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Angad P Mehta, Han Li, Sean A Reed, Lubica Supekova, Tsotne Javahishvili, Peter G Schultz
Several modified bases have been observed in the genomic DNA of bacteriophages, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes that play a role in restriction systems and/or epigenetic regulation. In our efforts to understand the consequences of replacing a large fraction of a canonical nucleoside with a modified nucleoside, we previously replaced around 75% of thymidine (T) with 5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5hmU) in the Escherichia coli genome. In this study, we engineered the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway using T4 bacteriophage genes to achieve approximately 63% replacement of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) with 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmC) in the E...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ingrid Torjesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Zheng-Wei Fu, Yan-Li Wang, Ying-Tang Lu, Ting-Ting Yuan
As sessile organisms, plants require many flexible strategies to adapt to the environment. Although some environmental signaling pathways regulating stomatal development have been identified, how stomatal regulators are modulated by internal and external signals to determine the final stomatal abundance requires further exploration. In our studies, we found that nitric oxide (NO) promotes stomatal development with increased stomatal index as well as the relative number of meristemoids and guard mother cells [%(M+GMC)] in NO-treated wild-type Arabidopsis plants; this role of NO was further verified in the nox1 mutant, which exhibits higher NO levels, and the noa1 mutant, which exhibits low NO accumulation...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jennifer Ashley Ciarochi, Vince D Calhoun, Spencer Lourens, Jeffrey D Long, Hans J Johnson, H Jeremy Bockholt, Jingyu Liu, Sergey M Plis, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an abnormally expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the HTT gene. Age and CAG-expansion number are related to age at diagnosis and can be used to index disease progression. However, observed onset-age variability suggests that other factors also modulate progression. Indexing prodromal (pre-diagnosis) progression may highlight therapeutic targets by isolating the earliest-affected factors. We present the largest prodromal HD application of the univariate method voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the first application of the multivariate method source-based morphometry (SBM) to, respectively, compare gray matter concentration (GMC) and capture co-occurring GMC patterns in control and prodromal participants...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Marie-Andrée Jacob
Violations of research integrity are understood to have wide-ranging negative consequences for the trustworthiness of science and the health of the public. My goal in this article is not to cause further outrage about research misconduct. Instead, this article queries research conducts expressly as seen through the eyes of a specific regulator and over a specific period (1990-2015). The result is an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the application of the General Medical Council's (GMC's) fitness to practice model in this area...
October 5, 2016: Medical Law Review
Bryan Christie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Josephina Haunschild, Isabel N Schellinger, Sandy von Salisch, Farhad Bakhtiary, Martin Misfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr, Uwe Raaz, Christian D Etz
BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most frequent congenital cardiac abnormality, is associated with a higher risk for ascending aortic aneurysms and aorta-related complications (ie, dissection and rupture). The aim of this study was to quantify granular media calcinosis (GMC) in the ascending aortic wall of patients with BAV. METHODS: We analyzed samples of the ascending aorta from patients with BAV (n = 54) and patients with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) (n = 33) who underwent aortic repair, regarding medial thickness and diameter expansion...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Philip J McElnay, Ciara McGoldrick, Andrew J Beamish, Christopher Hoo, Vimal J Gokani, Rhiannon L Harries
The General Medical Council (GMC) has conducted a consultation process on its proposals for "credentialing" in postgraduate medical practice in the UK. It has been suggested that these may be used to provide formal accreditation of a doctor's competency in a certain area of practice. There are 5 main issues being consulted upon: (a) the time point in a doctor's career at which credentialing should be undertaken, (b) the scope of practice that should be included in credentials and whether this should include any competency already accredited by a Certificate of Completion of Training, (c) the funding source for the credentialing process, (d) the bodies that are entitled to award a credential, and (e) who exactly should be eligible for a credential...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Eleonora F Bianchi, Mimi R Bhattacharyya, Richard Meakin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the views of senior doctors on mental illness within the medical profession. BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest on the issue of doctors' mental health. However, there have been few qualitative studies on senior doctors' general attitude towards mental illness within the medical profession. SETTING: Large North London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 13 hospital consultants and senior academic general practitioners...
September 16, 2016: BMJ Open
Analía Urueña, Jorge E González, Analía Rearte, María E Pérez Carrega, Rogelio Calli, María F Pagani, Andrea Uboldi, Rosalía Vicentín, Patricia Caglio, María C Cañero-Velasco, Angela Gentile, Margarita Ramonet, Carla Vizzotti
BACKGROUND: Single-dose Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) vaccination was implemented in all Argentinean children aged 12 months in 2005. Previous studies demonstrated high prevalence of protective antibody response 4 years following single dose vaccination. This study assessed long term seroprotection against HAV after vaccination. METHODS: Children who received one dose of HAV vaccine at 1 year of age at least six years before enrollment were included at five centers in Argentina between 2013 and 2014...
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rongcheng Li, Kong-Xiong Fang, Mariano Young, Xin Zhou, Zhangjing Chen, John Z Liang, Peter C Giardina, Daniel A Scott
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, Chinese infants were vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) ⩾7days before routine diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); PCV7 administered concomitantly with DTaP (PCV7+DTaP); or DTaP alone. This study examined antibody persistence at a single time point 3years after the last vaccination. METHODS: Children who participated in the prior PCV7 study were eligible to participate. A single blood sample was drawn at enrollment...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Laurence Hajjar, Robin G Hicks, Tao Zeng
The protoisomerization (isomerization induced by protonation) mechanisms of indigo as well as indigo di- and monoimine derivatives were investigated using computational chemistry. Both density functional theory (M06-2X) and wave function theory (GMC-QDPT) methods were used to obtain reliable results. A solvation model (C-PCM with CH2Cl2 solvent) was employed to mimic the actual environment of the isomerization. The calculations reveal that the protoisomerizations of both the indigo and its imine derivatives are thermodynamically favorable...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Mingde Ji, Yanlai Lu, Chenhui Zhao, Wenxing Gao, Fengxia He, Jing Zhang, Dan Zhao, Wen Qiu, Yingwei Wang
Inflammatory response has been reported to contribute to the renal lesions in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) as an animal model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). Besides C5b-9 complex, C5a is also a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and correlated to severity of various nephritic diseases. However, the role of C5a in mediating pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rats with Thy-1N is poorly defined. In the present studies, the levels of C5a, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were first determined in the renal tissues of rats with Thy-1N...
2016: PloS One
C Sadlier, S O'Dea, K Bennett, J Dunne, N Conlon, C Bergin
The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28...
September 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anuradha Bose, Renuka Munshi, Radha Madhab Tripathy, Shampur N Madhusudana, B R Harish, Saket Thaker, B J Mahendra, Bhagwat Gunale, Nithya J Gogtay, Urmila M Thatte, Reeta Subramaniam Mani, K Manjunath, Kuryan George, Ashwin Belludi Yajaman, Ashish Sahai, Rajeev M Dhere, Reginald G Alex, Debasis Das Adhikari, Abhilash, Venkata Raghava, Dipti Kumbhar, Tapas Ranjan Behera, Prasad S Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a 100% fatal disease but preventable with vaccines and immunoglobulins. We have developed a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax-S) and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity in post-exposure prophylaxis by intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) routes. METHODS: This was a randomized active-controlled non-inferiority study in 180 individuals (age 5years and above) with suspected rabies exposure (90 each with WHO Category II and Category III exposures)...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
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