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A J Christensen, Venkatraman Srinivasan, John C Hart, Amy Marshall-Colon
Sustainable crop production is a contributing factor to current and future food security. Innovative technologies are needed to design strategies that will achieve higher crop yields on less land and with fewer resources. Computational modeling coupled with advanced scientific visualization enables researchers to explore and interact with complex agriculture, nutrition, and climate data to predict how crops will respond to untested environments. These virtual observations and predictions can direct the development of crop ideotypes designed to meet future yield and nutritional demands...
March 17, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
M Clare Butler Ellis, Marc C Kennedy, Christian J Kuster, Rafael Alanis, Clive R Tuck
The BREAM (Bystander and Resident Exposure Assessment Model) (Kennedy et al. in BREAM: A probabilistic bystander and resident exposure assessment model of spray drift from an agricultural boom sprayer. Comput Electron Agric 2012;88:63-71) for bystander and resident exposure to spray drift from boom sprayers has recently been incorporated into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance for determining non-dietary exposures of humans to plant protection products. The component of BREAM, which relates airborne spray concentrations to bystander and resident dermal exposure, has been reviewed to identify whether it is possible to improve this and its description of variability captured in the model...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Nadavala Siva Kumar, Mohammad Asif, Mansour I Al-Hazzaa, Ahmed A Ibrahim
Most industrial waste discharges are often contaminated with phenolic compounds, which constitute a major source of water pollution owing to their toxicity and low biodegradability. Development of cost-effective treatment of such industrial wastewater is therefore of paramount importance. Towards this end, we explore the efficacy of Pine bark powder (PBP), which is an agricultural solid waste material, as a low-cost biosorbent without any pre-treatment, for the adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous media...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Jan T Wollenberg, Jeff Ollerhead, Gail L Chmura
Salt marshes are highly effective carbon (C) sinks and have higher rates of soil C burial (per square meter) than terrestrial ecosystems. Marsh reclamation and anthropogenic impacts, however, have resulted in extensive losses of salt marshes. Restoration of marshes drained and "reclaimed" for agriculture (referred to in Canada as dykelands) and degraded marshes can generate C credits, but only if C burial is reliably quantified. To date, studies reporting on C burial rates have been limited primarily to restored marshes which are more than 10 years old...
2018: PloS One
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Kangkang Liu, Yanshan Zhu, Yao Xia, Yingtao Zhang, Xiaodong Huang, Jiawei Huang, Enqiong Nie, Qinlong Jing, Guoling Wang, Zhicong Yang, Wenbiao Hu, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering and socio-environmental factors associated with dengue fever (DF) incidence rates at street level in Guangzhou City, China. METHODS: Spatiotemporal scan technique was applied to identify the high risk region of DF. Multiple regression model was used to identify the socio-environmental factors associated with DF infection. A Poisson regression model was employed to examine the spatiotemporal patterns in the spread of DF...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
March 21, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Lamia El Badawi
In a 2012 opinion, the common consultative committee of ethics of the INRA and the CIRAD commented on the known and potential applications of nanotechnologies in agriculture and food domains. He recommends the adoption of sufficient measures of evaluation and risk assessment and management for the time being still insufficient. He also recommends for the researchers to be the main interlocutor not only of the sanitary and environmental public authorities but also of the citizens who do not perceive the practical interest of these technologies...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Jia Zhao, Jingxiang Zhao, Qinghai Cai
The electrochemical reduction of N2 to NH3 (NRR) under ambient conditions is significant for sustainable agriculture. Here, by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, the potential of a series of single transition metal (TM) atoms embedded into a MoS2 monolayer with an S-vacancy (TM/MoS2) as electrocatalysts for NRR was systematically investigated. Our DFT results revealed that among all these considered candidate catalysts, the single Mo atom embedded into the MoS2 nanosheet was found to be the most active catalyst for NRR with an onset potential of -0...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Steven Lam, Giang Pham, Hung Nguyen-Viet
Background Agricultural intensification is having profound impacts on food security and rural livelihoods; however, concerns remain about the potential implications on public health. Objectives We aim to examine and synthesize the evidence for human health risks of agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2015 from two electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct). Results A total of 73 relevant studies were included and evaluated...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
M Breida, S Alami Younssi, A Bouazizi, B Achiou, M Ouammou, M El Rhazi
In the framework of understanding the transport mechanism that governs the filtration of NO3 - solution through a γ -Al2 O3 membrane with a nominal pore size of 5 nm at low ultrafiltration, a series of various types of nitrate solutions and operating conditions were investigated. The effect of filtration parameters such as pH, applied pressure and NO3 - concentration on the selectivity and permeability of the membrane were studied using binary solutions (KNO3 , NaNO3 , Ca(NO3 )2 and Mg(NO3 )2 ) and ternary solutions ((NaNO3 + KNO3 ), (NaNO3 + Ca(NO3 )2 ) and (Mg(NO3 )2 + Ca(NO3 )2 )...
January 2018: Heliyon
Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pratishtha Gupta, Rupa Rani, Avantika Chandra, Vipin Kumar
Contamination of agricultural soil with heavy metals has become a serious concern worldwide. In the present study, Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) was isolated from the tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils and evaluated for the plant growth promoting activities, oxidative stress tolerance, and Cr6+ bioremediation. Assessment of different plant growth promotion traits, such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide production, revealed that the strain CPSB21 served as an efficient plant growth promoter under laboratory conditions...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark A Adams, Nina Buchmann, Janet Sprent, Thomas N Buckley, Tarryn L Turnbull
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N...
March 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Priscila Aparecida Milani, João Luiz Consonni, Geórgia Labuto, Elma Neide Vasconcelos Martins Carrilho
Sugarcane bagasse and hydroponic lettuce roots were used as biosorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) from multielemental solutions and lake water, in batch processes. These biomasses were studied in natura (lettuce roots, NLR, and sugarcane bagasse, NSB) and chemically modified with HNO3 (lettuce roots, MLR, and sugarcane bagasse, MSB). The results showed higher adsorption efficiency for MSB and either NLR or MLR. The maximum adsorption capacities (qmax ) in multielemental solution for Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) were 35...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nurgul Atmaca, Sevket Arikan, Dinc Essiz, Hakan Kalender, Ozkan Simsek, Fatih Sultan Bilmen, Ruhi Kabakci
Mancozeb, metalaxyl and tebucanazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture and industry to treat plant pathogenic fungi. Livestock may be exposed to such substances by consuming contaminated plants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these three fungicides on bovine luteal cell steroidogenesis. Luteal slices from mid-cycle corpus luteum were dissociated into single cell suspension in aerated (O2 ) culture media (DMEM/F12) by enzymatic digestion. The cells were incubated in newborn calf serum (10%) for 18 h and then with serum-free media containing mancozeb (0...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Roberto Pizzolotto, Antonio Mazzei, Teresa Bonacci, Stefano Scalercio, Nino Iannotta, Pietro Brandmayr
The impact of agricultural practices and soil management on the communities of arthropods living in the agricultural landscape is acknowledged as a critical issue by the literature, and it needs to be better investigated to improve the ecological sustainability of agriculture. In the present study, we aimed to study how soil management affect carabid species distribution in one of the most typical agroecosystem of the Mediterranean region, i.e. the olive grove. In South Italy olive plantations feature different types of soil management, from tillage to half- or full-cover cropping...
2018: PloS One
Weiwei Zhang, Yungang Liu, Yufei Liu, Boheng Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yingyue Li, Yuhua Zhang, Jie Huang, Chao Yu, Kuncai Chen
Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zewdu Hora, Solomon Zewdu Altaye, Abebe Jenberie Wubie, Jianke Li
The honeybee is one of the most valuable insect pollinators, which plays a key role in pollinating wild vegetation and agricultural crops, with significant contribution to world food production. Although honeybees have long been studied as model for social evolution, the molecular level of honeybee biology remained poorly understood until the year 2006. With the available honeybee genome sequence, technological advancements in protein separation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, wide ranges of honeybee biology such as developmental biology, physiology, behavior, neurobiology, and immunology are explored to a new depth at molecular and biochemical levels...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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