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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677464/improving-the-quality-of-preclinical-research-echocardiography-observations-training-and-guidelines-for-measurement
#1
Daniel G Donner, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Thomas H Marwick, Julie R McMullen
Informal training in preclinical research may be a contributor to the poor reproducibility of preclinical cardiology research and low rates of translation into clinical research and practice. Mouse echocardiography is a widely used technique to assess cardiac structure and function in drug intervention studies using disease models. The inter-observer variability (IOV) of clinical echocardiographic measurements has been shown to improve with formalized training, but preclinical echocardiography lacks similarly critical standardization of training...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676753/automation-of-sedimentation-test
#2
T Turlej
This paper reports on the development of an automated method to perform sedimentation tests on a suspension, to study the settling and sedimentation behaviour of particle suspension. The standard method for measuring sedimentation rate is the jar test, but this is burdened with some errors: the possibility of misinterpretation of the interface or subjective readings by technicians. In order to overcome these problems, there are many different methods that exclude subjective mistakes. The proposed solution automatically detects the phase separation boundary and, by use of a moving camera, plots the real-time sedimentation curve...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676614/sourcebook-update-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-autonomic-control
#3
Philip D Langton
This laboratory practical requires first-year students to anticipate the effects of drugs active at cholinergic and adrenergic receptors on gut motility in order to design experiments during an authentic inquiry exercise. Rather than specifying a strict sequence of drug additions that aim to provide ideal demonstrations of pharmacological and physiological antagonism, I have instead designed switches into the drugs provided and set students, working in small teams, the task of identifying the switched drugs, an inquiry activity...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676315/vitreoretinal-surgery-on-the-fellow-eye-a-retrospective-analysis-of-18-years-of-surgical-data-from-a-tertiary-center-in-england
#4
Mark A P Fajgenbaum, Roger S Wong, David A H Laidlaw, Tom H Williamson
Purpose: To determine the long-term incidence of fellow-eye surgical involvement in patients who have undergone first-eye vitreoretinal (VR) surgery for a variety of indications. This was a single-institution retrospective, consecutive series. Methods: Eighteen years of electronic surgical data were reviewed at our institution. All patients having surgery for the following indications were included: rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), macular hole (MH), epiretinal membrane (ERM), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), vitritis, and dropped nucleus...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675690/a-new-algorithm-to-build-bridges-between-two-patient-reported-health-outcome-instruments-the-mos-sf-36%C3%A2-and-the-vr-12-health-survey
#5
Alfredo Selim, William Rogers, Shirley Qian, James A Rothendler, Erin E Kent, Lewis E Kazis
PURPOSE: To develop bridging algorithms to score the Veterans Rand-12 (VR-12) scales for comparability to those of the SF-36® for facilitating multi-cohort studies using data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) linked to Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS), and to provide a model for minimizing non-statistical error in pooled analyses stemming from changes to survey instruments over time. METHODS: Observational study of MHOS cohorts 1-12 (1998-2011)...
April 19, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675305/transform-and-multi-domain-deep-learning-for-single-frame-rapid-autofocusing-in-whole-slide-imaging
#6
Shaowei Jiang, Jun Liao, Zichao Bian, Kaikai Guo, Yongbing Zhang, Guoan Zheng
A whole slide imaging (WSI) system has recently been approved for primary diagnostic use in the US. The image quality and system throughput of WSI is largely determined by the autofocusing process. Traditional approaches acquire multiple images along the optical axis and maximize a figure of merit for autofocusing. Here we explore the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs) to predict the focal position of the acquired image without axial scanning. We investigate the autofocusing performance with three illumination settings: incoherent Kohler illumination, partially coherent illumination with two plane waves, and one-plane-wave illumination...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675268/stochastic-system-identification-without-an-a-priori-chosen-kinetic-model-exploring-feasible-cell-regulation-with-piecewise-linear-functions
#7
Martin Hoffmann, Jörg Galle
Kinetic models are at the heart of system identification. A priori chosen rate functions may, however, be unfitting or too restrictive for complex or previously unanticipated regulation. We applied general purpose piecewise linear functions for stochastic system identification in one dimension using published flow cytometry data on E.coli and report on identification results for equilibrium state and dynamic time series. In metabolic labelling experiments during yeast osmotic stress response, we find mRNA production and degradation to be strongly co-regulated...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675218/the-self-disproportionation-of-enantiomers-sde-a-menace-or-an-opportunity
#8
REVIEW
Jianlin Han, Osamu Kitagawa, Alicja Wzorek, Karel D Klika, Vadim A Soloshonok
Herein we report on the well-documented, yet not widely known, phenomenon of the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE): the spontaneous fractionation of scalemic material into enantioenriched and -depleted fractions when any physicochemical process is applied. The SDE has implications ranging from the origins of prebiotic homochirality to unconventional enantiopurification methods, though the risks of altering the enantiomeric excess (ee) unintentionally, regrettably, remain greatly unappreciated. While recrystallization is well known as an SDE process, occurrences of the SDE in other processes are much less recognized, e...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674129/polymyxin-b-etest%C3%A2-compared-to-gold-standard-broth-microdilution-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-exhibiting-a-wide-range-of-polymyxin-b-mics
#9
Brandon Kulengowski, Julie A Ribes, David S Burgess
OBJECTIVES: Polymyxins have been revitalized to combat carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). However, evaluating the activity of these agents by traditional broth dilution methods is not practical for busy clinical laboratories. We compared polymyxin B (PMB) activity utilizing two quantitative susceptibility testing methods, Etest® and broth microdilution (BMD), against CRE isolates from patients at an academic medical center. METHODS: PMB activity against 70 CRE clinical isolates was determined by EtestP® P according to manufacturer and by BMD according to CLSI guidelines...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673606/aging-barriers-influencing-mobile-health-usability-for-older-adults-a-literature-based-framework-mold-us
#10
REVIEW
G A Wildenbos, Linda Peute, Monique Jaspers
BACKGROUND: With the growing population of older adults as a potential user group of mHealth, the need increases for mHealth interventions to address specific aging characteristics of older adults. The existence of aging barriers to computer use is widely acknowledged. Yet, usability studies show that mHealth still fails to be appropriately designed for older adults and their expectations. To enhance designs of mHealth aimed at older adult populations, it is essential to gain insight into aging barriers that impact the usability of mHealth as experienced by these adults...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673582/in-silico-prediction-of-the-pathogenic-effect-of-a-novel-variant-of-bckdha-leading-to-classical-maple-syrup-urine-disease-identified-using-clinical-exome-sequencing
#11
Cynthia Fernández-Lainez, Carmen Aláez-Verson, Isabel Ibarra-González, Sergio Enríquez-Flores, Karol Carrillo-Sanchez, Leonardo Flores-Lagunes, Sara Guillén-López, Leticia Belmont-Martínez, Marcela Vela-Amieva
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in three of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) genes. Classical MSUD symptom can be observed immediately after birth and include ketoacidosis, irritability, lethargy, and coma, which can lead to death or irreversible neurodevelopmental delay in survivors. The molecular diagnosis of MSUD can be time-consuming and difficult to establish using conventional Sanger sequencing because it could be due to pathogenic variants of any of the BCKDC genes...
April 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673228/mechanical-characterization-of-polysilicon-mems-a-hybrid-tmcmc-pod-kriging-approach
#12
Ramin Mirzazadeh, Saeed Eftekhar Azam, Stefano Mariani
Microscale uncertainties related to the geometry and morphology of polycrystalline silicon films, constituting the movable structures of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), were investigated through a joint numerical/experimental approach. An on-chip testing device was designed and fabricated to deform a compliant polysilicon beam. In previous studies, we showed that the scattering in the input–output characteristics of the device can be properly described only if statistical features related to the morphology of the columnar polysilicon film and to the etching process adopted to release the movable structure are taken into account...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672555/robust-multivariate-nonparametric-tests-for-detection-of-two-sample-location-shift-in-clinical-trials
#13
Xuejun Jiang, Xu Guo, Ning Zhang, Bo Wang, Bo Zhang
This article presents and investigates performance of a series of robust multivariate nonparametric tests for detection of location shift between two multivariate samples in randomized controlled trials. The tests are built upon robust estimators of distribution locations (medians, Hodges-Lehmann estimators, and an extended U statistic) with both unscaled and scaled versions. The nonparametric tests are robust to outliers and do not assume that the two samples are drawn from multivariate normal distributions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672374/integrating-team-training-in-the-pediatric-life-support-program-an-effective-and-efficient-approach
#14
Mary J Fagan, Cynthia D Connelly, Brian S Williams, Erin Stucky Fisher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of integrating teamwork training into an established Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) program to assess the effect on teamwork and collaboration among interprofessionals. BACKGROUND: Lack of teamwork and ineffective communication are common contributors to hospital sentinel events. Interprofessional teamwork training to support a culture of patient safety is advocated; however, training methods and related expenses vary widely...
May 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672135/influences-of-mental-illness-current-psychological-state-and-concussion-history-on-baseline-concussion-assessment-performance
#15
Michelle L Weber, John-Henry L Dean, Nicole L Hoffman, Steven P Broglio, Michael McCrea, Thomas W McAllister, Julianne D Schmidt, April Reed Hoy, Joseph B Hazzard, Louise A Kelly, Justus D Ortega, Nicholas Port, Margot Putukian, T Dianne Langford, Ryan Tierney, Darren E Campbell, Gerald McGinty, Patrick O'Donnell, Steven J Svoboda, John P DiFiori, Christopher C Giza, Holly J Benjamin, Thomas Buckley, Thomas W Kaminski, James R Clugston, Luis A Feigenbaum, James T Eckner, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Jessica Dysart Miles, Scott Anderson, Christina L Master, Micky Collins, Anthony P Kontos, Jeffrey J Bazarian, Sara P D Chrisman, Allison Brooks, Stefan Duma, Christopher Todd Bullers, Christopher M Miles, Brian H Dykhuizen
BACKGROUND: A student-athlete's mental state, including history of trait anxiety and depression, or current psychological state may affect baseline concussion assessment performance. PURPOSE: (1) To determine if mental illness (anxiety, depression, anxiety with depression) influences baseline scores, (2) to determine if psychological state correlates with baseline performance, and (3) to determine if history of concussion affects Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) subscores of state anxiety, depression, and somatization...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672111/-the-impact-of-uncertain-threat-on-affective-bias-individual-differences-in-response-to-ambiguity-correction
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity" by Maital Neta, Julie Cantelon, Zachary Haga, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor and F. Caroline Davis ( Emotion , 2017[Dec], Vol 17[8], 1137-1143). In this article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license due to production-related error. The correct copyright should be "In the public domain." The online version of this article has been corrected...
April 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672110/-the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain-correction
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain" by C. Daryl Cameron, Victoria L. Spring and Andrew R. Todd ( Emotion , 2017[Apr], Vol 17[3], 395-411). In this article, there was an error in the calculation of some of the effect sizes. The w effect size was manually computed incorrectly. The incorrect number of total observations was used, which affected the final effect size estimates. This computing error does not change any of the results or interpretations about model fit based on the G² statistic, or about significant differences across conditions in process parameters...
April 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671696/emergency-department-visits-in-a-cohort-of-persons-with-substance-use-incorporating-the-role-of-social-networks
#18
Paul Sacamano, Noa Krawczyk, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Frequent emergency department (ED) visits often suggest inappropriate use for low acuity needs and multiple comorbidities, including substance use disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations of individuals and their social networks with high frequency ED use among persons reporting substance use. METHODS: Information was obtained from interview responses from the first 6-month follow-up visit of a longitudinal. Prevalence ratios for the outcome of high frequency ED visits (≥2 in 6 months) were determined with a generalized linear model, log link, Poisson distribution and robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671385/artificial-neural-network-modeling-for-organic-and-total-nitrogen-removal-of-aerobic-granulation-under-steady-state-condition
#19
H Gong, R Pishgar, J H Tay
Aerobic granulation is a recent technology with high level of complexity and sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANN), computational tools capable of describing complex nonlinear systems, are the best fit to simulate aerobic granular bioreactors. In this study, two feedforward backpropagation ANN models were developed to predict chemical oxygen demand (COD) (Model I) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies (Model II) of aerobic granulation technology under steady-state condition...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670261/body-weight-difference-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-attenuates-the-equivalence-of-body-composition-assessment
#20
Duong Duc Pham, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin, Nan Hee Kim, Chae Hun Leem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low agreement of body-composition analysis (BCA) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) has been reported. We examined whether this discrepancy is influenced by the precision of body weight (BW) measurement using DXA. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1353 participants aged 53-83 years. A whole-body DXA scan and an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter using four electronic frequencies of 5, 50, 250, and 500 kHz were employed for BCA...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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