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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631276/comparison-of-two-different-analysis-approaches-for-dti-free-water-corrected-and-uncorrected-maps-in-the-study-of-white-matter-microstructural-integrity-in-individuals-with-depression
#1
Maurizio Bergamino, Rayus Kuplicki, Teresa V Victor, Yoon-Hee Cha, Martin P Paulus
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has often been used to examine white matter (WM) tract abnormalities in depressed subjects, but these studies have yielded inconsistent results, probably, due to gender composition or small sample size. In this study, we applied different analysis pipelines to a relatively large sample of individuals with depression to determine whether previous findings in depression can be replicated with these pipelines. We used a "standard" DTI algorithm and maps computed through a free-water (FW) corrected DTI...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630086/psychosocial-therapy-for-parkinson-s-related-dementia-study-protocol-for-the-invest-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Sheree A McCormick, Kathryn R McDonald, Sabina Vatter, Vasiliki Orgeta, Ellen Poliakoff, Sarah Smith, Monty A Silverdale, Bo Fu, Iracema Leroi
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD) or dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterised by motor and 'non-motor' symptoms which impact on quality of life. Treatment options are generally limited to pharmacological approaches. We developed a psychosocial intervention to improve cognition, quality of life and companion burden for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB. Here, we describe the protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of the intervention and to evaluate treatment implementation...
June 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626602/association-between-corneal-biomechanical-properties-with-ocular-response-analyzer-and-also-corvisst-tonometry-and-glaucomatous-visual-field-severity
#3
Kazunori Hirasawa, Masato Matsuura, Hiroshi Murata, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yoshitaka Nakao, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Ryo Asaoka
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between corneal biomechanical properties measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and also CorvisST (CST) tonometry, and glaucomatous visual field (VF) severity. METHODS: One hundred forty-six eyes of 91 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who performed Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 or 24-2 SITA-Standard, ORA, and CST within 180 days were included in this multicentral, observational cross-sectional study. The association between ORA parameters (corneal hysteresis [CH] and corneal resistant factor [CRF]), CST parameters (A1 and A2 time, A1 and A2 length, A1 and A2 velocity, A1 and A2 deformation amplitude, highest deformation amplitude, highest concavity time, peak distance, and radius), and other basic parameters (age, intraocular pressure with Goldmann applanation tonometry, central corneal thickness, and axial length) against mean total deviation (mTD) were analyzed using a linear mixed-model and model selection with corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc)...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626016/the-mtor-substrate-s6-kinase-1-s6k1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-axon-regeneration-and-a-potential-drug-target-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#4
Hassan Al-Ali, Ying Ding, Tatiana Slepak, Wei Wu, Yan Sun, Yania Martinez, Xiao-Ming Xu, V P Lemmon, J L Bixby
The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) positively regulates axon growth in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Though axon regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries are typically limited, knockdown or deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTOR, increases mTOR activity and induces robust axon growth and regeneration. It has been suggested that inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1, gene symbol: RPS6KB1), a prominent mTOR target, would blunt mTOR's positive effect on axon growth. In contrast to this expectation, we demonstrate that inhibition of S6K1 in CNS neurons promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro by 2-3 fold...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622321/identification-of-time-point-to-best-define-sub-optimal-response-following-intravitreal-ranibizumab-therapy-for-diabetic-macular-edema-based-on-real-life-data
#5
I Chatziralli, M Santarelli, N Patrao, L Nicholson, M Zola, R Rajendram, P Hykin, S Sivaprasad
PurposeTo determine the average time-point at which it is best to define 'sub-optimal response' after ranibizumab treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) based on the data obtained from real-life clinical practice.MethodsIn this retrospective observational study, 322 consecutive treatment naïve eyes with DME were treated with three loading doses of intravitreal ranibizumab followed by re-treatment based on decision of the treating physician on a case-by-case basis. The demographic data, clinic-based visual acuity measurements and central subfield thickness (CST) assessed on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated at baseline (month 0), 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months...
June 16, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620704/ranibizumab-versus-dexamethasone-implant-for-central-retinal-vein-occlusion-the-ranidex-study
#6
Irini Chatziralli, George Theodossiadis, Stamatina A Kabanarou, Efstratios Parikakis, Tina Xirou, Panagiotis Mitropoulos, Panagiotis Theodossiadis
PURPOSE: To compare intravitreal ranibizumab and dexamethasone implant in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Participants were 42 treatment naive patients with ME due to CRVO, who received either intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab (n = 25) or intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant (n = 17). The main outcomes included the mean change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield thickness (CST) at month 12 compared to baseline in the two groups...
June 15, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618990/biological-roles-of-the-eclectic-chromogranin-a-derived-peptide-catestatin
#7
Teresa Pasqua, Tommaso Angelone, Angela Spena, Maria Carmela Cerra
Research on Chromogranin A (CGA) and its derived fragments convincingly demonstrated the multifunctional activity of the 21 amino acid peptide named Catestatin (CST: human CGA352-372, bovine CGA344-364, rat CGA367-387). It is mainly known as an inhibitor of the nicotinic-dependent Catecholamine (CA) release, and an anti-hypertensive peptide, but its role includes a modulation of antioxidant and immune defense, epidermal function, and adipose tissue homeostasis. CST influences the cardiocirculatory system acting both indirectly, via the autonomic nervous system, and directly by influencing the basal cardiac function, and the stretch-dependent myocardial performance...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613384/communication-skills-training-for-mental-health-professionals-working-with-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#8
REVIEW
Alexia Papageorgiou, Yoon K Loke, Michelle Fromage
BACKGROUND: Research evidence suggests that both mental health professionals and people with severe mental health illness such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder find it difficult to communicate with each other effectively about symptoms, treatments and their side effects so that they reach a shared understanding about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Effective use of communication skills in mental health interactions could be associated with increased patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613352/comparison-of-ranibizumab-and-bevacizumab-for-macular-edema-secondary-to-retinal-vein-occlusions-in-routine-clinical-practice
#9
Mehnaz Khan, Karen M Wai, Fabiana Q Silva, Sunil Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Aleksandra Rachitskaya, Amy Babiuch, Ryan Deasy, Peter K Kaiser, Andrew P Schachat, Alex Yuan, Rishi P Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) versus bevacizumab (IVB) (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) for treatment of macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in routine clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study identified treatment-naïve patients with ME secondary to RVO where treatment with either IVB or IVR was initiated...
June 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608031/adalimumab-in-refractory-cystoid-macular-edema-associated-with-birdshot-chorioretinopathy
#10
Laura R Steeples, Paul Spry, Richard W J Lee, Ester Carreño
PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcomes of adalimumab therapy in cases of birdshot chorioretinitis (BCR) with cystoid macular edema (CME) refractory to conventional immunotherapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of three BCR patients treated with adalimumab for refractory CME. The main outcome measure was central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography. Any patients treated with local steroids and/or receiving systemic steroids higher than 40 mg prednisolone daily during adalimumab therapy were excluded...
June 12, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607652/simulation-of-therapeutic-electron-beam-tracking-through-a-non-uniform-magnetic-field-using-finite-element-method
#11
Mohammad Javad Tahmasebibirgani, Reza Maskani, Mohammad Ali Behrooz, Mansour Zabihzadeh, Hojatollah Shahbazian, Jafar Fatahiasl, Nahid Chegeni
INTRODUCTION: In radiotherapy, megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons are employed for treatment of superficial cancers. Magnetic fields can be used for deflection and deformation of the electron flow. A magnetic field is composed of non-uniform permanent magnets. The primary electrons are not mono-energetic and completely parallel. Calculation of electron beam deflection requires using complex mathematical methods. In this study, a device was made to apply a magnetic field to an electron beam and the path of electrons was simulated in the magnetic field using finite element method...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600242/advanced-fast-3d-electromagnetic-solver-for-microwave-tomography-imaging
#12
Nikolai Simonov, Bo-Ra Kim, Kwang-Jae Lee, Soon-Ik Jeon, Seong-Ho Son
This paper describes a fast forward electromagnetic solver (FFS) for the image reconstruction algorithm of our microwave tomography (MT) system. Our apparatus is a preclinical prototype of a biomedical imaging system, designed for the purpose of early breast cancer detection. It operates in the 3-6 GHz frequency band using a circular array of probe antennas immersed in a matching liquid; it produces image reconstructions of the permittivity and conductivity profiles of the breast under examination. Our reconstruction algorithm solves the electromagnetic inverse problem and takes into account the real electromagnetic properties of the probe antenna array as well as the influence of the patient's body and that of the upper metal screen sheet...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596983/prospective-randomized-comparison-of-a-22g-core-needle-using-standard-versus-capillary-suction-for-eus-guided-sampling-of-solid-pancreatic-masses
#13
Brian R Weston, William A Ross, Manoop S Bhutani, Jeffrey H Lee, Mala Pande, Andrew B Sholl, Savitri Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:  The optimal technique for sampling pancreatic lesions with a 22 G Procore needle (pc) is unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the 22 Gpc using standard suction technique (SST) and capillary suction technique (CST) and compare diagnostic adequacy of 22 Gpc with the standard 25 G needle. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  Sixty consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA of a solid pancreatic mass were prospectively evaluated...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590584/free-water-and-free-water-corrected-fractional-anisotropy-in-primary-and-premotor-corticospinal-tracts-in-chronic-stroke
#14
Derek B Archer, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Measures from diffusion MRI have been used to characterize the corticospinal tract in chronic stroke. However, diffusivity can be influenced by partial volume effects from free-water, region of interest placement, and lesion masking. We collected diffusion MRI from a cohort of chronic stroke patients and controls and used a bitensor model to calculate free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT ) and free water (FW) in the primary motor corticospinal tract (M1-CST) and the dorsal premotor corticospinal tract (PMd-CST)...
June 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583455/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-premotor-cortex-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-neurological-deficits
#15
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: The premotor cortex (PMC) is known to have a dual role in both movement and language processing. Nevertheless, surgical outcomes of premotor cortex BAVMs (PMC-BAVMs) have not been well-defined. The aim of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for neurological deficits (ND) after surgery in patients with PMC-BAVMs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PMC-BAVMs who underwent surgical resection of the nidus. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MRI, 3D time-of-flight MRA (3D TOF-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575122/multimodal-assessment-of-white-matter-tracts-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Florian Borsodi, Valeriu Culea, Christian Langkammer, Michael Khalil, Lukas Pirpamer, Stefan Quasthoff, Christian Enzinger, Reinhold Schmidt, Franz Fazekas, Stefan Ropele
Several quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been proposed to investigate microstructural tissue changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging, and R2* mapping. Here, in this study, we compared these techniques with regard to their capability for detecting ALS related white matter (WM) changes in the brain and their association with clinical findings. We examined 27 ALS patients and 35 age-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572753/changes-in-vaginal-community-state-types-reflect-major-shifts-in-the-microbiome
#17
J Paul Brooks, Gregory A Buck, Guanhua Chen, Liyang Diao, David J Edwards, Jennifer M Fettweis, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Alexander Rakitin, Glen A Satten, Ekaterina Smirnova, Zeev Waks, Michelle L Wright, Chen Yanover, Yi-Hui Zhou
Background: Recent studies of various human microbiome habitats have revealed thousands of bacterial species and the existence of large variation in communities of microorganisms in the same habitats across individual human subjects. Previous efforts to summarize this diversity, notably in the human gut and vagina, have categorized microbiome profiles by clustering them into community state types (CSTs). The functional relevance of specific CSTs has not been established. Objective: We investigate whether CSTs can be used to assess dynamics in the microbiome...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572001/quantitative-flair-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Jeremy Fabes, Lucy Matthews, Nicola Filippini, Kevin Talbot, Mark Jenkinson, Martin R Turner
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hyperintensity assessed visually in the corticospinal tract (CST) lacks sensitivity for a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We sought to explore a quantitative approach to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI intensity across a range of ALS phenotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three classical ALS patients, 10 with a flail arm presentation, and six with primary lateral sclerosis underwent MRI at 3 Tesla...
May 29, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558977/difference-of-recovery-course-of-motor-weakness-according-to-state-of-corticospinal-tract-in-putaminal-hemorrhage
#19
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Won Park, Byung Yeon Choi, Seong Ho Kim, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Won Hee Choi, You Sung Seo
OBJECTIVES: We investigated differences in recovery course of motor weakness according to the state of the corticospinal tract (CST) in putaminal hemorrhage, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: We recruited 36 patients with complete weakness of the affected extremities at onset. The patients were classified into two groups according to the findings of DTT for the CST at chronic stage: group A- preserved integrity of the CST around the lesion, and group B- discontinued integrity of the CST...
May 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558789/repetitive-reaching-training-combined-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-stroke-survivors-with-chronic-and-severe-arm-paresis-is-feasible-a-pilot-triple-blind-randomised-case-series
#20
Kathryn S Hayward, Sandra G Brauer, Kathy L Ruddy, David Lloyd, Richard G Carson
BACKGROUND: Therapy that combines repetitive training with non-invasive brain stimulation is a potential avenue to enhance upper limb recovery after stroke. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS), timed to coincide with the generation of voluntary motor commands, during reaching training. METHODS: A triple-blind pilot RCT was completed. Four stroke survivors with chronic (6-months to 5-years) and severe arm paresis, not taking any medications that had the potential to alter cortical excitability, and no contraindications to tRNS or MRI were recruited...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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