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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159041/white-matter-alterations-and-their-associations-with-motor-function-in-young-adults-born-preterm-with-very-low-birth-weight
#1
Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund, Alexander Olsen, Jon Skranes, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Asta K Håberg, Live Eikenes, Kari Anne I Evensen
Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1500 g) individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158146/monitoring-and-predicting-disease-activity-in-autoimmune-pancreatitis-with-the-m-annheim-aip-activity-score
#2
Michael Hirth, Miroslav Vujasinovic, Markus Münch, Christel Weiss, Matthias Löhr, Matthias P Ebert, Alexander Schneider
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AiP) is treated by immunosuppressive therapy. Exact description of disease activity of AiP is essential in clinical practice and research, but a score to describe the disease activity is missing. Thus, we aimed to establish an activity score of AiP. METHODS: We retrospectively studied long-term disease courses of 29 patients with AiP (Mannheim, Germany), receiving corticosteroid treatment (CST) by analyzing 613 treatment appointments...
October 25, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142871/cavernous-sinus-thrombosis-following-dental-extraction-a-rare-case-report-and-forgotten-entity
#3
Karun Aggarwal, Sanjay Rastogi, Atul Joshi, Ashish Kumar, Archana Chaurasia, Rajat Prakash
Prior to the advent of efficacious antimicrobial agents, the mortality rate from cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was effectively 100%. There have been very few reports of CST associated with tooth extraction. A 40-year-old female presented to the emergency room with swelling over the right side of the face and history of extraction in the upper right region by an unregistered dental practitioner. The patient presented with diplopia, periorbital ecchymosis, and chemosis of the right eye. A computed tomography scan revealed venous dilatation of the right superior ophthalmic vein...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#4
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141516/how-to-assess-communication-skills-development-of-the-rating-scale-comon-check
#5
K Radziej, J Loechner, C Engerer, M Niglio de Figueiredo, J Freund, H Sattel, C Bachmann, P O Berberat, A Dinkel, A Wuensch
BACKGROUND: Good communication is a core competency for all physicians. Thus, medical students require adequate preparation in communication skills. For research purposes, as well as for evaluation in teaching, there is a clear need for reliable assessment tools. We analyzed the shortcomings of existing instruments and saw a need for a new rating scale. The aim of this publication is to describe the development process for, and evaluation of, a new rating scale. METHODS: First, we developed the rating scale in 10 steps...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134611/exploring-white-matter-microstructure-and-olfaction-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-disease-diffusion-mri-reveals-new-insight
#6
Soheila Sobhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Alireza Vafaei Sadr
Olfaction dysfunction is considered as a robust marker of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Measurement of olfaction function as a screening test is unsatisfactory due to long lead time interval and low specificity for detection of PD. Use of imaging markers might yield more accurate predictive values and provide bases for combined use of imaging and clinical markers for early PD. Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted on 85 de novo PD patients in and 36 healthy controls to find: first, white matter tracts with significant difference in quantitative anisotropy between PD groups with various degrees of olfaction dysfunction and second, second fibers with correlation with University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score in each group using a multiple regression analysis considering age, sex, GDS and MoCA score...
November 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128879/the-oarsi-core-set-of-performance-based-measures-for-knee-osteoarthritis-is-reliable-but-not-valid-and-responsive
#8
J J Tolk, R P A Janssen, C A C Prinsen, D A J M Latijnhouwers, M C van der Steen, S M A Bierma-Zeinstra, M Reijman
PURPOSE: The Osteoarthritis Research Society International has identified a core set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The core set consists of the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST), 4 × 10 m fast-paced walk test (40 m FPWT) and a stair climb test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of these performance-based measures to assess the ability to measure physical function in knee OA patients...
November 11, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126955/white-matter-changes-correlates-of-peripheral-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Maryam Haghashomar, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Shima Shahjouei, Soheila Sobhnai, Maryam Rahmani
Neuroinflammatory pathology has long been identified to contribute to the pathology of Parkinson disease. Early microstructural changes in white matter tracts might give a clue for earlier detection of PD. We investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry the structural correlates of white matter tracts of 81 patients with PD with whole blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), controlling for age and sex. Diffusion data were reconstructed in the MNI space using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction to obtain the spin distribution function...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122609/structural-connections-support-emotional-connections-uncinate-fasciculus-microstructure-is-related-to-the-ability-to-decode-facial-emotion-expressions
#10
Bethany M Coad, Mark Postans, Carl J Hodgetts, Nils Muhlert, Kim S Graham, Andrew D Lawrence
The Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) is an association fibre tract connecting regions in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. UF disruption is seen in several disorders associated with impaired social behaviour, but its functional role is unclear. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that the UF is important for facial expression processing, an ability fundamental to adaptive social behaviour. In two separate experiments in healthy adults, we used high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography to virtually dissect the UF, plus a control tract (the corticospinal tract (CST)), and quantify, via tissue fractional anisotropy (FAT), individual differences in tract microstructure...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118493/experience-of-intravitreal-triamcinolone-acetonide-for-treatment-of-diabetic-macular-edema-among-omani-population
#11
Ahmed Al Hinai, Upender Krishen Wali, Tayseer Abdul Rasool, Syed G Rizvi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of intravitreal (IVT) triamcinolone in diabetic macular edema (DME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 42 eyes diagnosed clinically and supported with optical coherence tomography (OCT), with DME of more than 300 μm in thickness. All eyes were injected with a single IVT injection of preservative free triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with dose of 4 mg. Patients were subjected to visual acuity (VA) and OCT on each follow-up visit which was continued for 6 months...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117956/snps-in-a%C3%AE-clearance-proteins-lower-csf-a%C3%AE-1-42-levels-and-earlier-onset-of-dementia-in-pd
#12
Kathrin Brockmann, Stefanie Lerche, Sarah Selina Dilger, Johannes Georg Stirnkorb, Anja Apel, Ann-Kathrin Hauser, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone, Daniela Berg, Thomas Gasser, Claudia Schulte, Walter Maetzler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether genetic variants in β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance proteins are associated with CSF levels of Aβ1-42 on a biological level and the onset of dementia on a clinical level in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We analyzed genetic variants known to be involved in Aβ clearance in a PD group comprising 456 patients, 103 of them with dementia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes APOE, cystatin C (CST), and membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME) were evaluated in relation to demographic variables, clinical phenotypes, and CSF Aβ1-42 levels using a cross-sectional approach...
November 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113947/diffusion-tensor-and-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-the-brains-of-professional-musicians
#13
Niyazi Acer, Serap Bastepe-Gray, Ayse Sagiroglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Levent Degirmencioglu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Muhammet Usame Ozic
Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#14
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105988/strategies-for-efficient-charge-separation-and-transfer-in-artificial-photosynthesis-of-solar-fuels
#15
Yuxing Xu, Ailong Li, Tingting Yao, Changtong Ma, Xianwen Zhang, Jafar Hussain Shah, Hongxian Han
Converting sunlight to solar fuels by artificial photosynthesis is an innovative science and technology for renewable energy. Light harvesting (LH), photogenerated charge separation and transfer (CST), and catalytic reactions (CR) are the three primary steps in the processes of solar energy to chemical energy (SE-CE) conversion. Among them, the CST is the key "energy pump and delivery" step in determining the overall solar energy conversion efficiency. Efficient CST is always the priority concern in designing and assembling artificial photosynthesis systems for solar fuels production...
November 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102699/self-assembled-phospholipid-based-phytosomal-nanocarriers-as-promising-platforms-for-improving-oral-bioavailability-of-the-anticancer-celastrol
#16
May S Freag, Wedad M Saleh, Ossama Y Abdallah
Celastrol (CST) is a promising natural drug of herbal origin that gained a great interest in the recent years by virtue of its wide variety of pharmacological actions. Nowadays, CST is extensively studied as a natural anticancer surrogate with a potential activity against various types of cancers. However, CST suffers from many limitations that handicapped its clinical utility such as limited aqueous solubility and poor gastrointestinal absorption which resulted into its low oral bioavailability. This work spotlights, for the first time, development of self-assembled phytosomal nanocarriers (CST-PHY) for improving CST solubility and oral bioavailability...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101844/early-corticospinal-tract-damage-in-prodromal-sca2-revealed-by-eeg-emg-and-emg-emg-coherence
#17
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Johannes Tünnerhoff, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Yusely Ruiz-Gonzalez, Paolo Belardinelli, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Nalia Canales-Ochoa, Yanetza González-Zaldivar, Yaimeé Vazquez-Mojena, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
OBJECTIVE: Clinical data suggest early involvement of the corticospinal tract (CST) in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Here we tested if early CST degeneration can be detected in prodromal SCA2 mutation carriers by electrophysiological markers of CST integrity. METHODS: CST integrity was tested in 15 prodromal SCA2 mutation carriers, 19 SCA2 patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls, using corticomuscular (EEG-EMG) and intermuscular (EMG-EMG) coherence measures in upper and lower limb muscles...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092157/benchmarking-of-software-tools-for-the-characterization-of-nanoparticles
#18
Mario Kupresak, Xuezhi Zheng, Guy A E Vandenbosch, V V Moshchalkov
Although many commercially available electromagnetic tools are conveniently used in RF and microwave applications, only a few of them provide the capability to analyze the optical response of nanometric radiators and scatterers. The assessment of their performance in the visible to near ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum becomes more and more important, considering the exponential rise of nanoscale systems. Since the accuracy of these numerical tools has not been fully investigated in literature, in this paper we essentially demonstrate a comparative study of the most widely used EM field solvers in the area of nano-plasmonics: COMSOL, CST and Lumerical...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082561/the-role-of-anatomy-demonstrators-a-surgical-trainees-perspective
#19
C F Smith, B Gami, N Standfield, D C Davies
Core Surgical Trainees (CST) in the London (UK) Postgraduate School of Surgery receive clinical anatomy teaching in their first year of training, and, in their second year, give thirty sessions of anatomy teaching to medical and other students. This study set out to investigate the role of demonstrators from the perspective of the trainees. A focus group was convened to ascertain trainees' perspectives on demonstrating anatomy and to identify problems and improvement strategies to optimise their ability to enhance students' learning...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081738/interlimb-dynamic-after-unilateral-focal-lesion-of-the-cervical-dorsal-corticospinal-tract-with-endothelin-1
#20
Walther A Carvalho, Carlomagno P Bahia, Jéssica C Teixeira, Walace Gomes-Leal, Antonio Pereira
Handedness is one of the most recognized lateralized behavior in humans. Usually, it is associated with manual superiority regarding performance proficiency. For instance, more than 90% of the human population is considered more skilled with the right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere, than with the left. However, during the performance of bimanual tasks, the two hands usually assume asymmetric roles, with one hand acting on objects while the other provides support, stabilizing the object. Traditionally, the role of the two hands is viewed as fixed...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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