intraoperative detection of neurological insults to the spinal cord and enables surgeons to react in real time. IONM failure rates can reach 61% in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Factors decreasing the quality of IONM signals or making IONM impossible in CP patients undergoing scoliosis correction have not been well described...
December 17, 2015: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Arun Venkatesan, Scott D Newsome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Arun Venkatesan, Scott D Newsome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Arun Venkatesan
The intersection between infections and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex and bidirectional. Numerous infectious agents have been posited to play a role in the initiation of MS, while emerging evidence suggests a potential relationship between established MS and the gut microbiome. As both systemic and CNS infections are major complications of MS, the clinical manifestations and evolving epidemiology of these infections over the lifespan of the MS patient are examined in this review. Data from animal models and human studies are discussed...
2015: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Adam J Fournier, James D Hogan, Labchan Rajbhandari, Shiva Shrestha, Arun Venkatesan, K T Ramesh
Although a number of cytoskeletal derangements have been described in the setting of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), little is known of early structural changes that may serve to initiate a cascade of further axonal degeneration. Recent work by the authors has examined conformational changes in cytoskeletal constituents of neuronal axons undergoing traumatic axonal injury (TAI) following focal compression through confocal imaging data taken in vitro and in situ. The present study uses electron microscopy to understand and quantify in vitro alterations in the ultrastructural composition of microtubules and neurofilaments within neuronal axons of rats following focal compression...
2015: PloS One
Deanna Saylor, Kiran Thakur, Arun Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes recent advances in the diagnosis and management of encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are common causes of encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, although clinical manifestations may be atypical, and thus challenging to recognize. Recently, an increased incidence of HSV and VZV central nervous system infections has been reported in association with novel immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatments...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Arun Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to describe recent advances in the epidemiology, outcomes, and prognostic factors in acute encephalitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Infectious causes continue to account for the largest proportion of encephalitis cases in which a cause is identified, although autoimmune causes are increasingly recognized. Type-A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAa) receptor antibodies have been recently identified in encephalitis with refractory seizures, whereas the roles of antibodies to the glycine receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 have been defined in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Brandi L Cantarel, Emmanuelle Waubant, Christel Chehoud, Justin Kuczynski, Todd Z DeSantis, Janet Warrington, Arun Venkatesan, Claire M Fraser, Ellen M Mowry
OBJECTIVES: Differences in gut bacteria have been described in several autoimmune disorders. In this exploratory pilot study, we compared gut bacteria in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls and evaluated the influence of glatiramer acetate and vitamin D treatment on the microbiota. METHODS: Subjects were otherwise healthy white women with or without relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who were vitamin D insufficient. Patients with multiple sclerosis were untreated or were receiving glatiramer acetate...
June 2015: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Olga P Fermo, Izlem Izbudak, Raoul Sutter, Arun Venkatesan, Peter W Kaplan, John C Probasco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Neurology. Clinical Practice
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