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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#1
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151088/cotard-syndrome
#2
Sebastian Dieguez
Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151087/ganser-syndrome
#3
Sebastian Dieguez
Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is also frequently used...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150898/a-model-to-characterize-psychopathological-features-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#4
Denise Thuilleaux, Virginie Laurier, Pierre Copet, Julie Tricot, Geneviève Demeer, Fabien Mourre, Maithé Tauber, Joseba Jauregi
High prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) has been reported in last few years. However, data are confusing and often contradictory. In this article, we propose a model to achieve a better understanding of the psychopathological features in adults with PWS. The study is based on clinical observations of 150 adult inpatients, males and females. Non-parametric statistics were performed to analyse the association of psychopathological profiles with genotype, gender and age...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148264/negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-clinical-correlates-and-1-year-follow-up-outcomes-in-london-early-intervention-services
#5
Aikaterini Rammou, Helen L Fisher, Sonia Johnson, Barnaby Major, Nikola Rahaman, Nick Chamberlain-Kent, James M Stone
AIM: Negative symptoms (NS) have been associated with poor outcome and remain difficult to treat in patients with psychosis. This study examined the association of NS with clinical features at first presentation to mental health services for psychosis and with outcomes at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: Clinical data were utilized from five London Early Intervention Services (EIS) included in the MiData audit database. The sample comprised 484 first-episode psychosis patients with complete Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale data at baseline and 1-year follow-up...
November 16, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147729/regulation-of-human-research-with-lsd-in-the-united-states-1949-1987
#6
REVIEW
Katherine R Bonson
Human research with hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been ongoing in the USA since 1949. During the 1960s, LSD was investigated for a variety of psychiatric indications, including the following: as an aid in treatment of schizophrenia; as a means of creating a "model psychosis"; as a direct antidepressant; and as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Studies with all drugs, including LSD, have always been conducted under federal regulatory controls, including the 1938 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA; which ensured the safety of drugs) and the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments to the FDCA (which described appropriate scientific methodology and ensured drug efficacy)...
November 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146020/clinical-and-demographic-predictors-of-continuing-remission-or-relapse-following-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-medication-after-a-first-episode-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: This study reviews the literature with the aim of identifying demographic and clinical predictors of either relapse or continued remission in those with a first episode of psychosis following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145187/diogenes-syndrome
#8
Frédéric Assal
Diogenes syndrome (DS) is not a specific disease but a real neurobehavioral syndrome, characterized by severe domestic squalor, pathological hoarding, lack of insight into the condition, and no need for help. DS can be secondary when associated to psychosis or bipolar disorder, or primary when it occurs as a single entity, usually in the elderly. DS is a clinically complex transnosographic syndrome for which multidimensional approaches need to be considered: medical, psychiatric, neurological, social, scientific, and ethical...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#9
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143980/white-matter-maturation-during-12-months-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#10
K Krakauer, M Nordentoft, B Y Glenthøj, J M Raghava, D Nordholm, L Randers, L B Glenthøj, B H Ebdrup, E Rostrup
OBJECTIVE: The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of psychosis suggests that disrupted white matter (WM) maturation underlies disease onset. In this longitudinal study, we investigated WM connectivity and compared WM changes between individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: Thirty UHR individuals and 23 HCs underwent MR diffusion tensor imaging before and after 12 months of non-manualized standard care. Positive and negative symptoms and level of functioning were assessed...
November 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143859/socioeconomic-risk-factors-for-hospital-admittance-due-to-a-suicide-attempt-in-belgium-a-population-based-study-using-administrative-data
#11
Marc Roelands, Johan Vanoverloop, Leila Maron, Johan Bilsen
PURPOSE: This population-based study aims to investigate socio-economic factors, depression and psychosis as independent risk factors for a suicide attempt that requires hospitalization, and estimate the incidence of suicide attempts. METHODS: Individual-level administrative data were analysed that were collected for all members of the Socialist Health Insurance Schemes in Belgium during the period 2011-2013 (N = 3,156,030) in the context of the financing of the health care services provided...
November 16, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143717/white-matter-abnormalities-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-patients-showing-cognitive-decline
#12
Jasper Olivier Nuninga, Marc Marijn Bohlken, Sanne Koops, Ania M Fiksinski, René C W Mandl, Elemi J Breetvelt, Sasja N Duijff, René S Kahn, Iris E C Sommer, Jacob A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive functioning precedes the first psychotic episode in the course of schizophrenia and is considered a hallmark symptom of the disorder. Given the low incidence of schizophrenia, it remains a challenge to investigate whether cognitive decline coincides with disease-related changes in brain structure, such as white matter abnormalities. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an appealing model in this context, as 25% of patients develop psychosis. Furthermore, we recently showed that cognitive decline also precedes the onset of psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143532/the-clue-in-the-face-an-unusual-first-episode-psychosis-presentation
#13
Adam Boulton, Andrew Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143486/violent-behaviour-in-early-psychosis-patients-can-we-identify-clinical-risk-profiles
#14
Valerie Moulin, Julie Palix, Philippe Golay, Alexandre Dumais, Mohammad Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Agathe Azzola, Philipp S Baumann, Luis Alameda, Philippe Conus
AIMS: The objective of this study is to explore, within a sample of early psychosis patients (EPP), if subgroups regarding rate of violent behaviour (VB) against others can be identified on the basis of dynamic risk factors (treatment modifiable characteristics). METHODS: In a sample of 265 EPP, treated at the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program in Lausanne, we conducted a latent-class analysis on the basis of the main dynamic VB risk factors (substance use disorder [SUD], positive symptoms, insight, and impulsivity)...
November 15, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143483/the-impact-of-mental-health-comorbidities-on-adherence-to-buprenorphine-a-claims-based-analysis
#15
Megan Litz, Douglas Leslie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research has been inconclusive about whether opioid-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities have shorter treatment retention and higher relapse rates. This study aims to evaluate the impact of mental health comorbidities on adherence to buprenorphine using a large, national health insurance claims data base. METHODS: We used MarketScan® data from 2012 to 2014 to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria included all patients with an opioid use disorder-related ICD-9 code who had been prescribed buprenorphine (n = 2947)...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143456/early-intervention-in-psychosis-from-clinical-intervention-to-health-system-implementation
#16
Claudio Csillag, Merete Nordentoft, Masafumi Mizuno, David McDaid, Celso Arango, Jo Smith, Antonio Lora, Swapna Verma, Teresa Di Fiandra, Peter B Jones
AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementation and presents ideas and strategies to overcome some of these obstacles. METHODS: This paper is a narrative review about the evidence supporting EIP, with examples of successful implementation of EIP and of cases where major obstacles still need to be overcome...
November 16, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143156/social-distance-and-community-attitudes-towards-people-with-psycho-social-disabilities-in-uttarakhand-india
#17
K Mathias, M Kermode, I Goicolea, L Seefeldt, R Shidhaye, M San Sebastian
Stigma is an important contributor to the large treatment gap for people with mental and psycho-social disabilities (PPSD) in India. Social distance as assessed by willingness to engage in relationships with PPSD is a proxy measure of stigma and potential discrimination. In North India, investigations of community attitudes towards PPSD have been limited. To describe attitudes towards people with depression and psychosis, a community sample of 960 adults in Dehradun district, India from 30 randomised clusters, was surveyed using a validated tool to assess social distance, beliefs and attitudes related to mental illness...
November 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141785/environmental-adversities-and-psychotic-symptoms-the-impact-of-timing-of-trauma-abuse-and-neglect
#18
Inga Schalinski, Susanne Breinlinger, Vanessa Hirt, Martin H Teicher, Michael Odenwald, Brigitte Rockstroh
BACKGROUND: Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141491/association-of-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-diseases-affecting-the-immune-system
#19
Jeanette Brun Larsen, Valentina Cabral Iversen, Solveig Klæbo Reitan
Purpose of the article: There are indications of altered immune activity in depressed and psychotic patients compared to healthy controls in several studies. To explore the clinical importance of this phenomenon we examined the relation between different disorders affecting the immune system and psychoses and depression, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 276 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric acute ward were included in the study. Of these 41 patients fulfilled the criteria for ICD-10 F20-29 (psychotic) diagnosis and 157 patients a F30-39 (affective) diagnosis...
November 16, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141125/elevated-proinflammatory-markers-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-are-associated-with-psychosis-and-cognitive-deficits
#20
Ehud Mekori-Domachevsky, Michal Taler, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Michael Gurevich, Polina Sonis, Omri Weisman, Abraham Weizman, Doron Gothelf
OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder whose phenotype includes high rates of a schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder and immune system abnormalities. Thus, 22q11.2DS is an ideal model for studying the relationship between psychosis and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to identify inflammatory markers that may play a role in the pathophysiologic pathways associated with psychosis and cognitive deficits in 22q11.2DS. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals with 22q11...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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