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"Conflict of interest"

Deven A Karvelas, Sean D Rundell, Janna L Friedly, Alfred C Gellhorn, Laura S Gold, Bryan A Comstock, Patrick J Heagerty, Brian W Bresnahan, David R Nerenz, Jeffrey G Jarvik
BACKGROUND: The association between early physical therapy (PT) and subsequent healthcare utilization following a new visit for low back pain is not clear, particularly in the setting of acute low back pain. PURPOSE: To estimate the association between initiating early physical therapy following a new visit for an episode of low back pain and subsequent back-pain-specific health care utilization in older adults. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective cohort study...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Cathy Zimmerman, Lori Michau, Mazeda Hossain, Ligia Kiss, Rosilyne Borland, Charlotte Watts
There is growing demand for robust evidence to address complex social phenomena such as violence against women and girls (VAWG). Research partnerships between scientists and non-governmental or international organizations (NGO/IO) are increasingly popular, but can pose challenges, including concerns about potential conflicts of interest. Drawing on our experience collaborating on VAWG research, we describe challenges and contributions that NGO/IO and academic partners can make at different stages of the research process and the effects that collaborations can have on scientific inquiry...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Zhao Xinke, Li Yingdong, Feng Mingxia, Liu Kai, Chen Kaibing, Lu Yuqing, Sun Shaobo, Song Peng, Liu Bin
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. METHODS: We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015...
October 20, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Carl Elliott
In the spring of 2015, 11 years after a mentally ill young man named Dan Markingson stabbed himself to death in an industry-sponsored drug study, officials at the University of Minnesota suspended recruitment of subjects into drug trials in its Department of Psychiatry. University officials agreed to act only after a scathing investigation by Minnesota Office of the Legislative Auditor found damning evidence of coerced recruitment, inadequate clinical care, superficial research oversight, a web of serious, disturbing conflicts of interest, and a pattern of misleading public statements by university officials aimed at deflecting scrutiny...
October 18, 2016: Accountability in Research
Erica Lin, Isabel A Hujoel, Thomas G Mason
This manuscript describes an original case report with key words adult-onset Still's Disease and fever curve. It is not under consideration for submission or publication by any other journal. All authors contributed to the preparation of this manuscript. All authors approved the manuscript and this submission and can be reached through the email addresses, listed below. All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The authors report no proprietary or commercial interest in any product mentioned or concept discussed in this article...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Jessica Tajana Mattivi, Barbara Buchberger
OBJECTIVES: Rapid reviews can be conducted in a narrower time frame, as compared to systematic reviews, by featuring restrictions. To estimate the validity of the results, assessment of methodological quality is required. Our aim was to analyze the methodological restrictions of rapid reviews compared with systematic reviews using the AMSTAR checklist and assess its feasibility for rapid reviews. METHODS: A systematic search for literature on rapid reviews of surgical interventions was conducted in three databases: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
S Scott Graham, Daniel J Card, Seokhoon Ahn, Sang-Yeon Kim, Molly M Kessler, Michelle K Olson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
K N Anderson, J J Connor, A F Koerner, M A Rueter
STUDY QUESTION: Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons...
October 15, 2016: Human Reproduction
C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Anand K Deva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Outi Uimari, Juha Auvinen, Jari Jokelainen, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Terhi Piltonen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Krina Zondervan, Ilkka Järvelä, Markku Ryynänen, Hannu Martikainen
STUDY QUESTION: Are uterine fibroids associated with increased cardiovascular risk? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study reports an association between increased serum lipids and metabolic syndrome with an increased risk of uterine fibroids. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recent studies suggest similarities in biological disease mechanisms and risk factors for fibroids and atherosclerosis: obesity, hypertension and abnormal serum lipids. These findings are awaiting confirmation that a population-based follow-up study could offer with extensive health examination data collection linked with a national hospital discharge register...
October 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
F Lotti, G Corona, G Castellini, E Maseroli, M G Fino, M Cozzolino, M Maggi
STUDY QUESTION: Is sexual dysfunction associated with severity of semen quality impairment in men with couple infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: In males of infertile couples the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases as a function of semen quality impairment severity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile men are at a higher risk for sexual dysfunction, psychopathological and general health disorders. However, it has never been systematically investigated if these problems are associated with severity of semen quality impairment...
October 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
J Floehr, E Dietzel, C Schmitz, A Chappell, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated down-regulation of serum fetuin-B cause an infertility-like fetuin-B gene deficiency in female mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pharmacological fetuin-B down-regulation by ASO therapy results in reversible infertility in female mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female fetuin-B deficient (Fetub(-/-)) mice are infertile owing to premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening. Enzyme activity studies demonstrated that fetuin-B is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the zona proteinase ovastacin, which cleaves ZP protein 2 (ZP2) and thus mediates definitive ZP hardening...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Mukul Chandra Kapoor
Medical research has evolved, from individual expert described opinions and techniques, to scientifically designed methodology-based studies. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was established to re-evaluate medical facts and remove various myths in clinical practice. Research methodology is now protocol based with predefined steps. Studies were classified based on the method of collection and evaluation of data. Clinical study methodology now needs to comply to strict ethical, moral, truth, and transparency standards, ensuring that no conflict of interest is involved...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Yan J Bao, Wei Hou, Xiang Y Kong, Liping Yang, Jun Xia, Bao J Hua, Roger Knaggs
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is an important and distressing symptom that tends to increase in frequency and intensity as the cancer advances. For people with advanced cancer, the prevalence of pain can be as high as 90%. It has been estimated that 30% to 50% of people with cancer categorise their pain as moderate to severe, with between 75% and 90% of people with cancer experiencing pain that they describe as having a major impact on their daily life. Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 15% of people with cancer pain fail to experience acceptable pain relief with conventional management...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tim Hilgenfeld, Marcel Prager, Franz Sebastian Schwindling, Alexander Heil, Stefan Kuchenbecker, Peter Rammelsberg, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland
PURPOSE: MRI allows radiation-free imaging of the head and neck area. However, implant-supported prostheses may severely impair image quality due to artefacts. Therefore, identification of preferable material compositions for implants and supported prostheses with little impact on MR image quality is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, one zirconia and four titanium dental implants were provided with different single crown materials: porcelain-fused-to-metal precious alloy (GP-T), porcelain-fused-to-metal non-precious alloy (CCT-T), porcelain-fused-to-zirconia (ZC-T) and monolithic zirconia (Z-T, Z-Z)...
2016: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Simone Heuberer, Christian Ulm, Konstantin Zauza, Werner Zechner, Georg Watzek, Gabriella Dvorak
PURPOSE: The present prospective pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of Onplants (Onplant Orthodontic System) off label use in the highly atrophic edentulous maxillae of adult patients to avoid bone grafting and conventional dental or zygomatic implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two Onplants were placed subperiosteally in the anterior part of the hard palate in five adult patients presenting a highly atrophic edentulous maxilla, class V or VI, according to Cawood and Howell...
2016: European Journal of Oral Implantology
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