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Michael D Masucci, Amanda Lister, Cheryl M Corcoran, Gary Brucato, Ragy R Girgis
The Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) contains criteria for the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS), a period of subthreshold positive symptoms that predates full-blown psychosis. Motor abnormalities are often associated with these symptoms but have not been adequately studied. We assessed a diverse sample of 192 APSS participants (27.1% female; 47.9% white; mean age = 20.03 years) for motor dysfunction (SIPS G.3. score) at baseline and conversion to psychosis every 3 months for up to 2 years...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Elizabeth J Levey, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, Jiong Li, Michelle A Williams, Bizu Gelaye
Psychiatric illness can pose serious risks to pregnant and postpartum women and their infants. There is a need for screening tools that can identify women at risk for postpartum psychosis, the most dangerous perinatal psychiatric illness. This study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch item response theory (IRT) models to evaluate the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Spanish language version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) as a screening tool for psychosis in a population of pregnant Peruvian women...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, André Schmidt, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
LSD is an ambiguous substance, said to mimic psychosis and to improve mental health in people suffering from anxiety and depression. Little is known about the neuronal correlates of altered states of consciousness induced by this substance. Limited previous studies indicated profound changes in functional connectivity of resting state networks after the administration of LSD. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend those findings in an independent sample. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 100 μg LSD and placebo were orally administered to 20 healthy participants...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Martin Klietz, Amelie Tulke, Lars H Müschen, Lejla Paracka, Christoph Schrader, Dirk W Dressler, Florian Wegner
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. Patients suffer from various motor and non-motor symptoms leading to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and an increased mortality. Their loss of autonomy due to dementia, psychosis, depression, motor impairments, falls, and swallowing deficits defines a phase when palliative care interventions might help to sustain or even improve quality of life. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of palliative care implementation and quality of life in a local cohort of advanced PD patients in order to frame and improve future care...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jenna M Reinen, Oliver Y Chén, R Matthew Hutchison, B T Thomas Yeo, Kevin M Anderson, Mert R Sabuncu, Dost Öngür, Joshua L Roffman, Jordan W Smoller, Justin T Baker, Avram J Holmes
Higher-order cognition emerges through the flexible interactions of large-scale brain networks, an aspect of temporal coordination that may be impaired in psychosis. Here, we map the dynamic functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in healthy young adults, leveraging this atlas of transient network configurations (states), to identify state- and network-specific disruptions in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. We demonstrate that dynamic connectivity profiles are reliable within participants, and can act as a fingerprint, identifying specific individuals within a larger group...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Marco Colizzi, Robin Murray
It is now incontrovertible that heavy use of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. There is a dose-response relationship and high potency preparations and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. It would be wise to await the outcome of the different models of legalisation that are being introduced in North America, before deciding whether or not to follow suit. Declaration of interest None.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Antti Mustonen, Solja Niemelä, Tanja Nordström, Graham K Murray, Pirjo Mäki, Erika Jääskeläinen, Jouko Miettunen
BACKGROUND: The association between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis has been studied extensively but the temporal order still remains controversial. Aims To examine the association between cannabis use in adolescence and the risk of psychosis after adjustment for prodromal symptoms and other potential confounders. METHOD: The sample (n = 6534) was composed of the prospective general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986. Information on prodromal symptoms of psychosis and cannabis use was collected using questionnaires at age 15-16 years...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Christa Boychuk, Rosemary Lysaght, Heather Stuart
The first episode of psychosis often emerges during young adulthood, when individuals are pursuing important educational and career goals that can become derailed because of the development of major impairments. Past research has neglected the developmental nature of employment and education decisions that young adults with first-episode psychosis make within the context of their lives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to advance a model of the career decision-making processes of young adults with first-episode psychosis, and the influences that affect their career decision-making...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Stephanie Salcedo, Sabeen H Rizvi, Lindsey K Freeman, Jennifer K Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Eric A Youngstrom
We compared the diagnostic efficiency of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Thought Problems subscale and the rationally derived DSM-oriented psychotic symptoms scale (DOPSS) to identify clinically concerning psychosis in a multi-site sample of youths seeking outpatient mental health services (N = 694). We operationally defined clinically concerning psychosis as the presence of clinically significant hallucinations or delusions, assessed by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia psychosis items...
March 20, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jonathan Davies, Sarah Sullivan, Stanley Zammit
PURPOSE: To investigate whether psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms at ages 12 and 18 years are associated with adverse life outcomes across a range of functional domains between 16 and 20 years of age. METHODS: Data were gathered from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort. Individuals were assessed with the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview and the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at ages 12 and 18 years. Logistic regression was used to explore associations with outcomes in education, occupation, social functioning, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and other drugs), and illegal behaviour between the ages of 16 and 20 years...
March 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Ana Carolina Issy, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, João Francisco Cordeiro Pedrazzi, Regina Celia Cussa Kubrusly, Elaine Del-Bel
Pharmacological manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested as a promising treatment for schizophrenia symptoms. A single infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor with short half-life, was found to improve schizophrenia symptoms. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of both NO donors and inhibitors. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of sub-effective doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the NO inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole (7NI) combined with clozapine, a standard atypical antipsychotic, on counteracting amphetamine or MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviors...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Susanne F Meisel, Philippa A Garety, Daniel Stahl, Lucia R Valmaggia
Paranoid ideation is a core feature of psychosis, and models of paranoia have long proposed that it arises in the context of disturbances in the perception of the self. However, to develop targeted interventions, there is a benefit in clarifying further, which aspects of self-perception are implicated. Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait which has been associated with the risk of paranoid thinking in the general population. However, not all studies have found this link. We aimed to review the empirical literature assessing the association between interpersonal sensitivity and paranoia in both general population and clinical samples; and to explore if associations found differed depending on whether state or trait paranoia was assessed...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Maria Steffens, Inga Meyhöfer, Kaja Fassbender, Ulrich Ettinger, Joseph Kambeitz
Schizotypy is defined as a time-stable multidimensional personality trait consisting of positive, negative, and disorganized facets. Schizotypy is considered as a model system of psychosis, as there is considerable overlap between the 2 constructs. High schizotypy is associated with subtle but fairly widespread cognitive alterations, which include poorer performance in tasks measuring cognitive control. Similar but more pronounced impairments in cognitive control have been described extensively in psychosis...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Julia Kim, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
INTRODUCTION: Despite having severe Alzheimer disease pathology, some individuals remain cognitively asymptomatic (cASYM). To explore noncognitive manifestations in these cASYM individuals, we aim to investigate the prevalence and pathologic substrates of psychosis. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, quick version was used to evaluate presence of psychosis. Subjects with Mini-Mental Status Examination score of ≥24 with frequent neuritic plaques (NPs) were defined as NPcASYM, and those with Braak and Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles of V/VI were defined as NTcASYM (both groups collectively designated cASYM)...
March 16, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Yonatan Edel, Rivka Mamet
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders, inherited or acquired, along the heme biosynthetic pathway, which could manifest with neurovisceral and/or cutaneous symptoms, depending on the defective enzyme. Neurovisceral porphyrias are characterized by acute attacks, in which excessive heme production is induced following exposure to a trigger. An acute attack usually presents with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and tachycardia. Other symptoms which could appear include hypertension, hyponatremia, peripheral neuropathy, and mild mental symptoms...
March 15, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Roboam R Aguirre, Mixel Z Mustafa, Alessandra Dumenigo, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Bishoy Goubran, Rhaisa Dumenigo, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
A major contributing factor associated with increased cardiac mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) seems to be a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The link between ANS dysfunction and SCZ is multifactorial, but some reports suggest that the use of antipsychotics could be implicated. This case illustrates the time course of autonomic improvement in response to antipsychotic treatment in an inpatient with SCZ in acute psychosis. To this end, we documented markers of autonomic function during hospitalization...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
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