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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343338/expression-of-typical-osteoclast-markers-by-pbmcs-after-peg-induced-fusion-as-a-model-for-studying-osteoclast-differentiation
#1
Luz M Castillo, Carlos A Guerrero, Orlando Acosta
Bone is a metabolically active organ subjected to continuous remodeling process that involves resorption by osteoclast and subsequent formation by osteoblasts. Osteoclast involvement in this physiological event is regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Fusion of mono-nuclear pre-osteoclasts is a critical event for osteoclast differentiation and for bone resorption. Here we show that PBMCs can be successfully fused with polyethylenglicol (PEG) in order to generated viable osteoclast-like cells that exhibit tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone resorptive activities...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343329/stress-fractures-of-the-foot-and-ankle-part-2-site-specific-etiology-imaging-and-treatment-and-differential-diagnosis
#2
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Stacy E Smith
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a commonly encountered problem among athletes and individuals participating in a wide range of activities. This illustrated review, the second of two parts, discusses site-specific etiological factors, imaging appearances, treatment options, and differential considerations of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. The imaging and clinical management of stress fractures of the foot and ankle are highly dependent on the specific location of the fracture, mechanical forces acting upon the injured site, vascular supply of the injured bone, and the proportion of trabecular to cortical bone at the site of injury...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343328/skeletal-development-of-the-hand-and-wrist-digital-bone-age-companion-a-suitable-alternative-to-the-greulich-and-pyle-atlas-for-bone-age-assessment
#3
Paul M Bunch, Talissa A Altes, Joan McIlhenny, James Patrie, Cree M Gaskin
PURPOSE: To assess reader performance and subjective workflow experience when reporting bone age studies with a digital bone age reference as compared to the Greulich and Pyle atlas (G&P). We hypothesized that pediatric radiologists would achieve equivalent results with each method while digital workflow would improve speed, experience, and reporting quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Two pediatric radiologists performed research interpretations of bone age studies randomized to either the digital (Digital Bone Age Companion, Oxford University Press) or G&P method, generating reports to mimic clinical workflow...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343327/osteolytic-variant-poems-syndrome-an-uncommon-presentation-of-osteosclerotic-myeloma
#4
Michael S Clark, Benjamin M Howe, Katrina N Glazebrook, Michelle L Mauermann, Stephen M Broski
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, a form of osteosclerotic myeloma, is a multisystem disease related to a monoclonal plasma cell proliferative disorder. Osseous lesions are most commonly sclerotic on radiographs and computed tomography (CT), demonstrate low T1 and T2 signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and have variable degrees of avidity on positon emission tomography (PET) imaging using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). We present three cases of POEMS syndrome manifesting as osteolytic lesions with indolent features, including well-defined thin sclerotic rims, no cortical disruption or periosteal reaction, no associated soft-tissue mass, and a periarticular location, all features that could lead to misinterpretation as benign bone lesions...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343303/can-real-time-rgbd-enhance-intraoperative-cone-beam-ct
#5
Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Wolfgang Wein, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is an important 3D imaging technology for orthopedic, trauma, radiotherapy guidance, angiography, and dental applications. The major limitation of CBCT is the poor image quality due to scattered radiation, truncation, and patient movement. In this work, we propose to incorporate information from a co-registered Red-Green-Blue-Depth (RGBD) sensor attached near the detector plane of the C-arm to improve the reconstruction quality, as well as correcting for undesired rigid patient movement...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343298/thiazide-increases-serum-calcium-in-anuric-patients-the-role-of-parathyroid-hormone
#6
Raquel F V Vasco, Eduardo T Reis, Rosa M A Moyses, Rosilene M Elias
We evaluated the effect of hydrochlorothiazide in a sample of anuric patients on hemodialysis and found an increase in serum calcium, which occurred only in those with parathyroid hormone >300 pg/ml. This finding highlights the extra-renal effect of this diuretic and a possible role of parathyroid hormone in the mechanism. PURPOSE: Thiazide diuretics are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease to treat hypertension. Their effects on calcium and bone metabolism are not well established, once calciuria may not fully explain levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in this population...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343291/intercalary-frozen-autograft-for-reconstruction-of-malignant-bone-and-soft-tissue-tumours
#7
Karem M Zekry, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Takashi Higuchi, Kensaku Abe, Yuta Taniguchi, Ali Zein A A Alkhooly, Ahmed Saleh Abd-Elfattah, Ezzat H Fouly, Adel Refaat Ahmed, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
PURPOSE: In 1999, we developed a technique using frozen autografts-tumour-containing bone treated with liquid nitrogen-for the reconstruction of malignant bone tumours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and oncological outcomes of frozen autografts for intercalary reconstruction of malignant bones and soft tissue tumours. METHODS: This retrospective study was designed to assess 34 patients of mean age 35 (range, 6-79) years. The mean follow-up period was 62 (24-214) months...
March 25, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343233/incidence-of-and-factors-influencing-femoral-neck-shortening-in-elderly-patients-after-fracture-fixation-with-multiple-cancellous-screws
#8
Xiaobing Chen, Jianzheng Zhang, Xiinling Wang, Jixin Ren, Zhi Liu
BACKGROUND To study the incidence of and factors influencing "neck shortening" in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures using multiple cancellous screws. MATERIAL AND METHODS Of the 197 femoral neck fracture cases treated via closed reduction and cancellous screws fixation from January 2006 to February 2010, 110 were followed up. Patient age, gender, operative time, implantation method, reduction quality, fracture type, bone mineral density, loading time, length of hospital stay, and Harris hip score 12 months after operation were recorded...
March 26, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343211/-rare-case-of-slowly-progressing-lung-cancer-with-colon-metastases
#9
Katarzyna Krawczak, Bożenna Karczmarek-Borowska, Maciąg Maciąg, Wiesław Guz
Lung cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world and the fist cause of death of neoplastic origin. In half of patients at the time of diagnosis distant metastases are determined. Most frequent localizations are bones, liver, brain and adrenal glands. In described case there was documented slow, long-term development of lung adenocarcinoma. After initial diagnosis the patient remained without treatment for three years. Aside from slow progression of the disease the fact of asymptomatic metastases to the colon as a very rare localization should draw attention...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343085/guava-fruit-extract-and-its-triterpene-constituents-have-osteoanabolic-effect-stimulation-of-osteoblast-differentiation-by-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
Konica Porwal, Subhashis Pal, Kapil Dev, Shyamsundar Pal China, Yogesh Kumar, Chandan Singh, Tarun Barbhuyan, Neeraj Sinha, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal effect of guava triterpene-enriched extract (GE) in rats and identify osteogenic compounds thereof, and determine their modes of action. In growing female rats, GE at 250 mg/kg dose increased parameters of peak bone mass including femur length, bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength, suggesting that GE promoted modeling-directed bone growth. GE also stimulated bone regeneration at the site of bone injury. In adult osteopenic rats (osteopenia induced by ovariectomy, OVX) GE completely restored the lost bones at both axial and appendicular sites, suggesting a strong osteoanabolic effect...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343025/recording-skeletal-completeness-a-standardised-approach
#11
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich
Recording the preservation of human skeletal remains is the foundation of osteological analyses for forensic and archaeological skeletal material. Methods for recording the skeletal completeness, one of the components of skeletal preservation documentation, are however currently non-standardised and subjective. To provide practitioners with a scientific means to accurately quantify skeletal completeness in an adult skeleton, percentage values for each skeletal element have been established. Using computed tomography (CT) volume rendering applications and post-mortem CT skeletal data for one adult individual, the percentage value for each bone relative to the complete skeleton was calculated based on volume...
March 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343024/sex-estimation-with-the-total-area-of-the-proximal-femur-a-densitometric-approach
#12
Francisco Curate, Anabela Albuquerque, Izilda Ferreira, Eugénia Cunha
The estimation of sex is a central step to establish the biological profile of an anonymous skeletal individual. Imaging techniques, including bone densitometry, have been used to evaluate sex in remains incompletely skeletonized. In this paper, we present a technique for sex estimation using the total area (TA) of the proximal femur, a two-dimensional areal measurement determined through densitometry. TA was acquired from a training sample (112 females; 112 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra, Portugal)...
March 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343016/evaluation-of-antitumor-activity-and-cardiac-toxicity-of-a-bone-targeted-ph-sensitive-liposomal-formulation-in-a-bone-metastasis-tumor-model-in-mice
#13
Diego Dos Santos Ferreira, Bruno Luís Jesus de Oliveira Pinto, Vidhya Kumar, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, Simone Odília Fernandes, Cristina Maria Souza, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, Anna Moore, David Sosnovik, Christian Farrar, Elaine Amaral Leite, Ricardo José Alves, Mônica Cristina de Oliveira, Alexander Ramos Guimarães, Peter Caravan
Chemotherapy for bone tumors is a major challenge because of the inability of therapeutics to penetrate dense bone mineral. We hypothesize that a nanostructured formulation with high affinity for bone could deliver drug to the tumor while minimizing off-target toxicity. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a novel bone-targeted, pH-sensitive liposomal formulation containing doxorubicin in an animal model of bone metastasis. Biodistribution studies with the liposome showed good uptake in tumor, but low accumulation of doxorubicin in the heart...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342996/induction-of-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-dovitinib-tki-258-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#14
Shalini S Yadav, Jinyi Li, Jennifer A Stockert, Bryan Herzog, James O'Connor, Luis Garzon-Manco, Ramon Parsons, Ashutosh K Tewari, Kamlesh K Yadav
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men with an estimated mortality of more than 26,000 in 2016 alone. Aggressive and metastatic tumors are treated with androgen deprivation therapies (ADT); however, the tumors acquire resistance and develop into lethal castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). With the advent of better therapeutics, the incidences of a more aggressive neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) variant continue to emerge. Although de novo occurrences of NEPC are rare, more than 25% of the therapy-resistant patients on highly potent new-generation anti-androgen therapies end up with NEPC...
March 23, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342973/effects-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-glycosides-for-milk-fever-prevention-on-serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dairy-cows
#15
Heinrich Bachmann, Michael Lanz, Susanne Kehrle, Wolfgang Bittner, Annick Toggenburger, Georg A Mathis, Walter Rambeck
Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342963/new-insights-into-cellular-cholesterol-acquisition-promoter-analysis-of-human-hmgcr-and-sqle-two-key-control-enzymes-in-cholesterol-synthesis
#16
Vicky Howe, Laura J Sharpe, Anika V Prabhu, Andrew J Brown
BACKGROUND: The two control points of cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) are known targets of the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). Yet the location of the sterol-regulatory elements (SREs) and cofactor binding sites, nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1), have not been satisfactorily mapped in the human SQLE promoter, or at all in the human HMGCR promoter...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342931/clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-extensive-osseous-metaplasia-report-of-a-rare-case
#17
Huixing Pan, Deyao Wu, Huaizhang Wang, Yan Pan, Ting Zhang, Jian Zhou
A 48-year-old Chinese woman presenting with continuing dull pain in the right lower back and abdomen was found to have a tumor with extensive osseous metaplasia in the the upper-middle pole of the right kidney. The exsected neoplasm specimen revealed a 29×26mm hard tumor with dense ossification. Histopathological examination of the tumor contained lamellar bone forming trabeculae intermingled and showed spherical or polygonal epithelial cells which contained slightly irregular nuclei with small nucleoli and abundant pink to clear cytoplasm...
March 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342908/intestinal-dendritic-cell-licensing-through-tlr4-is-required-for-oral-tolerance-in-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#18
Feriel Hacini-Rachinel, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Reem Kanjarawi, Ludovic Moro-Sibilot, Jean-Benoit Le Luduec, Claire Macari, Gilles Boschetti, Emilie Bardel, Philippe Langella, Bertrand Dubois, Dominique Kaiserlian
BACKGROUND: Induction of oral tolerance to haptens is an efficient way to prevent allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice. Toll-like receptor (TLRs)-mediated sensing of the microbiota contributes to gut homeostasis, yet whether it contributes to induction of oral tolerance has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether oral tolerance to the contact sensitizer DNFB depends on microbiota/TLRs and evaluated the role of TLR4 on the tolerogenic function of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342879/stable-subcutaneous-cartilage-regeneration-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-directed-by-chondrocyte-sheet
#19
Dan Li, Lian Zhu, Yu Liu, Zongqi Yin, Yi Liu, Fangjun Liu, Aijuan He, Shaoqing Feng, Yixin Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Wenjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Guangdong Zhou
In vivo niche plays an important role in regulating differentiation fate of stem cells. Due to lack of proper chondrogenic niche, stable cartilage regeneration of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in subcutaneous environments is always a great challenge. This study explored the feasibility that chondrocyte sheet created chondrogenic niche retained chondrogenic phenotype of BMSC engineered cartilage (BEC) in subcutaneous environments. Porcine BMSCs were seeded into biodegradable scaffolds followed by 4 weeks of chondrogenic induction in vitro to form BEC, which were wrapped with chondrocyte sheets (Sheet group), acellular small intestinal submucosa (SIS, SIS group), or nothing (Blank group) respectively and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to trace the maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype...
March 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342821/correction-of-axial-deformity-during-lengthening-in-fibular-hypoplasia-hexapodal-versus-monorail-external-fixation
#20
Antoine Chalopin, Loïc Geffroy, Sébastien Pesenti, Antoine Hamel, Franck Launay
INTRODUCTION: Childhood fibular hypoplasia is a rare pathology which may or may not involve limb-length discrepancy and axial deformity in one or more dimensions. The objective of the present study was to compare the quality of the axial correction achieved in lengthening procedures by hexapodal versus monorail external fixators. The hypothesis was that the hexapodal fixator provides more precise correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 52 children with fibular hypoplasia...
March 22, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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