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Marco Spangaro, Elena Mazza, Sara Poletti, Roberto Cavallaro, Francesco Benedetti
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) alterations have been consistently described in patients with schizophrenia and correlated with the severity of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Obesity has been reported in over 40% of patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive deficits, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic alterations, and overall mortality. Moreover, studies among healthy subjects and subjects at risk for psychosis reported an influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) on structural connectivity...
July 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Aishwarya Vijay, Jessica E Becker, Joseph S Ross
Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed...
2018: PloS One
Adit Friedberg, Ilana Erikh, Maria Nassar, Elliot Sprecher, Ilana Schlesinger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess clinical response to a high-dose intravenous (IV) amantadine given for 5 consecutive days in patients with multiple system atrophy parkinsonism (MSA-P). METHODS: Subjects with a diagnosis of MSA-P treated with IV amantadine were included. Patients' disease severity before and after therapy was evaluated using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). RESULTS: Fourteen subjects (8 females) were included...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Brian O'Donoghue, Shona M Francey, Barnaby Nelson, Aswin Ratheesh, Kelly Allott, Jessica Graham, Lara Baldwin, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Andrew Thompson, Alex Fornito, Andrea Polari, Michael Berk, Craig Macneil, Kingsley Crisp, Christos Pantelis, Hok P Yuen, Susy Harrigan, Patrick McGorry
AIM: It is now necessary to investigate whether recovery in psychosis is possible without the use of antipsychotic medication. This study will determine (1) whether a first-episode psychosis (FEP) group receiving intensive psychosocial interventions alone can achieve symptomatic remission and functional recovery; (2) whether prolonging the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in a sub-group according to randomisation will be associated with a poorer outcome and thereby establish whether the relationship between DUP and outcome is causative; and (3) whether neurobiological changes observed in FEP are associated with the psychotic disorder or antipsychotic medication...
July 19, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Valerie Moulin, Philipp Baumann, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Luis Alameda, Julie Palix, Jacques Gasser, Philippe Conus
Background: Previous literature suggests that prevalence of cannabis use in the early phase of psychosis is high, and that early psychosis patients are at high-risk for violent behavior. However, the link between cannabis use and violent behavior in early psychosis patients is unclear. We carried out a study on a sample of early psychosis patients, in order to explore the impact of cannabis use on the risk of violent behavior (VB), while taking into account (1) potential confounding factors and, (2) interactions with other dynamic risk factors of VB...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Josh M Krivinko, Susan L Erickson, Ying Ding, Zhe Sun, Peter Penzes, Matthew L MacDonald, Nathan A Yates, Milos D Ikonomovic, Oscar L Lopez, Robert A Sweet, Julia Kofler
OBJECTIVE: The presence of psychosis in Alzheimer's disease denotes a phenotype with more rapid cognitive deterioration than in Alzheimer's disease without psychosis. Discovery of novel pharmacotherapies that engage therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease with psychosis would benefit from identifying the neurobiology of resilience to psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether alterations in the synaptic proteome were associated with resilience to psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and, if present, were independent of neuropathologic burden...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Tineke Grent-'t-Jong, Davide Rivolta, Joachim Gross, Ruchika Gajwani, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Tonio Heidegger, Michael Wibral, Wolf Singer, Andreas Sauer, Bertram Scheller, Peter J Uhlhaas
Hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated as a possible mechanism underlying cognitive deficits and aberrant neuronal dynamics in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we first administered a sub-anaesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006 mg/kg/min) or saline in a single-blind crossover design in 14 participants while magnetoencephalographic data were recorded during a visual task. In addition, magnetoencephalographic data were obtained in a sample of unmedicated first-episode psychosis patients (n = 10) and in patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 16) to allow for comparisons of neuronal dynamics in clinical populations versus NMDAR hypofunctioning...
July 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
April Hargreaves, Niamh Daly-Ryan, Rachael Dillon, Gary Donohoe
Cognitive remediation (CR) training improves cognition and functioning in patients with psychosis. To date, however, few studies have investigated CR from a subjective patient perspective. We recently conducted a randomized control trial demonstrating the effectiveness of a new, low therapist support, computer-based training program. This study aims to assess the service user experience of this program. Twenty CR completers with psychosis were interviewed using both rated and open-ended questions. Thematic analysis identified three broad themes: a) benefits of doing CR, b) costs of doing CR, and c) experience of doing CR...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Emma Caruana, Kelly Allott, John Farhall, Emma M Parrish, Christopher G Davey, Andrew M Chanen, Eoin Killackey, Susan M Cotton
AIM: Most mental disorders have their onset by age 25, disrupting normative vocational engagement. Factors associated with vocational disengagement at first contact with specialist treatment are important for service planning. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between theoretically important factors and vocational disengagement for youth entering mental health treatment. METHODS: A file audit was used to extract vocational data of 145 young people aged 15 to 25 years entering treatment in 2011 at a public youth mental health service in Melbourne, Australia...
July 18, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
David Peralta, Erich Studerus, Christina Andreou, Katharina Beck, Sarah Ittig, Letizia Leanza, Laura Egloff, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Ultrahigh risk (UHR) criteria, consisting of brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS), attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and genetic risk and deterioration (GRD) syndrome are the most widely used criteria for assessing the clinical high-risk state for psychosis (CHR-P). The Basel Screening Instrument for Psychosis (BSIP) includes a further risk category, the unspecific risk category (URC). However, little is known about the predictive power of this risk category compared to other risk categories...
July 18, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sally Spencer, Paula Johnson, Ian C Smith
BACKGROUND: Aggression occurs frequently within health and social care settings. It can result in injury to patients and staff and can adversely affect staff performance and well-being. De-escalation is a widely used and recommended intervention for managing aggression, but the efficacy of the intervention as a whole and the specific techniques that comprise it are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of de-escalation techniques for managing non-psychosis-induced aggression in adults in care settings, in both staff and service users...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Taweesak Wannachalee, Adina F Turcu, Richard J Auchus
OBJECTIVES: Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, can be used to manage hypercortisolism in patients with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (EAS) when surgical cure is not feasible. Outcomes of EAS patients treated with mifepristone have been limited to reports of isolated cases. We aimed to determine the efficacy and limitations of mifepristone in the treatment of EAS and to compared outcomes with those of patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study of EAS patients from University of Michigan between 1997 and 2017 was conducted...
July 17, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Taekwan Kim, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Hyerim Oh, Tae Young Lee, Kang Ik K Cho, Junhee Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Introduction: The fundamental role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive processing has recently been highlighted. However, inconsistent findings exist in schizophrenia with respect to the exact nature of cerebellar structural abnormalities and their associations with cognitive and clinical features. Materials and Methods: We undertook a detailed investigation of cerebellar lobular volumes in 40 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 40 healthy controls (HCs) using the spatially unbiased atlas template of the cerebellum (SUIT)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lena Palaniyappan, Natália Bezerra Mota, Shamuz Oowise, Vijender Balain, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro, Peter F Liddle
BACKGROUND: A longstanding notion in the concept of psychosis is the prominence of loosened associative links in thought processes. Assessment of such subtle aspects of thought disorders has proved to be a challenging task in clinical practice and to date no surrogate markers exist that can reliably track the physiological effects of treatments that could reduce thought disorders. Recently, automated speech graph analysis has emerged as a promising means to reliably quantify structural speech disorganization...
July 11, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Claire L McGrory, Karen M Ryan, Erik Kolshus, Martha Finnegan, Declan M McLoughlin
Sirtuins are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent enzymes that regulate cellular functions through deacetylation of protein targets. They have roles in both the periphery and central nervous system and have been implicated in depression biology. A recent genome-wide association study has identified a locus for major depression in the Sirtuin1 gene (SIRT1) and lower blood levels of SIRT1 mRNA in patients with depression have also been observed in two studies. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the effect of treatment on SIRT1 levels in patients with depression...
July 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Keith R Laws, Nicole Darlington, Tejinder K Kondel, Peter J McKenna, Sameer Jauhar
BACKGROUND: The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. However, it has been suggested that the effects of CBTp in areas other than psychotic symptoms are at least as important and potentially benefit from the intervention. METHOD: We meta-analysed RCTs investigating the effectiveness of CBTp for functioning, distress and quality of life in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disorders...
July 17, 2018: BMC Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Boychuk, C., Lysaght, R., Stuart, H., Career Decision-Making Processes of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis. Qualitative Health Research, 28, 1016-1031. doi: The (Smith & Milson 2011) reference has inadvertently been removed from the following sentence: "Career development theories provide foundations that conceptualize career development processes and contextual influences that affect career progress." The correct citation of the reference is as follows: "Career development theories provide foundations that conceptualize career development processes and contextual influences that affect career progress (Smith & Milson 2011)...
August 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Lubomíra Hozáková, Jana Slonková, Šárka Blahutová
We present a case of a 17-year-old female with anti-NMDAR encephalitis probably associated with vaccination against yellow fever. Her symptoms occurred 27 days after vaccination against yellow fever. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis manifested as acute psychosis, memory loss and catatonia following fever with complex partial epileptic seizures. Interictal electroencephalogram showed slow-wave delta background activity with "delta brushes". The diagnosis was confirmed by NMDAR antibody positivity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
March 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Michael B Centorino, Glenn Catalano, Laura C Grimsich, Roula M Antoun
Strokes have been shown to result in psychiatric phenomena that can range from mood disorders to psychosis. Ablative neurosurgeries have been performed with the goal of reducing the burden of psychiatric symptoms following such cerebrovascular accidents. In this report, we review poststroke psychiatric manifestations, and then present the case of a woman with schizophrenia whose thought disorder improved following a hemorrhagic stroke. Not only did she require less medication, but her remaining symptoms were significantly less impairing than they had previously been...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Zachary D Zuschlag, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark Hamner
BACKGROUND: A strong association has been shown to exist between schizophrenia and suicide; however, research examining suicidality in the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders is limited. This study aimed to meet this need by examining potential risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in a population of individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), as defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders as a condition for further study...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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