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hypoglycemia newborn

Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Eric Ly, Jennifer Alexander, Temi Akinmboni, Hyung Woo, Colleen Driscoll
Point of care glucose (POCG) measurements, used for detecting neonatal hypoglycemia, can have variable accuracy. The appropriate diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia in babies with low POCG measurements involves confirmatory serum glucose (CSG) testing. At our institution, no babies with low POCG measurements had CSG testing in their evaluation of neonatal hypoglycemia over a three year period. Our aim was to increase the percentage of CSG testing in babies with a low POCG. A secondary aim was to decrease the percentage of low-risk, asymptomatic babies who received POCG testing...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Sanna Koivunen, Annukka Torkki, Aini Bloigu, Mika Gissler, Anneli Pouta, Eero Kajantie, Marja Vääräsmäki
INTRODUCTION: The change from risk-factor based to nearly comprehensive screening of gestational diabetes (GDM) identifies more but milder cases of the disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this screening policy change on neonatal outcomes and care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based register study in Finland. GDM cases during risk factor-based (year 2006, n=5179) and comprehensive (2010, n=6679) screenings were identified through Medical Birth Register...
September 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Amir Aviram, Eran Hadar, Rony Chen, Ron Bardin, Arnon Wiznitzer, Yariv Yogev
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate pregnancy outcome following false diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all singleton term deliveries of appropriately grown fetuses (10-90th weight percentiles) in a single medical center (2007-2014). Elective cesarean-section, diabetes, and hypertension were excluded. Cohort was stratified based on third trimester sonographic estimated-fetal-weight (≥32 weeks). Women with false diagnosis FGR (<10th percentile) were compared with the rest (control)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Orhideja Stomnaroska-Damcevski, Elizabeta Petkovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is one of the most common abnormalities encountered in the newborn. Maintaining glucose homeostasis is one of the important physiological events during fetal-to-neonatal transition. Transient low blood glucose concentrations are frequently encountered in the majority of healthy newborns and are the reflections of normal metabolic adaptation processes. Nevertheless, there is a great concern that prolonged or recurrent low blood glucose levels may result in long-term neurological and developmental consequences...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Guoyan Liu, Xiaobin Shang, Bibo Yuan, Cha Han, Yingmei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). STUDY DESIGN: The medical records of pregnant women with AFLP were reviewed for symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, and maternal and fetal outcomes during a 10-year period between January 2003 and December 2013. RESULTS: During the study period 15 women had AFLP as their discharge diagnosis. The mean gestational age at onset was 36 ± 1 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Mitra Behrashi, Mansooreh Samimi, Tayyebeh Ghasemi, Farzaneh Saberi, Fatemeh Atoof
BACKGROUND: Untreated or poorly controlled gestational diabetes can cause serious complications for mother and newborn. Glibenclamide is rarely used in treating mothers with this disease. This study aimed at comparing the effect of glibenclamide and insulin on neonatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 249 pregnant women aged 18-45 years within the 11(th)-33(rd) weeks of gestation with gestational diabetes, single fetus pregnancy, and in need of hyperglycemia treatment were entered and grouped randomly as either glibenclamide or insulin...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
K Ben Ameur, F Z Chioukh, I Bouanene, E S Ghedira, H Ben Hamida, M Bizid, K Ben Salem, R Tabka, H Babba, K Monastiri
BACKGROUND: The reliability of blood glucose monitoring in neonatology is not always confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of blood glucose measurements made with three different devices in newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was prospective, conducted in a medical and neonatal intensive care department over a period of 4 months. Capillary glucose level was measured with three different glucometers and compared with venous glucose level determined using the hexokinase method...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Salam Zein, Farida Sitti, Mireille Osman, Josiane Arnaud, Cécile Batandier, Anne-Sophie Gauchez, Samar Rachidi, Karine Couturier, Isabelle Hininger-Favier
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased insulin resistance and a heightened level of oxidative stress (OS). Additionally, high iron consumption could also increase insulin resistance and OS, which could aggravate GDM risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate a high fructose diet (F) as an alternative experimental model of GDM on rats. We also have evaluated the worst effect of a fructose iron-enriched diet (FI) on glucose tolerance and OS status during pregnancy. Anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose levels, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed after delivery in rats fed an F diet...
June 30, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
T Thymann
After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Beena D Kamath-Rayne, Paul J Rozance, Robert L Goldenberg, Alan H Jobe
The practice of antenatal corticosteroid administration in pregnancies of 24-34 weeks of gestation that are at risk of preterm delivery was adopted over 20 years after the first randomized clinical trial in humans. It is biologically plausible that antenatal corticosteroid in pregnancies beyond 34 weeks of gestation would reduce rates of respiratory morbidity and neonatal intensive care admission. Mostly guided by the results of a large multicenter randomized trial of antenatal corticosteroid in late preterm infants, the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice advisory that the "administration of betamethasone may be considered in women with a singleton pregnancy between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation at imminent risk of preterm birth within 7 days...
October 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Walid Fazeli, Mert Karakaya, Peter Herkenrath, Anne Vierzig, Jörg Dötsch, Jürgen-Christoph von Kleist-Retzow, Sebahattin Cirak
BACKGROUND: Neonatal lactic acidosis can be associated to severe inborn errors of metabolism. Rapid identification of the underlying disorder may improve the clinical management through reliable counseling of the parents and adaptation of the treatment. METHODS: We present the case of a term newborn with persistent hypoglycemia on postnatal day 1, who developed severe lactic acidosis, aggravating under intravenous glucose administration. Routine metabolic investigations revealed elevated pyruvate and lactate levels in urine, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a lactic acid peak and decreased N-acetylaspartate levels...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Shohei Akagawa, Toshiyuki Fukao, Yuko Akagawa, Hideo Sasai, Urara Kohdera, Minoru Kino, Yosuke Shigematsu, Yuka Aoyama, Kazunari Kaneko
2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (HSD10 disease) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the HSD17B10 gene. Fewer than 30 patients with this disorder have been reported worldwide. The classical infantile form of HSD10 disease is characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative course with retinopathy and cardiomyopathy, although HSD10 disease has broad clinical heterogeneity. However, several male patients have not shown neurological regression. Here, we describe two Japanese siblings with HSD10 disease without neurological regression...
June 16, 2016: JIMD Reports
Jose Maria Lloreda-García, Sandra Sevilla-Denia, Alba Rodríguez-Sánchez, Pablo Muñoz-Martínez, Marta Díaz-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and perinatal complications of macrosomic infants born to diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A six-year retrospective study of newborns at our hospital. A total of 996 macrosomic newborns were found. Maternal characteristics, mode of delivery, and perinatal outcomes were studied. RESULTS: Of 18005 newborns, 996 were macrosomic infants (5.53%). Of these, 103 (10.3%) were born to diabetic mothers...
October 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Donna M Ferriero
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, imaging techniques have allowed for better visualization of the newborn brain. This has enabled us to detect patterns, understand mechanisms and guide diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to discuss imaging characteristics of acquired perinatal brain injury. METHODS: Through literature review and the author's research, this review assesses published data on the distinct imaging patterns that occur in the neonatal period due to acquired brain insults...
2016: Neonatology
Alyson K Blum
IN BRIEF Insulin remains the standard of care for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and uncontrolled gestational diabetes. Tight control maintained in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy plays a vital role in decreasing poor fetal outcomes, including structural anomalies, macrosomia, hypoglycemia of the newborn, adolescent and adult obesity, and diabetes. Understanding new insulin formulations and strengths is important in assessing risks, since no data on their use in human pregnancy exist...
May 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Rebecca C Ahrens-Nicklas, Louise C Pyle, Can Ficicioglu
PURPOSE: Despite greatly improved morbidity and mortality among infants with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) since the implementation of universal newborn screening (NBS), a population of neonates still becomes ill before their positive screen results are available. Exclusive breastfeeding is a proposed risk factor in this group. Since initial studies of MCAD NBS, breastfeeding rates have increased substantially. In this study, we quantify the current risk of early decompensation in neonates with MCAD and identify factors associated with poor outcomes...
May 5, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Irene De Biase, Krista S Viau, Aiping Liu, Tatiana Yuzyuk, Lorenzo D Botto, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Deficiency of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) and long-chain 3-Hydroxy Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) impairs long-chain fatty acid oxidation and presents with hypoglycemia, cardiac, liver, eye, and muscle involvement. Without treatment, both conditions can be life-threatening. These diseases are identified by newborn screening (NBS), but the impact of early treatment on long-term clinical outcome is unknown. Moreover, there is lack of consensus on treatment, particularly on the use of carnitine supplementation...
April 28, 2016: JIMD Reports
Henriette O Karlsen, Cathrine Ebbing, Svein Rasmussen, Torvid Kiserud, Synnøve L Johnsen
INTRODUCTION: Centiles of middle cerebral artery pulsatility index and cerebroplacental ratio are useful for predicting adverse perinatal outcomes. A 'conditional centile' is conditioned by a previous measurement reflecting degree of individual change over time. Here we test whether such centiles are independent predictors and whether their combination improves prediction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study included 220 pregnant women diagnosed with or at risk of having a small-for-gestational-age fetus...
June 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Hongtao Lei, Jing Li, Zhi Zhao, Li Liu
Ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (Enc1), a member of the KELCH family, is widely expressed in the nervous system and plays an important role in nervous system development. However, the function of Enc1 in neural survival following apoptosis induced by hypoxia and hypoglycemia remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Enc1 in the cell survival of neurons subjected to apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and the potential underlying mechanism. The in vitro cell model of neuron OGD was established by anoxia/hypoglycemic injury...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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