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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156454/site-selective-and-stereoselective-functionalization-of-non-activated-tertiary-c-h-bonds
#1
Kuangbiao Liao, Thomas C Pickel, Vyacheslav Boyarskikh, John Bacsa, Djamaladdin G Musaev, Huw M L Davies
The synthesis of complex organic compounds usually relies on controlling the reactions of the functional groups. In recent years, it has become possible to carry out reactions directly on the C-H bonds, previously considered to be unreactive. One of the major challenges is to control the site-selectivity because most organic compounds have many similar C-H bonds. The most well developed procedures so far rely on the use of substrate control, in which the substrate has one inherently more reactive C-H bond or contains a directing group or the reaction is conducted intramolecularly so that a specific C-H bond is favoured...
November 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156452/an-international-consortium-update-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-adolescence
#2
Lourdes Ibáñez, Sharon E Oberfield, Selma F Witchel, Richard J Auchus, R Jeffrey Chang, Ethel Codner, Preeti Dabadghao, Feyza Darendeliler, Nancy Samir Elbarbary, Alessandra Gambineri, Cecilia Garcia Rudaz, Kathleen M Hoeger, Abel López-Bermejo, Ken Ong, Alexia S Peña, Thomas Reinehr, Nicola Santoro, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Rachel Tao, Bulent O Yildiz, Haya Alkhayyat, Asma Deeb, Dipesalema Joel, Reiko Horikawa, Francis de Zegher, Peter A Lee
This paper represents an international collaboration of paediatric endocrine and other societies (listed in the Appendix) under the International Consortium of Paediatric Endocrinology (ICPE) aiming to improve worldwide care of adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)1. The manuscript examines pathophysiology and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. The complex pathophysiology of PCOS involves the interaction of genetic and epigenetic changes, primary ovarian abnormalities, neuroendocrine alterations, and endocrine and metabolic modifiers such as anti-Müllerian hormone, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, adiposity, and adiponectin levels...
November 13, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156421/impaired-mitochondrial-respiration-in-human-carotid-plaque-atherosclerosis-a-potential-role-for-pink1-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-energetics
#3
Craig K Docherty, Andy Carswell, Elaine Friel, John R Mercer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to play an essential role in ageing and the energetic decline of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) essential for maintaining plaque integrity. We aimed to better understand VSMCs and identify potentially useful compensatory pathways that could extend their lifespan. Moreover, we wanted to assess if defects in mitochondrial respiration exist in human atherosclerotic plaques and to identify the appropriate markers that may reflect a switch in VSMC energy metabolism...
November 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156400/-i-have-it-just-in-case-naloxone-access-and-changes-in-opioid-use-behaviours
#4
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Yu-Ping Chang, Bonnie M Vest, R Lorraine Collins, William Wieczorek, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid use behaviours. METHODS: The present qualitative study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with inpatients at a substance use treatment centre...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156378/effect-of-robotic-assisted-gait-rehabilitation-on-dynamic-equilibrium-control-in-the-gait-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#5
L Wallard, G Dietrich, Y Kerlirzin, J Bredin
Due to the intensity and repetition of movement, roboticassisted gait training therapy could have a beneficial effect on the recovery and improvement of postural and locomotor functions of the patient. This study sought to highlight the effects of robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation in gait of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). We analyzed the different strategies before and after this rehabilitation which was used in order to generate forward motion while maintaining balance. Data were collected by a motion analysis system (Vicon® - Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK)...
November 11, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156334/applicability-evaluation-of-advanced-processes-for-elimination-of-neurophysiological-activity-of-antidepressant-fluoxetine
#6
László Szabó, Viktória Mile, Dóra J Kiss, Krisztina Kovács, Tamás Földes, Tamás Németh, Tünde Tóth, Renáta Homlok, György T Balogh, Erzsébet Takács, László Wojnárovits
Presence of the antidepressant fluoxetine in different water bodies has raised significant concerns due to its detrimental effects on non-targeted organisms, especially on fish. When seeking for an appropriate technology able to remove fluoxetine residue from a complex water matrix, special attention needs to be paid to the elimination of the neurophysiological activity that eventually lies behind the noxious effects of the parent compound. Our aim was to probe the applicability of advanced oxidation techniques for this purpose using in situ generated free radical system based on OH-initiated peroxyl radical-mediated processes...
November 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156279/the-stocks-and-flows-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-potassium-across-a-30-year-time-series-for-agriculture-in-huantai-county-china
#7
Jessica Bellarby, Ben W J Surridge, Philip M Haygarth, Kun Liu, Giuseppina Siciliano, Laurence Smith, Clive Rahn, Fanqiao Meng
In order to improve the efficiency of nutrient use whilst also meeting projected changes in the demand for food within China, new nutrient management frameworks comprised of policy, practice and the means of delivering change are required. These frameworks should be underpinned by systemic analyses of the stocks and flows of nutrients within agricultural production. In this paper, a 30-year time series of the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are reported for Huantai county, an exemplar area of intensive agricultural production in the North China Plain...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156189/obesity-in-pregnancy-optimizing-outcomes-for-mom-and-baby
#8
REVIEW
Heidi Dutton, Sarah Jean Borengasser, Laura Marie Gaudet, Linda A Barbour, Erin Joanne Keely
Obesity is common in women of childbearing age, and management of this population around the time of pregnancy involves specific challenges. Weight and medical comorbidities should be optimized both before and during pregnancy. During pregnancy, gestational weight gain should be limited, comorbidities should be appropriately screened for and managed, and fetal health should be monitored. Consideration should be given to the optimal timing of delivery and to reducing surgical and anesthetic complications. In the postpartum period, breastfeeding and weight loss should be promoted...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156187/guideline-recommendations-for-obesity-management
#9
REVIEW
Donna H Ryan, Scott Kahan
It is an obligation for all health care providers to participate in obesity management. This article discusses obesity guidelines from The Obesity Society; the Endocrine Society; and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. It reviews and compares findings and recommendations across these guidelines, identifies areas of controversy and concordance, and suggests how primary care practices may make use of the most appropriate recommendations for their circumstances.
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156176/management-of-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices-requiring-teeth-extraction-is-halting-anticoagulation-appropriate
#10
Visakha Suresh, Muath Bishawi, Michael W Manning, Chetan Patel, Joseph Rogers, Carmelo Milano, Jacob Schroder, Mani Daneshmand, David Powers
PURPOSE: An increasing number of patients with end-stage heart failure are supported with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and must be maintained on a consistent anticoagulation regimen. Pre-emptive extraction of carious teeth in these patients is necessary to prevent seeding of the implanted device and endocarditis. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate bleeding complications after minor oral surgery, specifically teeth extractions, in this unique patient population requiring long-term anticoagulation...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156083/toward-ecologically-realistic-predictions-of-species-distributions-a-cross-time-example-from-tropical-montane-cloud-forests
#11
Lázaro Guevara, Beth E Gerstner, Jamie M Kass, Robert P Anderson
There is an urgent need for more ecologically realistic models for better predicting the effects of climate change on species' potential geographic distributions. Here we build ecological niche models using MAXENT and test whether selecting predictor variables based on biological knowledge and selecting ecologically realistic response curves can improve cross-time distributional predictions. We also evaluate how the method chosen for extrapolation into nonanalog conditions affects the prediction. We do so by estimating the potential distribution of a montane shrew (Mammalia, Soricidae, Cryptotis mexicanus) at present and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156080/stereocontrolled-synthesis-of-polypropionate-fragments-based-on-a-building-block-assembly-strategy-using-lithiation-borylation-methodologies
#12
Alba Millán, Pablo Grigol Martínez, Varinder Kumar Aggarwal
Polypropionates are important structural motifs in nature and are commonly made by iterative aldol or crotylation methodologies. Herein, we present an alternative strategy in which stereochemically predefined building blocks bearing appropriate functionality are coupled together using lithiation-borylation methodology with complete stereocontrol. The building blocks comprise lithiated carbamates acting as donors and boronic esters acting as acceptors. The acceptor building blocks contain β-hydroxyl groups masked as silyl groups to avoid elimination of the boronate intermediates...
November 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156067/pilot-testing-a-coaching-intervention-to-improve-certified-nursing-assistants-dressing-of-nursing-home-residents
#13
Kerry Jean Jordan, Pao-Feng Tsai, Seongkum Heo, Shasha Bai, Deborah Dailey, Cornelia K Beck, Lindsey M Butler, Rachel L Greenwood
The purpose of the current study was to identify initial effects of a coaching training intervention using Level of Assistance (LoA) strategies compared with traditional lecture techniques on the appropriateness of LoA use by certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and independence of dressing of nursing home residents with dementia. Seventeen CNA-resident dyads participated in this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Control and experimental group CNAs received a 25-minute traditional lecture. Experimental group CNAs also underwent three coaching sessions over 4 weeks...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156059/clinical-pearl-the-rule-of-8
#14
Kevin Lu Shen, Amit R Bhatt
Preschool-aged children typically perform worse than 20/20 on visual acuity testing in the absence of ocular or visual pathway abnormalities due to non-ocular issues, including concentration, cooperation, and/or confidence. As a result, vision screening for this age group can be a challenge. The "Rule of 8" is an easy-to-remember, highly effective mnemonic that clinicians can use to help differentiate children who are performing visual acuity testing at age-appropriate levels from those who may need further evaluation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156021/type-1a-endoleak-following-zone-1-and-zone-2-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-effect-of-bird-beak-configuration
#15
Tomoaki Kudo, Toru Kuratani, Kazuo Shimamura, Tomohiko Sakamoto, Keiwa Kin, Kenta Masada, Takayuki Shijo, Kei Torikai, Koichi Maeda, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVES: Type 1a endoleak is one of the most severe complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), because it carries the risk of aortic rupture. The association between bird-beak configuration and Type 1a endoleak remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyse the predictors of Type 1a endoleak following Zone 1 and Zone 2 TEVAR, with a particular focus on the effect of bird-beak configuration. METHODS: From April 2008 to July 2015, 105 patients (mean age 68...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156016/pectus-excavatum-repair-after-sternotomy-the-chest-wall-international-group-experience-with-substernal-nuss-bars
#16
Dawn E Jaroszewski, Paul J Gustin, Frank-Martin Haecker, Hans Pilegaard, Hyung Joo Park, Shao-Tao Tang, Shuai Li, Li Yang, Sadashige Uemura, Jose Ribas Milanez De Campos, Robert Obermeyer, Frazier W Frantz, Michele Torre, Lisa McMahon, Andre Hebra, Chih-Chun Chu, J Duncan Phillips, David M Notrica, Antonio Messineo, Robert Kelly, Mustafa Yüksel
OBJECTIVES: Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) after prior sternotomy for cardiac surgery present unique challenges for repair of PE. Open repairs have been recommended because of concerns about sternal adhesions and cardiac injury. We report a multi-institutional experience with repair utilizing substernal Nuss bars in this patient population. METHODS: Surgeons from the Chest Wall International Group were queried for experience and retrospective data on PE repair using sub-sternal Nuss bars in patients with a history of median sternotomy for cardiac surgery (November 2000 to August 2015)...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155965/is-frozen-embryo-transfer-better-for-mothers-and-babies-can-cumulative-meta-analysis-provide-a-definitive-answer
#17
Abha Maheshwari, Shilpi Pandey, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Ashalatha Shetty, Mark Hamilton, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Initial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time...
November 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155944/molecular-interaction-search-tool-mist-an-integrated-resource-for-mining-gene-and-protein-interaction-data
#18
Yanhui Hu, Arunachalam Vinayagam, Ankita Nand, Aram Comjean, Verena Chung, Tong Hao, Stephanie E Mohr, Norbert Perrimon
Model organism and human databases are rich with information about genetic and physical interactions. These data can be used to interpret and guide the analysis of results from new studies and develop new hypotheses. Here, we report the development of the Molecular Interaction Search Tool (MIST; http://fgrtools.hms.harvard.edu/MIST/). The MIST database integrates biological interaction data from yeast, nematode, fly, zebrafish, frog, rat and mouse model systems, as well as human. For individual or short gene lists, the MIST user interface can be used to identify interacting partners based on protein-protein and genetic interaction (GI) data from the species of interest as well as inferred interactions, known as interologs, and to view a corresponding network...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155924/accounting-for-time-varying-confounding-in-the-relation-between-obesity-and-coronary-heart-disease-analysis-with-g-estimation-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#19
Maryam Shakiba, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Arsalan Salari, Hamid Soori, Nasrin Mansournia, Jay S Kaufman
In longitudinal studies, standard analysis may yield biased estimates of exposure effect in the presence of time-varying confounders that are also intermediate variables. We aimed to quantify the relationship between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) by appropriately adjusting for time-varying confounders. This study performed on a subset of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-2010). General obesity defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, abdominal obesity (AOB) defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women, and waist to hip ratio categorized at ≥0...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155847/context-and-culture-associated-with-alcohol-use-amongst-youth-in-major-urban-cities-a-cross-country-population-based-survey
#20
Anne W Taylor, Bridgette M Bewick, Alfred B Makanjuola, Ling Qian, Valentina V Kirzhanova, Paulo Alterwain
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption patterns are dependent upon culture and context. The aim of this study was to interview people aged 18-34 year old living in four cities in different regions of the world to explore differences in a range of alcohol measures to assist in determining culturally appropriate alcohol initiatives for this age group. METHOD: Multistage random sampling was consistent across the four cities (Ilorin (Nigeria), Wuhan (China), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Moscow (Russia))...
2017: PloS One
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