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John M Robbins, Andreas S Bommarius, Giovanni Gadda
Formate oxidase (FOX) from Aspergillus oryzae is the only GMC member that oxidizes a carbon acid rather than alcohols; thus, its catalytic mechanism may be different from that of other GMC members. We have used pH, solvent viscosity, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects, to investigate the catalytic mechanism of FOX. The enzyme followed a Bi-Bi sequential steady-state kinetic mechanism. The kcat value was pH-independent between pH 2.8 and 6.8, suggesting lack of ionizable groups in kinetic step(s) that limit the overall turnover of the enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David Oliver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Charlie Massey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Zhen-Zi Wang, Yu-Hua Gao, Ping Wang, Lin Wei, Chang-Ping Xie, Zhen-Xing Yang, Jian Lan, Zhong-Liao Fang, Ying Zeng, Ling Yan, Xue-En Liu, Hui Zhuang
Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine between 20 μg with 3-dose schedule and 60 μg with 2-dose regimens was compared 2 years after primary immunization. A total of 353 healthy adults aged 18-25 years were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned (1: 1: 1) into 3 vaccine groups: A (20 μg, 0-1-6 month), B (60 μg, 0-1 month) and C (60 μg, 0-2 month). Serum samples were collected at 1 month after a series vaccination and 12 months, 24 months after the first-dose. The GMC level of anti-HBs antibody was measured using Chemiluminescent Microparticle ImmunoAssay (CMIA)...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Leander Sützl, Christophe V F P Laurent, Annabelle T Abrera, Georg Schütz, Roland Ludwig, Dietmar Haltrich
The CAZy auxiliary activity family 3 (AA3) comprises enzymes from the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family of oxidoreductases, which assist the activity of other AA family enzymes via their reaction products or support the action of glycoside hydrolases in lignocellulose degradation. The AA3 family is further divided into four subfamilies, which include cellobiose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidoreductases, aryl-alcohol oxidase, alcohol (methanol) oxidase, and pyranose oxidoreductases. These different enzymes catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions with respect to substrates and co-substrates...
February 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiaoling Wang, Dejuan Li, Lu Fan, Qianhan Xiao, Hua Zuo, Zhubo Li
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the effects and potential mechanism of caffeic acid para-nitro phenethyl ester (CAPE-pNO2), a derivative of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on DN; In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) were used to induce diabetes in mice; then, the mice were intraperitoneally injected daily with CAPE or CAPE-pNO2 for 8 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and blood samples and kidney tissues were collected to measure biological indexes...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Waguih William IsHak, Alexander J Steiner, Anna Klimowicz, Kaitlyn Kauzor, Jonathan Dang, Brigitte Vanle, Christina Elzahaby, Mark Reid, Lekeisha Sumner, Itai Danovitch
Background: The presence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often comorbid in patients with a variety of general medical conditions (GMCs) which could lead to less favorable outcomes. Objective: The goal of this analysis is to examine functional outcomes of QOL and functioning before and after antidepressant treatment among patients with MDD with and without GMCs. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis based on the STAR*D database. The analysis included two patient groups from the STAR*D trial: 1,198 patients comorbid with MDD and GMCs (MDD + GMC) and 1,082 patients with MDD and no GMCs (MDDnoGMC), as defined by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale...
January 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Deborah Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jane Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Mohamed Ahmed Fathi, Ehab M Esheiba, Ani Purushothaman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Marcos André M Dos Santos, Alan M Nevill, Rojapon Buranarugsa, Sara Pereira, Thayse Natacha Q Ferreira Gomes, Ana Reyes, Lisa M Barnett, José António R Maia
Children change their body size, shape and gross motor coordination (GMC) as they grow. Further, GMC is expected to link to changes in children's body size, physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF). The objective was to model GMC changes in children followed longitudinally and to investigate associations between these changes and PA and PF levels. A total of 245 children (122 girls) were observed at 6 years of age and followed annually until 9 years. A sequence of allometric models were fitted, i.e...
January 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse
OBJECTIVE: Compare vitamin D levels in opioid dependence and control population and adjust for relevant confounding effects. Nuclear hormone receptors (including the vitamin D receptor) have been shown to be key transducers and regulators of intracellular metabolism and comprise an important site of pathophysiological immune and metabolic dysregulation potentially contributing towards pro-ageing changes observed in opioid-dependent patients (ODPs). DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective comparing ODPs with general medical controls (GMCs)...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Simon Gregory, Chiara Demartini
BACKGROUND: This study considers the primary training environment factors affecting the satisfaction of doctors in training with their training. METHODS: An OLS multiple regression analysis was performed on responses given by doctors in training (trainees) to General Medical Council (UK) National Trainee Survey annually from 2012 to 2015. Two different research models investigate the determinant of trainee doctor satisfaction. The first model includes clinical supervision, feedback, workload, and gender as explanatory variables...
December 29, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Khalequ Zaman, Sheikh Farzana Zaman, Farzana Zaman, Asma Aziz, Sayeed-Bin Faisal, Magali Traskine, Md Ahsan Habib, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: To support vaccination programs in developing countries, a 4-dose vial presentation of pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was developed. This study assessed immunologic non-inferiority and safety of the investigational PHiD-CV 4-dose versus licensed 1-dose vial presentation in infants. METHODS: In this phase III, mono-center, observer-blind study in Bangladesh, 6-10-week-old infants were randomized 1:1 to receive PHiD-CV primary vaccination (at ages 6, 10, 18 weeks) and a booster dose (at age 9 months) with a 4-dose vial (with preservative, 4DV group) or 1-dose vial (preservative-free, 1DV group)...
January 29, 2018: Vaccine
Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation and matrix expansion are pathological hallmarks of a wide range of kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Although the circulating level of peptide hormone urotensin II (UII) and kidney tissue expression of UII and UII receptors (UTR) are increased in diabetic nephropathy, it remains unclear whether UII regulates GMC growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that UII-induced Ca2+ signaling controls GMC proliferation and ECM production under normal and high glucose conditions...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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