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Graves ophthalmopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912808/association-of-polymorphisms-in-toll-like-receptors-4-and-9-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-in-korean-pediatric-patients
#1
Won Kyoung Cho, Jung-Pil Jang, Eun-Jeong Choi, Moonbae Ahn, Shin Hee Kim, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, In Cheol Baek, Min Ho Jung, Tai-Gyu Kim, Byung-Kyu Suh
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD. METHODS: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 TLR genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls = 86, boys = 18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, and non-TAO = 31) with 183 controls. RESULTS: GD showed higher frequencies of the TLR4 rs1927911 C allele than control...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878841/thyroid-association-ophthalmopathy-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-a-case-report
#2
Deepak Jain, Sudhir Mor, Hari Krishan Aggarwal, Pulkit Chhabra, Promil Jain
Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a constellation of symptoms caused by an autoimmune process involving the orbital tissue. It is common in hyperthyroid patients due to Graves' disease and also reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid Graves' patients with positive thyroid receptor antibodies. But in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a rarely reported and poorly understood entity. Here we report thyroid associated ophthalmopathy in a patient with hypothyroidism and negative thyroid receptor antibodies who showed heterogeneously hypoechoic thyroid gland on ultrasonography, diffuse lymphocytic infiltrate on fine needle aspiration citology and reduced 99m Tc radioisotope uptake, supporting the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
January 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860913/fat-removal-orbital-decompression-for-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy-the-right-procedure-for-the-right-patient
#3
REVIEW
Eman Al-Sharif, Adel H Alsuhaibani
Orbital decompression is an effective and invaluable procedure for addressing some of the chronic manifestations of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) such as exophthalmos and orbital congestion. Fat-removal orbital decompression (FROD) started to gain popularity after its introduction in the late 20th century. Among the therapeutic armamentarium of techniques and approaches available for orbital decompression, FROD has proven its efficacy and safety in addition to its ability to reduce proptosis in a relatively predictable manner...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845157/thickness-of-extraocular-muscle-and-orbital-fat-in-mri-predicts-response-to-glucocorticoid-therapy-in-graves-ophthalmopathy
#4
Lingling Xu, Linna Li, Cuihua Xie, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
33 patients with active, moderate-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) received 4.5 g methylprednisolone for 12 weeks and were divided by efficacy into two groups (responsive and unresponsive). All patients and 10 controls underwent orbital MRI examination at baseline. No significant difference was seen in baseline clinical characteristics between the two GO groups. The values of exophthalmos were higher in both GO groups than in the control and were higher in the responsive group versus the unresponsive group...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839453/variants-of-interleukin-22-gene-confer-predisposition-to-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#5
Rong-Hua Song, Qian Li, Wen Wang, Qiu-Ming Yao, Xiao-Qing Shao, Jin-An Zhang
As there are no previous studies on the interleukin-22 (IL-22) variants in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the present study aimed to explore the association between polymorphisms of IL-22 and the predisposition to AITD. The study had 975 AITD patients, including 639 Graves' disease (GD) and 336 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) individuals and 851 healthy cohorts. Ligase detection reaction (LDR) and direct sequencing method were used for genotyping the IL-22 gene polymorphisms at rs2046068, rs2227478, rs2227485, rs11611206, and rs1179251...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805160/clinical-implications-of-immunoglobulin-g4-to-graves-ophthalmopathy
#6
Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Seong Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients. METHODS: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed...
September 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794611/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-1623-a-g-rs180195-in-the-promoter-of-the-thyroglobulin-gene-is-associated-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-but-not-with-thyroid-ophthalmopathy
#7
Hooshang Lahooti, Senarath Edirimanne, John P Walsh, Leigh Delbridge, Emily J Hibbert, Jack R Wall
BACKGROUND: Our studies over recent years have focused on some new ideas concerning the pathogenesis for the orbital reaction that characterizes Graves' ophthalmopathy namely, that there are antigens expressed by thyroid tissue and orbital tissue where they are targeted by autoantibodies and/or sensitized T cells, leading to orbital inflammation. While this has been well studied for the thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor, the possible role of another major thyroid antigen, Thyroglobulin (TG), has been largely ignored...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770897/typical-graves-ophthalmopathy-in-primary-hypothyroidism
#8
Zareen Kiran, Owais Rashid, Najmul Islam
Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) usually occurs in a close temporal relationship with hyperthyroidism. It is rare in patients with normal thyroid function (euthyroid GO) and in patients with hypothyroid forms of thyroid autoimmune diseases (hypothyroid GO). We report a 52-years old man presenting in our endocrine clinic with diagnosed primary hypothyroidism 3 months back during evaluation for glaucoma. He was later referred by an ophthalmologist to exclude Grave's eye disease, where he had presented with chief complaints of bilateral prominent eyes...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750432/hyperthyroidism-in-patients-with-graves-ophthalmopathy-and-thyroidal-skeletal-and-eye-muscle-specific-type-2-deiodinase-enzyme-activities
#9
Ildikó Molnár, József A Szentmiklósi, Éva Somogyiné-Vári
Graves' ophthalmopathy is characterized by hyperthyroidism, which is associated with higher serum T3 levels than T4 due to deiodinase enzymes.The effect of Graves' patient's sera (n=52) with elevated thyroid hormone and TSH receptor or thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels was investigated on thyroidal, skeletal and eye muscle type 2 deiodinase enzyme (DII) activities. DII activities were measured with (125)I-T4 substrate, while thyroid hormone and antibody levels with immunoassays.In Graves' ophthalmopathy, sera with elevated FT4 or FT3 levels reduced DII activites remarkably in all tissue fractions...
July 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713331/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptor-antibodies-in-pregnancy-clinical-relevance
#10
REVIEW
Ines Bucci, Cesidio Giuliani, Giorgio Napolitano
Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700384/update-on-graves-disease-advances-in-treatment-of-mild-moderate-and-severe-thyroid-eye-disease
#11
REVIEW
Diego Strianese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To report the most recent therapeutic advances of thyroid eye disease (TED) and offer general recommendations for management of TED. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy is traditionally based on the use of high doses of corticosteroids and/or radiotherapy (RT) to decrease the activity of the disease, with the subsequent proptosis, strabismus and eyelid deformites treated with different surgical procedures. In recent years, the evidence that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in exacerbating TED severity has encouraged the use of antioxydative agents such as selenium, which has shown a capacity in limiting the disease progression...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699420/referral-trends-for-surgical-management-of-graves-disease
#12
Warren C Swegal, Steven S Chang, Michael C Singer
BACKGROUND: Treatment algorithms for Graves' disease (GD) differ internationally and frequency of referral for surgical intervention varies markedly between areas. Given the potential benefits of thyroidectomy over radioactive iodine (RAI) and medical therapy, surgery may be underutilized. To better understand the approach of endocrinologists to GD, we assessed the rationale for consultation among patients referred for thyroidectomy to an endocrine surgery practice in the United States...
July 12, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670535/effect-of-antithyroid-therapies-on-bone-and-body-composition-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-study-comparing-antithyroid-drugs-with-radioiodine-therapy
#13
Shekhar Kansara, Narendra Kotwal, K V S Hari Kumar, Yashpal Singh, Vimal Upreti, Amit Nachankar
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxicosis is associated with loss of body weight and bone mineral content (BMC). Antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) are the common options for the management of thyrotoxicosis. We evaluated the effect of ATD and RIT on BMC and body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we randomized 60 patients of thyrotoxicosis (20-50 years, treatment naïve, males) to receive either ATD (Group 1) using carbimazole or RIT (Group 2)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669056/pathogenic-th17-and-th22-cells-are-increased-in-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disorders
#14
Marlen Vitales-Noyola, Ana M Ramos-Levi, Rebeca Martínez-Hernández, Ana Serrano-Somavilla, Miguel Sampedro-Nuñez, Roberto González-Amaro, Mónica Marazuela
PURPOSE: To study the levels of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells in autoimmune thyroid disorders patients. Although Th17 cells seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disorders, the specific subsets of these lymphocytes have not been analyzed in this condition. METHODS: We assessed the levels of Th17 (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and Th22 cells in peripheral blood and thyroid glands of autoimmune thyroid disorders patients (n   =  26, 16 with Graves' disease and 10 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 15 healthy controls by multi-parametric flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy...
July 1, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658823/scintigraphic-profile-of-thyrotoxicosis-patients-and-correlation-with-biochemical-and-sonological-findings
#15
Anil Kumar Avs, Abhish Mohan, P G Kumar, Pankaj Puri
INTRODUCTION: Thyrotoxicosis is a spectrum of disorder with a rather common clinical presentation with different aetiologies. The aetiological diagnosis is important as the management differs. It is essential to accurately diagnose the cause before starting treatment. Scintigraphy of thyroid helps in differentiating accurately the various causes. USG is routinely being advocated and T3/T4 ratio has also been used. AIM: This study aims to evaluate the scintigraphic profile of thyrotoxicosis patients and to correlate biochemical and USG findings with scintigraphy...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606272/-progression-of-the-pathogenesis-of-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#16
L Wang, J M Ma
Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common complication of Graves' disease (GD). The clinical manifestations are mainly swelling and retracted eyelid, protopsis and limited eye movements, and optic neuropathy can be seen in severe cases. The mechanism of TAO is not yet clear. A large number of studies have found that the disorders of autoimmunity play an important role in TAO, while genetic factors, oxidative stress, and environmental factors such as smoking participate in it. Therefore, we consult a large number of studies and expound the pathogenesis from the aspects of genetic susceptibility, immune mechanism, oxidative stress, and the effects of smoking to provide referrences for clinical associated studies...
June 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588345/neuroanatomic-variations-in-graves-dysthyroid-ophthalmopathy-as-studied-with-mri
#17
Rona Z Silkiss, Alex R Wade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls. METHODS: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. The resulting cortical thickness measurements were transferred to a standard reference space via a template-based warping procedure...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572231/thyrotoxicosis-investigation-and-management%C3%A2
#18
REVIEW
Jackie Gilbert
Graves' disease (GD) and toxic nodular (TN) goitre account for most cases of thyrotoxicosis associated with hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is confirmed with measurement of a suppressed serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) and elevated free thyroid hormones. The three therapeutic options are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. Thionamides achieve long-term remission in 35% of cases. Many centres administer fixed doses of iodine-131; larger doses result in improved rates of cure at the cost of hypothyroidism...
June 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540010/changes-in-choroidal-perfusion-after-orbital-decompression-surgery-for-graves-ophthalmopathy
#19
Narieman Nik, Amelia Fong, Marianna Derdzakyan, Chrysavgi Adamopoulou, Adam Sise, Aziz Khanifar, Reginald Sanders
PURPOSE: To assess choroidal perfusion before and after orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. METHODS: In this interventional case series, surgical decompression for optic nerve compromise was performed on four eyes of three patients with Graves' disease. Complete ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, color vision, and intraocular pressure assessment were done pre- and postoperatively. High-speed indocyanine green angiography was performed prior to surgery and was repeated one year after surgery...
April 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484500/pingmu-decoction-induces-orbital-preadipocytes-apoptosis-in-vitro
#20
Yali Zhang, Hong Li, Long Gao, Xia Zhang, RuiFang Xie
Pingmu Decoction is the Traditional Chinese Medicine which has treated Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) in the inactive stage for more than ten years. This study was to explore the mechanism of Pingmu Decoction of inhibiting preadipocytes in GO patients from differentiating into mature adipocytes. Human orbital preadipocytes were isolated and cultured through tissue explant method. Orbital preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes. The medicinal serum was prepared from rats. The cells were treated with medicinal serum which were divided into three groups, low dose group (5%), medium dose group (10%), and high dose group (20%)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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