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Ville Turunen, Jaana Sorvari, Anna Mikola
Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of resources, such as nutrients and organic matter. At the same time, the organic contaminants (OC) found in sewage sludge are of growing concern. Consequently, in many European countries incineration is currently favored over recycling in agriculture. This study presents a Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT)-based decision support tool (DST) for facilitating sludge treatment decisions. Essential decision criteria were recognized and prioritized, i.e., weighted, by experts from water utilities...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Christopher B Obida, G Alan Blackburn, J Duncan Whyatt, Kirk T Semple
The Niger Delta is one of the largest oil producing regions of the world. Large numbers and volumes of oil spills have been reported in this region. What has not been quantified is the putative exposure of humans and/or the environment to this hydrocarbon pollution. In this novel study, advanced geostatistical techniques were applied to an extensive database of oil spill incidents from 2007 to 2015. The aims were to (i) identify and analyse spill hotspots along the oil pipeline network and (ii) estimate the exposure of the hydrocarbon pollution to the human population and the environment within the Niger Delta...
November 20, 2017: Environment International
Milena Devechi de Almeida, Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira, Sergio Ricardo Batlouni, Camila Nomura Pereira Boscolo, Eduardo Alves de Almeida
Tebuthiuron is a phenylurea herbicide widely used in agriculture that can reach the aquatic environments, possibly posing negative effects to the aquatic biota. Phenylurea herbicides, such as diuron, are known to cause estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects in fish, but no such effects were yet reported for tebuthiuron exposure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if tebuthiuron, at environmentally relevant concentrations (100 and 200ng/L) and after 25days of exposure have estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects on male of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), through the evaluation of plasmatic testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, brain aromatase (CYP19) levels (western-blot), and by evaluating the histology of the testicles...
November 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Olga Senko, Olga Maslova, Elena Efremenko
Applying enzymatic biocatalysts based on hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His₆-OPH) is suggested for the decomposition of chlorpyrifos, which is actively used in agriculture in many countries. The application conditions were optimized and the following techniques was suggested to ensure the highest efficiency of the enzyme: first, the soil is alkalinized with hydrated calcitic lime Ca(OH)₂, then the enzyme is introduced into the soil at a concentration of 1000 U/kg soil. Non-equilibrium low temperature plasma (NELTP)-modified zeolite is used for immobilization of the relatively inexpensive polyelectrolyte complexes containing the enzyme His₆-OPH and a polyanionic polymer: poly-l-glutamic acid (PLE50) or poly-l-aspartic acid (PLD50)...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martin Peter Christiansen, Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Søren Skovsen, René Gislum
A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
Xiaohan Wang, Yuying Li, Xuping Zhang, Daowan Lai, Ligang Zhou
Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs), are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan-Xaa, proline-Xaa, non-tryptophan-non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed...
November 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yicheng Fu, Xia Du, Benqing Ruan, Laisheng Liu, Jian Zhang
The paper aims at providing a framework to calculate the agro-eco-compensation standard based on the systems agro-ecological concept of embodied energy as emergy. We have proposed a calculation system of eco-compensation standard for sustainable agricultural development based on the convertibility between emergy and price. According to our calculation, the total energy of agricultural production in Yongding River Basin was 3.45 E + 16 Sej/ha (the unit emergy value, expressed in solar emergy joules per unit) in terms of the renewable resources, nonrenewable resources, material inputs, and service costs...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Alper Elçi
Nutrient fluxes in stream basins need to be controlled to achieve good water quality status. In stream basins with intensive agricultural activities, nutrients predominantly come from diffuse sources. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are increasingly implemented to reduce nutrient input to streams. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of vegetated filter strip (VFS) application as an agricultural BMP. For this purpose, SWAT is chosen, a semi-distributed water quality assessment model that works at the watershed scale, and applied on the Nif stream basin, a small-sized basin in Western Turkey...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Michal Segoli, Shucun Sun, Dori E Nava, Jay A Rosenheim
What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Maria G Lebedeva, Anthony R Lupo, Chasity B Henson, Alexandr B Solovyov, Yury G Chendev, Patrick S Market
Changes in the general circulation of the atmosphere have been taking place during the latter part of the twentieth century and the early part of the twenty-first century. In the Belgorod region of Southwest Russia, this has been manifested in the more frequent occurrence of stationary anticyclones, including those referred to as blocking anticyclones, especially during the summer season. Also, there has been a general increase in regional temperatures during the growing season over the period mentioned above, and combined with the more frequent occurrence of anticyclones has led to less humid conditions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ryan Joynson, Leighton Pritchard, Ekenakema Osemwekha, Natalie Ferry
Some eukaryotes are able to gain access to well-protected carbon sources in plant biomass by exploiting microorganisms in the environment or harbored in their digestive system. One is the land pulmonate Arion ater, which takes advantage of a gut microbial consortium that can break down the widely available, but difficult to digest, carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulose, enabling them to digest a broad range of fresh and partially degraded plant material efficiently. This ability is considered one of the major factors that have enabled A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sanae Mouden, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Young Hae Choi, Kirsten A Leiss
With mounting concerns over health and environmental effects of pesticides, the search for environmentally acceptable substitutes has amplified. Plant secondary metabolites appear in the horizon as an attractive solution for green crop protection. This paper reviews the need for changes in the techniques and compounds that, until recently, have been the mainstay for dealing with pest insects. Here we describe and discuss main strategies for selecting plant-derived metabolites as candidates for sustainable agriculture...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Ping Li, Jingchao Chen, Yi Li, Kun Zhang, Hailei Wang
Continuous cropping is a universal challenge in agriculture because it has adverse physiological effects on plants, resulting in stunting, inferior quality, and even massive loss in harvest due to diseases. In this study, Phanerochaete chrysosporium was inoculated into the field in which cut chrysanthemum had already been continuously cropped for five years to control wilt disease. After 120 days of cultivation, the addition of P. chrysosporium significantly improved the physiological status of plants and changed the bacterial and fungal community structure in the soil...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joshua G Schraiber
Genetic material sequenced from ancient samples is revolutionizing our understanding of the recent evolutionary past. However, ancient DNA is often degraded, resulting in low coverage, error-prone sequencing. Several solutions exist to this problem, ranging from simple approach such as selecting a read at random for each site to more complicated approaches involving genotype likelihoods. In this work, we present a novel method for assessing the relationship of an ancient sample with a modern population while accounting for sequencing error and post-mortem damage by analyzing raw read from multiple ancient individuals simultaneously...
November 22, 2017: Genetics
Suzana Madzaric, F G Ceglie, L Depalo, L Al Bitar, G Mimiola, F Tittarelli, G Burgio
Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Audrey Turcotte, Marc Bélisle, Fanie Pelletier, Dany Garant
The prevalence of vector-borne parasites such as haemosporidian species is influenced by several environmental factors. While the negative effects of parasitism on hosts are well documented, these can also be amplified by interactions with environmental stressors, many of which are anthropogenic. Yet, we know little about the possible effects of anthropogenic perturbations on parasite prevalence. The goals of this study were to assess the prevalence and environmental determinants of haemosporidian parasites in a declining population of Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) living in an agricultural landscape in southern Québec, Canada...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology
David O'Connor, Tianyue Peng, Junli Zhang, Daniel C W Tsang, Daniel S Alessi, Zhengtao Shen, Nanthi S Bolan, Deyi Hou
Polluted land is a global issue, especially for developing countries. It has been reported that soil amendment with biochar may reduce the bioavailability of a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metal(loids), potentially reclaiming contaminated soils for agricultural use. However, there have been only limited reports on the in situ application of biochar at the field scale. This review was devoted to providing preliminary scientific evidence from these field trials, based on a review of 29 publications involving field applications of biochar in 8 different countries...
November 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wei Qu, Xuezheng Liu
Artocarpin isolated from an agricultural plant Artocarpus communis has shows anti-inflammation and anticancer activities. In this study, we utilized recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferasesupersomes (UGTs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs) to explore its inhibitory effect on UGTs and cytochrome p450 enzymes(CYPs). Chemical inhibition studies and screening assays with recombinant human CYPs were used to identify if CYP isoform is involved in artocarpin metabolism. Artocarpin showed strong inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4...
November 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
C L Barbosa-Andrade, F J Cividanes, S T S Matos, D J Andrade
Carabids are recognized worldwide as biological control agents of agricultural pests. The objective was to compare the life cycle of Abaris basistriata Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on three substrates: soil, fine vermiculite, or paper napkins. The biological cycle of A. basistriata presented different durations in soil and paper. The viability of eggs and larvae survival of the first and second instars were similar on all three substrates, while the third instar and pupa in the soil presented higher survival when compared with vermiculite and paper...
November 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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