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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793160/water-footprint-characteristic-of-less-developed-water-rich-regions-case-of-yunnan-china
#1
Yiying Qian, Huijuan Dong, Yong Geng, Shaozhuo Zhong, Xu Tian, Yanhong Yu, Yihui Chen, Dana Avery Moss
Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793114/soil-types-influence-the-fate-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-following-the-land-application-of-sludge-composts
#2
Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Juan Tong, Hui Zhong, Yawei Wang, Meixue Chen, Yuansong Wei
Sewage sludge was generally considered a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and could enter agricultural systems as fertilizer after composting. Soil types and the discrepancy of sludge composts could have influenced the fate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) following the land application of sludge composts, which deserved to be clarified. Thus, the fate of ARB and ARGs following the land application of three types of sludge composts (A, B, and C) to three different soils (red soil, loess, and black soil) was investigated...
May 21, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792597/increasing-plant-diversity-with-border-crops-reduces-insecticide-use-and-increases-crop-yield-in-urban-agriculture
#3
Nian-Feng Wan, You-Ming Cai, Yan-Jun Shen, Xiang-Yun Ji, Xiang-Wen Wu, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Wei Cheng, Jun Li, Yao-Pei Jiang, Xin Chen, Jacob Weiner, Jie-Xian Jiang, Ming Nie, Rui-Ting Ju, Tao Yuan, Jian-Jun Tang, Wei-Dong Tian, Hao Zhang, Bo Li
Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792315/genomic-variation-among-and-within-six-juglans-species
#4
Kristian A Stevens, Keith Woeste, Sandeep Chakraborty, Marc W Crepeau, Charles A Leslie, Pedro J Martínez-García, Daniela Puiu, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Mark Coggeshall, Abhaya M Dandekar, Daniel Kluepfel, David B Neale, Steven L Salzberg, Charles H Langley
Genomic analysis in Juglans (walnuts) is expected to transform the breeding and agricultural production of both nuts and lumber. To that end, we report here the determination of reference sequences for six additional relatives of Juglans regia : Juglans sigillata (also from section Dioscaryon ), Juglans nigra , Juglans microcarpa, Juglans hindsii (from section Rhysocaryon ) , Juglans cathayensis (from section Cardiocaryon ), and the closely related Pterocarya stenoptera. While these are 'draft' genomes, ranging in size between 640Mbp and 990Mbp, their contiguities and accuracies can support powerful annotations of genomic variation that are often the foundation of new avenues of research and breeding...
May 23, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792177/investigation-of-the-thermophilic-mechanism-in-the-genus-porphyrobacter-by-comparative-genomic-analysis
#5
Lin Xu, Yue-Hong Wu, Peng Zhou, Hong Cheng, Qian Liu, Xue-Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Type strains of the genus Porphyrobacter belonging to the family Erythrobacteraceae and the class Alphaproteobacteria have been isolated from various environments, such as swimming pools, lake water and hot springs. P. cryptus DSM 12079T and P. tepidarius DSM 10594T out of all Erythrobacteraceae type strains, are two type strains that have been isolated from geothermal environments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology offers a convenient approach for detecting situational types based on protein sequence differences between thermophiles and mesophiles; amino acid substitutions can lead to protein structural changes, improving the thermal stabilities of proteins...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791887/long-term-no-tillage-application-increases-soil-organic-carbon-nitrous-oxide-emissions-and-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-yields-under-rain-fed-mediterranean-conditions
#6
Giuseppe Badagliacca, Emilio Benítez, Gaetano Amato, Luigi Badalucco, Dario Giambalvo, Vito Armando Laudicina, Paolo Ruisi
The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N2 O) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791787/dna-barcoding-of-microgastrine-parasitoid-wasps-hymenoptera-braconidae-using-high-throughput-methods-more-than-doubles-the-number-of-species-known-for-australia
#7
Erinn P Fagan-Jeffries, Steven J B Cooper, Terry Bertozzi, Tessa M Bradford, Andrew D Austin
The Microgastrinae are a hugely diverse subfamily of endoparasitoid wasps of lepidopteran caterpillars. They are important in agriculture as biological control agents, and play a significant ecological role in the regulation of caterpillar populations. Whilst the group has been the focus of intensive rearing and DNA barcoding studies in the Northern Hemisphere, the Australian fauna has received little attention. In total, 100 species have been described from or have been introduced into Australia, but the real species diversity for the region is clearly much larger than this...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791526/geomorphology-based-unit-hydrograph-models-for-flood-risk-management-case-study-in-brazilian-watersheds-with-contrasting-physiographic-characteristics
#8
Samuel Beskow, Gabriela S Nunes, Carlos R DE Mello, Tamara L Caldeira, Lloyd D Norton, Alice A Steinmetz, Marcelle M Vargas, Léo F Ávila
Heavy rainfall in conjunction with an increase in population and intensification of agricultural activities have resulted in countless problems related to flooding in watersheds. Among the techniques available for direct surface runoff (DSR) modeling and flood risk management are the Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH). This study focuses on the evaluation of predictive capability of two conceptual IUH models (Nash and Clark), considering their original (NIUH and CIUH) and geomorphological approaches (NIUHGEO and CIUHGEO), and their advantages over two traditional synthetics UH models - Triangular (TUH) and Dimensionless (DUH), to estimate DSR hydrographs taking as reference two Brazilian watersheds with contrasting geomorphological and climatic characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791493/agricultural-matrices-affect-ground-ant-assemblage-composition-inside-forest-fragments
#9
Diego Santana Assis, Iracenir Andrade Dos Santos, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Katty Elena Barrios-Rojas, Jonathan David Majer, Evaldo Ferreira Vilela
The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices) on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates); sugarcane (3); and pasture (3)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791344/analytical-performance-improvement-of-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-the-processing-degree-of-wheat-flour-using-a-continuous-wavelet-transform
#10
Ping Yang, Yining Zhu, Shisong Tang, Zhongqi Hao, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Yongfeng Lu, Xiaoyan Zeng
Quality and safety of food are two of the most important matters in our lives. Wheat is one of the most important products in the modern agricultural processing industry. Issues of mislabeling and adulteration are of increasingly serious concern in the grain market. They threaten the credibility of producers and traders and the rights of the consumers. Therefore, it is very significant to guarantee the processing degree of wheat flour. In this work, two different spectral peak recognition methods, i.e., artificial spectral peak recognition and automatic spectral peak recognition, are carried out to study the adulteration problem in the food industry...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790908/grass-legume-mixtures-sustain-strong-yield-advantage-over-monocultures-under-cool-maritime-growing-conditions-over-a-period-of-5-years
#11
Áslaug Helgadóttir, Matthias Suter, Thórey Ó Gylfadóttir, Thórdís A Kristjánsdóttir, Andreas Lüscher
Background and Aims: Grassland-based livestock systems in cool maritime regions are commonly dominated by grass monocultures receiving relatively high levels of fertilizer. The current study investigated whether grass-legume mixtures can improve the productivity, resource efficiency and robustness of yield persistence of cultivated grassland under extreme growing conditions over a period of 5 years. Methods: Monocultures and mixtures of two grasses (Phleum pratense and Festuca pratensis) and two legumes (Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens), one of which was fast establishing and the other temporally persistent, were sown in a field trial...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790292/failure-of-voriconazole-therapy-due-to-acquired-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-with-chronic-necrotizing-aspergillosis
#12
Benoit Pilmis, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Alexandre Alanio, Emilie Catherinot, Anne Scemla, Vincent Jullien, Stéphane Bretagne, Olivier Lortholary
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) affects lungs and disseminates mostly in patients with neutropenia and/or receiving immunosuppressive and steroid therapies. Despite progress in diagnosis and therapy of IA, it is still characterized by a high mortality rate. Currently, voriconazole is considered as the standard therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Over the recent years, triazole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates have emerged in the environment due to the use of fungicidal agricultural products with the risk of developing IA related to a resistant isolate...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790203/land-use-trade-offs-between-tree-biodiversity-and-crop-production-in-the-atlantic-forest
#13
Vinícius Marcilio-Silva, Márcia C M Marques, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Trade-offs in ecosystem services (ES) have received increasing attention because provisioning services often come at the expense of biodiversity loss. When land-use patterns are not maximally efficient often provisioning services such as crop production can increase without sacrificing biodiversity. The Atlantic Forest (AF) encompasses Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests and is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation, given its high levels of endemism and anthropogenic threat. Examining trade-offs between biodiversity and crop production in the AF can provide insights into land-use management decisions...
May 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790197/establishing-a-publicly-available-national-database-of-us-news-articles-reporting-agriculture-related-injuries-and-fatalities
#14
Bryan Weichelt, Marsha Salzwedel, Scott Heiberger, Barbara C Lee
BACKGROUND: The AgInjuryNews system and dataset are a news report repository and information source for agricultural safety professionals, policymakers, journalists, and law enforcement officials. METHODS: AgInjuryNews was designed as a primary storage and retrieval system that allows users to: identify agricultural injury/fatality events; identify injury agents and emerging issues; provide safety messages for media in anticipation of trends; and raise awareness and knowledge of agricultural injuries and prevention strategies...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790050/formulation-of-oil-in-water-emulsions-for-pesticide-applications-impact-of-surfactant-type-and-concentration-on-physical-stability
#15
Jianguo Feng, Qicheng Chen, Xuemin Wu, Seid Mahdi Jafari, David Julian McClements
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions can be utilized as effective pesticide delivery systems in the agricultural industry. In this study, the effects of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), concentration, and location of surfactants on the formation and physical stability of O/W emulsions suitable for pesticide applications was investigated using dynamic light scattering and vertical laser profiling. A non-polar pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) was used as a model. The pesticide emulsion with the highest stability was obtained using a commercial non-ionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene castor oil ether, EL-20) with a required HLB value of 10...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790045/basic-red-2-and-methyl-violet-adsorption-by-date-pits-adsorbent-characterization-optimization-by-rsm-and-ccd-equilibrium-and-kinetic-studies
#16
Manel Wakkel, Besma Khiari, Féthi Zagrouba
The potential of raw date pits as a natural, widely available and low-cost agricultural waste has been studied in order to adsorb cationic dyes from an aqueous solution. Date pits were characterized by FTIR, SEM, BET, and XRD analysis. To optimize removal of two industrial dyes, basic red 2 (BR2) and methyl violet (MV), from aqueous solution using date pits, response surface methodology (RSM) is employed. Tests were carried out as per central composite design (CCD) with four input parameters namely contact time, temperature, initial concentration of adsorbate, and pH...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789802/successful-formulation-and-application-of-plant-growth-promoting-kosakonia-radicincitans-in-maize-cultivation
#17
Beatrice Berger, Sascha Patz, Silke Ruppel, Kristin Dietel, Sebastian Faetke, Helmut Junge, Matthias Becker
The global market for biosupplements is expected to grow by 14 percent between 2014 and 2019 as a consequence of the proven benefits of biosupplements on crop yields, soil fertility, and fertilizer efficiency. One important segment of biosupplements is plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Although many potential PGPB have been discovered, suitable biotechnological processing and shelf-life stability of the bacteria are challenges to overcome for their successful use as biosupplements. Here, the plant growth-promoting Gram-negative strain Kosakonia radicincitans DSM 16656T (family Enterobacteriaceae) was biotechnologically processed and applied in the field...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789656/distribution-of-different-surface-modified-carbon-dots-in-pumpkin-seedlings
#18
Kun Qian, Huiyuan Guo, Guangcai Chen, Chuanxin Ma, Baoshan Xing
The distribution of surface modified carbon dots (CDs) in the pumpkin seedlings was studied by visualization techniques and their potential phytotoxicity was investigated at both the physiological and biochemical levels. The average size of carbon dots was approximately 4 nm. The fluorescent peaks of bared CDs, CD-PEI and CD-PAA were between 420 nm and 500 nm, indicating CDs could emit blue and green fluorescence. Fluorescent images showed that all three types of CDs could accumulate in the pumpkin roots and translocate to the shoots, although the distribution pattern of each CDs was obviously different...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789586/paddy-upland-rotation-for-sustainable-agriculture-with-regards-to-diverse-soil-microbial-community
#19
Ping-Fu Hou, Chia-Hung Chien, Yi-Fan Chiang-Hsieh, Kuan-Chieh Tseng, Chi-Nga Chow, Hao-Jen Huang, Wen-Chi Chang
Diverse soil microbial community is determinant for sustainable agriculture. Rich microbial diversity has presumably improved soil health for economic crops to grow. In this work, the benefits of paddy-upland rotation on soil microbial diversity and specific microbes are thus intensively explored. The microbiome from multiple factor experiment (three fertilizations coupled with two rotation systems) were investigated by novel enrichment and co-occurrence analysis in a field well maintained for 25 years. Using next-generation sequencing technique, we firstly present explicit evidence that different rotation systems rather than fertilizations mightily governed the soil microbiome...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789525/fertilization-shapes-a-well-organized-community-of-bacterial-decomposers-for-accelerated-paddy-straw-degradation
#20
Yushan Zhan, Wenjing Liu, Yuanyuan Bao, Jianwei Zhang, Evangelos Petropoulos, Zhongpei Li, Xiangui Lin, Youzhi Feng
Straw, mainly dry stalks of crops, is an agricultural byproduct. Its incorporation to soils via microbial redistribution is an environment-friendly way to increase fertility. Fertilization influences soil microorganisms and straw degradation. However, our up to date knowledge on the responses of the straw decomposers to fertilization remains elusive. To this end, inoculated with paddy soils with 26-year applications of chemical fertilizers, organic amendments or controls without fertilization, microcosms were anoxically incubated with 13 C-labelled rice straw amendment...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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