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Thomas D Whitney, Michael I Sitvarin, Edward A Roualdes, Simon J Bonner, James D Harwood
Generalist predators are capable of selective foraging, but are predicted to feed in close proportion to prey availability to maximize energetic intake especially when overall prey availability is low. By extension, they are also expected to feed in a more frequency-dependent manner during winter compared to the more favorable foraging conditions during spring, summer and fall seasons. For 18 months, we observed the foraging patterns of forest-dwelling wolf spiders from the genus Schizocosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using PCR-based gut-content analysis and simultaneously monitored the activity-densities of two common prey: springtails (Collembola) and flies (Diptera)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
David T Fernandes Cabral, Georgios A Zenonos, Maximiliano Nuñez, Pinar Celtikci, Carl Snyderman, Eric Wang, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been proposed as a potential alternative for ventral brainstem lesions. The surgical anatomy, feasibility, and limitations of the EEA for intrinsic brainstem lesions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical planning, anatomy, and technique of an intrinsic pontine glioma operated via EEA. METHODS: Six-human brainstems were prepared for white matter microdissection...
March 12, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Chenhui Qiu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yanen Guo, Shunren Xia
Image fusion techniques can integrate the information from different imaging modalities to get a composite image which is more suitable for human visual perception and further image processing tasks. Fusing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and phase contrast images is very important for subcellular localization, functional analysis of protein and genome expression. The fusion method of GFP and phase contrast images based on complex shearlet transform (CST) is proposed in this paper. Firstly the GFP image is converted to IHS model and its intensity component is obtained...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Heather Brown, Francesco D'Amico, Martin Knapp, Martin Orrell, Amritpal Rehill, Luke Vale, Louise Robinson
OBJECTIVES: Identify if cost-effectiveness of Maintenance Cognitive Simulation Therapy (MCST) differs by type of living arrangement and cognitive ability of the person with dementia. Next, a value of information analysis is performed to inform decisions about future research. METHODS: Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis applying seemingly unrelated regressions using data from a multicentre RCT of MCST versus treatment as usual in a population which had already received 7 weeks of CST for dementia (ISRCTN: 26286067)...
March 12, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Justis P Ehlers, Kevin Wang, Rishi P Singh, Amy S Babiuch, Andrew P Schachat, Alex Yuan, Jamie L Reese, Laura Stiegel, Sunil K Srivastava
Purpose: To assess the efficacy of ranibizumab for persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) previously treated with bevacizumab and compare monthly vs treat-and-extend (TAE) dosing. Design: 12-month, open-label, prospective randomized comparative dosing study. Participants: 27 participants with persistent foveal-involving DME recently treated with bevacizumab. Methods: All subjects were to receive three initial monthly 0...
March 2018: Ophthalmology Retina
Dido Scheibenberger, Andreas Frings, Johannes Steinberg, Helke Schüler, Vasyl Druchkiv, Toam Katz, Yskert von Kodolitsch, Stephan Linke
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal deformation to an air puff as a new noninvasive tool to document disease status in Marfan syndrome (MFS) METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with MFS who had their routine cardiovascular follow-up and applied the revised Ghent nosology to define two subgroups according to a high (≥ 7) and a low (< 7 points) systemic score. Dynamic Scheimpflug-based biomechanical analyses (CorvisST® [CST; Oculus GmbH]) were performed...
March 10, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Devran Ugurlu, Zeynep Firat, Uğur Türe, Gozde Unal
Accurate digital representation of major white matter bundles in the brain is an important goal in neuroscience image computing since the representations can be used for surgical planning, intra-patient longitudinal analysis and inter-subject population connectivity studies. Reconstructing desired fiber bundles generally involves manual selection of regions of interest by an expert, which is subject to user bias and fatigue, hence an automation is desirable. To that end, we first present a novel anatomical representation based on Neighborhood Resolved Fiber Orientation Distributions (NRFOD) along the fibers...
February 27, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
S J Feldman, L A Boyd, J L Neva, S Peters, K S Hayward
BACKGROUND: Information about the structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) from diffusion-weighted imaging can improve our ability to understand motor outcomes in people with upper limb impairment after stroke, especially those with severe impairment. Yet, there is no consensus on which method of CST generation most accurately represents function and impairment in individuals with chronic stroke. NEW METHOD: The aim of the study was to compare different methods of CST reconstruction and resulting microstructural properties, as well as the relationship between these properties and motor function and impairment...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Megan M Senchuk, Dylan J Dues, Claire E Schaar, Benjamin K Johnson, Zachary B Madaj, Megan J Bowman, Mary E Winn, Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
Mild deficits in mitochondrial function have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including worms, flies and mice. Here, we study three C. elegans mitochondrial mutants (clk-1, isp-1 and nuo-6) to identify overlapping genetic pathways that contribute to their longevity. We find that genes regulated by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 are upregulated in all three strains, and that the transcriptional changes present in these worms overlap significantly with the long-lived insulin-IGF1 signaling pathway mutant daf-2...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Isahar Gabay, Amir Shemer, Ariel Schwarz, Zeev Zalevsky
In this paper, we present an advanced two-dimensional (2D) novel microwave photonic approach to super-resolved radar imaging. Unlike synthetic aperture radar that requires movement to improve resolution by synthetically increasing the antenna's dimensions, our super-resolved imaging solution not only does not require movement to synthetically increase the antenna's dimensions, it also allows this super-resolved sensing with only a single (mono) detector. The operation principle is based upon phased array antennas, which consist of four radiating horn antennas that generate a projected plane at the far field zone...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Hiroaki Kazui
Previous systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions for clinical symptoms in dementia patients have confirmed the effectiveness of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for cognitive impairment, exercise therapy for activities of daily living, and music therapy and behavior management techniques for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A Japanese version of CST has been developed and is available, but standardized exercise therapy and music therapy have not been developed. It is also important for informal and formal caregivers to learn behavior management techniques...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Lingchen Kong, Jianzhong Li, Peng Wu, Jianhua Xu, Honglei Li, Haifei Long, Pan Liu, Fangfang Wei, Wenhong Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of lateral position ventilation combined with vibration sputum drainage on the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The patients with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Linyi Central Hospital from January 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into simple ventilation group and combined treatment group according to random number table...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ning Chen, Michael Chopp, Ye Xiong, Jian-Yong Qian, Mei Lu, Dong Zhou, Li He, Zhongwu Liu
In addition to thrombolysis, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can evoke neurorestorative processes. We therefore investigated the therapeutic effect of subacute intranasal administration of tPA post stroke on neurological recovery and on corticospinal innervation in mice. A transgenic mouse line, in which the pyramidal neurons and corticospinal tract (CST) axons are specifically labeled by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was employed. Adult CST-YFP mice were subjected to right unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), and were randomly divided into groups treated with saline or tPA intranasally in the subacute phase...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sung Ho Jang, Younghyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: A 45-year-old right-handed female patient suffered head trauma after being hit by a truck that ran into a house. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient lost consciousness for 1 hour and experienced posttraumatic amnesia for 1 month after the accident. DIAGNOSES: She underwent conservative management for a subdural hematoma in the left frontotemporal lobes and intracerebral hematoma in the left frontal lobe. INTERVENTIONS: The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chia-Ping Huang Yang, Changwei Wang, Iwao Ojima, Susan Band Horwitz
Several next-generation taxanes have been reported to possess high potency against Taxol-resistant cancer cell lines overexpressing βIII-tubulin and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp), both of which are involved in drug resistance. Using a photoaffinity Taxol analogue, 2-( m-azidobenzoyl)taxol, two potent next-generation taxanes, SB-T-1214 and SB-CST-10202, exhibited distinct inhibitory effects on photolabeling of β-tubulin from different eukaryotic sources that differ in β-tubulin isotype composition. They also specifically inhibited photolabeling of P-gp, and the inhibitory effect correlated well with the steady-state accumulation of [3 H]vinblastine in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line, SKVLB1...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Mauricio Plata, Daniela Robledo, Alejandra Bravo-Balado, Juan Carlos Castaño, Catalina Osorio, Milton Salazar, Juan Guillermo Velásquez, Carlos Gustavo Trujillo, Juan Ignacio Caicedo, Juan Guillermo Cataño
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We report our experience with the Remeex system™ in women with recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in women who underwent an adjustable sling procedure between 2011 and 2016. We used urodynamic studies (UDS) preoperatively and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and cough stress test (CST) pre- and postoperatively...
March 3, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Saleema Kherani, Adrienne W Scott, Adam S Wenick, Ingrid Zimmer-Galler, Christopher J Brady, Akrit Sodhi, Catherine Meyerle, Sharon D Solomon, Rimsha Shaukat, Roomasa Channa, Olukemi Adeyemo, James T Handa, Jiangxia Wang, Peter A Campochiaro
PURPOSE: To identify factors influencing visual outcome in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) and subfoveal hemorrhage (SFH) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODS: Anti-VEGF-treated eyes with SFH >1 disc area (DA) were identified (n=16) and changes in visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) from baseline to last follow up along with SFH area, thickness, minimum distance from fovea to SFH border, and time to resolution were determined...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Amanda Hempel Zinglersen, Malte Bjørn Halsteen, Michael Kjær, Anders Karlsen
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization of older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study investigated whether simultaneously applied neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can enhance the effects of a functional training program in hospitalized geriatric patients. METHOD: This was a quasi-randomized controlled trial in geriatric hospitalized patients (N = 16, age = 83.1 ± 8.1 years, mean ± SD). The patients performed a simple and time efficient chair-stand based functional exercise program daily, either with (FT + NMES, N = 8) or without (FT, N = 8) simultaneous NMES to the knee extensor muscles...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yuan Wang, Weihang Chai
Coats plus syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that can be caused by mutations in genes encoding the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex, a conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein complex. Studies have demonstrated that mutations identified in Coats plus patients are defective in telomere maintenance, and concluded that Coats plus may be caused by telomere dysfunction. Recent studies have established that CST also plays an important role in countering replication stress and protecting the stability of genomic fragile sites...
February 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ae Ryoung Kim, Dae Hyun Kim, So Young Park, Sunghyon Kyeong, Yong Wook Kim, Seung Koo Lee, Deog Young Kim
This study aimed to investigate the long-term motor outcome according to early diffusion tensor tractography findings for the affected corticospinal tract (CST) in poststroke hemiplegic patients. A total of 48 supratentorial subacute patients after stroke were enrolled, who had a brain MRI scan within 6 weeks from onset, and no stroke recurrence reported within the 2-year follow-up period. Diffusion tensor images were obtained and CSTs were reconstructed. The participants were classified into three groups: type A, the CST originating from the primary motor cortex was preserved around the lesion area; type B, the CST was similar to type A, except that the fiber originated from the area adjacent to the primary motor cortex; and type C, the CST was interrupted or not shown...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
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