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Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Shiri Lev-Ari
We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rafał Podgórski, David Aebisher, Monika Stompor, Dominika Podgórska, Artur Mazur
The aim of this paper is a straightforward presentation of the steroidogenesis process and the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - 21-hydroxylase deficiency - as well as the analytical diagnostic methods that are used to recognize this disease. CAH is a family of common autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impaired adrenal cortisol biosynthesis with associated androgen excess due to a deficiency of one or more enzymes in the steroidogenesis process within the adrenal cortex...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Dilyana Filipova, Margit Henry, Tamara Rotshteyn, Anna Brunn, Mariana Carstov, Martina Deckert, Jürgen Hescheler, Agapios Sachinidis, Gabriele Pfitzer, Symeon Papadopoulos
In skeletal muscle the coordinated actions of two mechanically coupled Ca2+ channels-the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor (Cav1.1) and the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1)-underlie the molecular mechanism of rapid cytosolic [Ca2+] increase leading to contraction. While both [Ca2+]i and contractile activity have been implicated in the regulation of myogenesis, less is known about potential specific roles of Cav1.1 and RYR1 in skeletal muscle development. In this study, we analyzed the histology and the transcriptomic changes occurring at E14...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Blom, Lucie Laflamme, Helle Mölsted Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation...
2018: PloS One
Winnie Wing Yan Yuen, Albert Lee, Paul K S Chan, Lynn Tran, Erica Sayko
The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Cristine Koishi, Andréia Akemi Suzukawa, Camila Zanluca, Daria Elena Camacho, Guillermo Comach, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus that comprises other important public health viruses, such as dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV). In general, ZIKV infection is a self-limiting disease, however cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital brain abnormalities in newborn infants have been reported. Diagnosing ZIKV infection remains a challenge, as viral RNA detection is only applicable until a few days after the onset of symptoms. After that, serological tests must be applied, and, as expected, high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other flavivirus serology is observed...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Andrea Torchi, Davide Bochicchio, Giovanni M Pavan
The rational design of supramolecular polymers that can adapt or respond in time to specific stimuli in controlled way is interesting for many applications, but this requires understanding the molecular factors that make the material faster or slower in responding to the stimulus. To this end, it is necessary to study the dynamic adaptive properties at submolecular resolution, which is difficult at experimental level. Here we show coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations (<5Å resolution) demonstrating how the dynamic adaptivity and stimuli responsiveness of a supramolecular polymer is controlled by the intrinsic dynamics of the assembly, which is in turn determined by the structure of the monomers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bo Zhang, Shuyuan Wang, Jie Qian, Wenjia Yang, Fangfei Qian, Jun Lu, Yanwei Zhang, Rong Qiao, Baohui Han
BACKGROUND: Two or more different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations can be detected within a single tumor sample, which represents complex mutations. However, the frequency and efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments for patients harboring these mutations are unknown. METHODS: From January 2011 to January 2017, patients diagnosed with EGFR mutations were screened. The effectiveness of TKIs in patients with complex mutations was retrospectively analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Cancer
Haiyan Wang, Linyi Li, Ling Ling Qin, Yanan Song, Josep Vidal-Alaball, Tong Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. Most people with vitamin B12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 . Doctors may not be prescribing oral vitamin B12 formulations because they may be unaware of this option or have concerns regarding its effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS, as well as the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yubin Hou, Qian Zhang, Shuxian Qi, Xian Feng, Pu Wang
We demonstrate a polarization-maintaining (PM) dual-wavelength (DW) single-frequency Er-doped distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) fiber laser with 28 GHz stable frequency difference. A homemade PM low-reflectivity superimposed fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) is employed as the output port of the DBR fiber laser. The SFBG has two reflection wavelengths located in the same grating region. The reflectivity of both DWs is around 85%. The achieved linear polarization extinction ratio is more than 20 dB. The DWs of the laser output are located at 1552...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Gernot Kriegshäuser, Dietmar Enko, Hasmik Hayrapetyan, Stepan Atoyan, Christian Oberkanins, Tamara Sarkisian
PurposeThis work aimed at investigating demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of individuals experiencing their first familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) attack at age ≥40 years in a very large cohort of Armenian FMF patients.MethodsIn total, 10,370 Armenian patients diagnosed with FMF based on the Tel Hashomer criteria and carrying at least one MEFV mutant allele were included in this study.ResultsA total of 354 (3.40%) patients had late-onset FMF. Of these, 194 (54.80%) were female and 160 (45...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Yu V Pilipenko, An N Konovalov, Sh Sh Eliava, O B Belousova, D N Okishev, I A Sazonov, T F Tabasaranskiy
In recent years, the so-called primary or preventive decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been increasingly used in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The main goal of the technique is prevention of refractory intracranial hypertension (ICH) and its consequences. PURPOSE: The study purpose was to define the CT criteria for reasonability and efficacy of DC as well as clarification of the indications for preventive DC in patients with SAH after microsurgical aneurysm exclusion...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
A V Moskalev, V S Gladkikh, A A Al'shevskaya, A P Kovalevskiy, A I Sakhanenko, K Yu Orlov, N A Konovalov, A V Krut'ko
To date, a large amount of retrospectively collected data about treatment of neurosurgical pathology have been accumulated. Modern methods of medical statistics are necessary for correct interpretation of the data. The article purpose is to demonstrate application of one of the modern methods, Propensity Score Matching (PSM), in neurosurgery. The use of PSM avoids misinterpretation of retrospectively collected data and obviates errors in planning further prospective studies. For the past 10 years, the number of published international PSM-based studies has increased more than 10-fold, with the number of articles by Russian authors accounting for less than 0...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
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