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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812713/female-plasticity-tends-to-reduce-sexual-conflict
#1
David V McLeod, Troy Day
Sexual conflict is the divergence of evolutionary interests between the sexes. A neglected aspect of sexual conflict theory is that the conflict often occurs within the female's body, which can lead to a power asymmetry between the sexes. In particular, the female may often be able to respond flexibly to the actions of the male, and so exhibits plasticity. Here, we consider the implications of female plasticity, and find that it tends to result in lower levels of sexual conflict. We then relate our results to a comparison of pre- versus post-copulatory sexual conflict, and we also show that this asymmetry between males and females reduces the likelihood of runaway selection, preventing co-evolutionary arms races...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812123/-promoting-a%C3%A2-balanced-diet-and-physical-activity-among-children-conditions-for-the-successful-implementation-and-maintenance-of-multi-level-interventions-and-policies-results-of-two-qualitative-case-studies
#2
Berit Steenbock, Saskia Muellmann, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis...
August 15, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#3
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810691/improvement-of-implantation-potential-in-mouse-blastocysts-derived-from-ivf-by-combined-treatment-with-prolactin-epidermal-growth-factor-and-4-hydroxyestradiol
#4
Miki Takeuchi, Misato Seki, Etsuko Furukawa, Akihito Takahashi, Kyosuke Saito, Mitsuru Kobayashi, Kenji Ezoe, Emiko Fukui, Midori Yoshizawa, Hiromichi Matsumoto
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of medium with prolactin (PRL), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2) prior to embryo transfer improve implantation potential in mouse blastocysts derived from IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined treatment with PRL, EGF and 4-OH-E2 improves mouse blastocyst implantation rates, while alone, each factor is ineffective. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Blastocyst dormancy during delayed implantation caused by ovariectomy is maintained by continued progesterone treatment in mice, and estrogen injection rapidly activates blastocysts to implantation-induced status in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803393/challenges-and-opportunities-for-occupational-epidemiology-in-the-twenty-first-century
#5
REVIEW
L T Stayner, J J Collins, Y L Guo, D Heederik, M Kogevinas, K Steenland, C Wesseling, P A Demers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are many opportunities and challenges for conducting occupational epidemiologic studies today. In this paper, we summarize the discussion of a symposium held at the Epidemiology in Occupational Health (EPICOH) conference, Chicago 2014, on challenges for occupational epidemiology in the twenty-first century. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing number of publications and attendance at our conferences suggests that worldwide interest in occupational epidemiology has been growing...
August 12, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803221/reflective-student-narratives-honing-professionalism-and-empathy
#6
Upreet Dhaliwal, Satendra Singh, Navjeevan Singh
The affective domain is not explicitly targeted during medical studies and poor skills in this domain may lead to conflict when dealing with patients. Reflective narratives are said to promote humanitarianism and professional development. We aimed to examine reflective narratives written by medical students in our institution for content relating to ethical and professional Attitude and Behaviour, Communication, respect for Diversity and Disability, and Empathy (the ABCDE paradigm). We were also interested in understanding how far the students enjoyed learning through the writing of narratives and in determining their perceived learning from the exercise...
July 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797266/does-growing-up-with-a-physician-influence-the-ethics-of-medical-students-relationships-with-the-pharmaceutical-industry-the-cases-of-the-us-and-poland
#7
Marta Makowska
BACKGROUND: Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?' METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013...
August 10, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795976/becoming-a-physician-scientist-a-view-looking-up-from-base-camp
#8
Rebecca D Ganetzky
The process of becoming a physician-scientist is a long and often harrowing one. The author reflects on her own experience deciding to commit to a career as a physician-scientist and setting out on that career path. She identifies the largest challenges as the lack of clear direction to becoming a physician-scientist; the long lag time between the end of graduate medical education and becoming faculty, resulting in lower wages, less job security, and conflicts with personal goals; and a tension between traditional definitions of success and her own areas of interest...
August 8, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780525/medical-students-perceptions-of-professional-misconduct-relationship-with-typology-and-year-of-programme
#9
Juliana Zulkifli, Brad Noel, Deirdre Bennett, Siun O'Flynn, Colm O'Tuathaigh
AIM: To examine the contribution of programme year and demographic factors to medical students' perceptions of evidence-based classification categories of professional misconduct. METHODS: Students at an Irish medical school were administered a cross-sectional survey comprising 31 vignettes of professional misconduct, which mapped onto a 12-category classification system. Students scored each item using a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 represents the least severe form of misconduct and 5 the most severe...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771633/methodological-quality-of-systematic-reviews-referenced-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder
#11
Andrew Ross, Justin Rankin, Jason Beaman, Kelly Murray, Philip Sinnett, Ross Riddle, Jordan Haskins, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: With efforts to combat opioid use disorder, there is an increased interest in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for opioid use disorder treatments. No literature exists examining the quality of systematic reviews used in opioid use disorder CPGs. This study aims to describe the methodological quality and reporting clarity of systematic reviews (SRs) used to create CPGs for opioid use disorder. METHODS: From June to July 2016 guideline clearinghouses and medical literature databases were searched for relevant CPGs used in the treatment of opioid use disorder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770268/anchoring-driven-spontaneous-rotations-in-active-gel-droplets
#12
A R Fialho, M L Blow, D Marenduzzo
We study the dynamics of an active gel droplet with imposed orientational anchoring (normal or planar) at its surface. We find that if the activity is large enough droplets subject to strong anchoring spontaneously start to rotate, with the sense of rotation randomly selected by fluctuations. Contractile droplets rotate only for planar anchoring and extensile ones only for normal anchoring. This is because such a combination leads to a pair of stable elastic deformations which creates an active torque to power the rotation...
August 3, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762295/a-constant-conversation-tuning-into-and-harmonizing-the-needs-and-priorities-of-the-body-and-mind
#13
Annie T Chen, Samantha J Kaplan, Rachel Carriere
PURPOSE: Individuals rely upon many types of information to manage an illness, including information provided by their own bodies. This study investigated how people tune into and manage the flow of information from their bodies to manage their health. METHOD: We developed a platform for participants to share and collaboratively reflect on how they engaged in this dialogic process, in which participants contributed to a discussion on topics relating to body listening and body awareness...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759775/forensic-mental-health-evaluations-of-military-personnel-with-traumatic-life-event-in-a-university-hospital-in-ankara-turkey
#14
Huseyin Balandiz, Abdullah Bolu
INTRODUCTION: The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758242/should-disclosure-of-conflicts-of-interest-in-medicine-be-made-public-medical-students-views
#15
Jane Williams, Wendy Lipworth, Christopher Mayes, Ian Olver, Ian Kerridge
CONTEXT: Conflicts of interest (CoIs) are considered to be ubiquitous in health care and biomedicine. The disclosure of relevant interests is a first step in managing conflicts, although its usefulness is contested. Although several countries have mandated the public disclosure of doctors' financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry, little is known about medical students' understanding of mandatory public disclosure. METHODS: Six 90-minute focus groups were conducted with medical students in New South Wales, Australia...
July 31, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756302/both-positive-and-negative-beliefs-are-important-in-patients-with-spine-pain-findings-from-the-oioc-registry
#16
Maria M Wertli, Ulrike Held, Angela Lis, Marco Campello, Sherri Weiser
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Negative beliefs are known to influence treatment outcome in patients with spine pain (SP). The impact of positive beliefs is less clear. PURPOSE: Assess the influence of positive and negative beliefs on baseline and treatment responses in patients with SP. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of prospectively collected data of outpatient physical therapy patients with SP. Questionnaires administered before and during treatment included the STarT Back distress scale (negative beliefs), and expectation and self-efficacy questions (positive beliefs)...
July 26, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755626/the-use-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-development-of-a-set-of-international-standards
#17
William H Goodwin
DNA analysis was first applied to the identification of victims of armed conflicts and other situations of violence (ACOSV) in the mid-1990s, starting in South America and the Balkans. Argentina was the first country to establish a genetic database specifically developed to identify disappeared children. Following on from these programs the early 2000s marked major programs, using a largely DNA-led approach, identifying missing persons in the Balkans and following the attack on the World Trade Center in New York...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752507/intravenous-alteplase-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-taiwan-can-we-expand-the-national-health-insurance-s-reimbursement-criteria
#18
Cheng-Yang Hsieh
lization of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase was very low in Taiwanese patients with acute ischemic stroke(1). One of the reasons is the strict reimbursement guideline made by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 2004(2). In this issue of the Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, Yu-Hsiang Su and co-authors(3) retrospectively evaluated outcomes of their thrombolysed stroke patients who were "mismatched" between updated clinical practice guideline and NHI reimbursement criteria. They concluded that the outcomes of patients treated according to guidelines were comparable between the reimbursement and non-reimbursement groups...
March 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752416/the-particularity-of-dignity-relational-engagement-in-care-at-the-end-of-life
#19
Jeannette Pols, Bernike Pasveer, Dick Willems
This paper articulates dignity as relational engagement in concrete care situations. Dignity is often understood as an abstract principle that represents inherent worth of all human beings. In actual care practices, this principle has to be substantiated in order to gain meaning and inform care activities. We describe three exemplary substantiations of the principle of dignity in care: as a state or characteristic of a situation; as a way to differentiate between socio-cultural positions; or as personal meaning...
July 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751241/flexibility-assessment-of-the-unfused-thoracic-segments-above-the-potential-upper-instrumented-vertebra-using-the-supine-side-bending-radiographs-in-lenke-5-and-6-curves-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-patients
#20
Mun Keong Kwan, Chee Kidd Chiu, Teik Seng Chan, Siti Mariam Abd Gani, Tan Shurn Heng, Chris Yin Wei Chan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Selection of UIV for Lenke 5 and 6 curves remains debatable, and several authors had described different selection strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the flexibility of the unfused thoracic segments above the 'potential upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV)' (T1 to T12) and its compensatory ability in Lenke 5 and 6 curves using supine side bending (SSB) radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study PATIENT SAMPLE: 100 patients OUTCOME MEASURES: The ability of the unfused thoracic segments above the 'potential upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV)' i...
July 24, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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