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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#1
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#2
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812741/persistent-tropical-foraging-in-the-highlands-of-terminal-pleistocene-holocene-new-guinea
#4
Patrick Roberts, Dylan Gaffney, Julia Lee-Thorp, Glenn Summerhayes
The terminal Pleistocene/Holocene boundary (approximately 12-8 thousand years ago) represented a major ecological threshold for humans, both as a significant climate transition and due to the emergence of agriculture around this time. In the highlands of New Guinea, climatic and environmental changes across this period have been highlighted as potential drivers of one of the earliest domestication processes in the world. We present a terminal Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental record (12-0 thousand years ago ) of carbon and oxygen isotopes in small mammal tooth enamel from the site of Kiowa...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812730/palaeoecology-agriculture-emerges-from-the-calm
#5
Ian Lilley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812661/human-population-growth-offsets-climate-driven-increase-in-woody-vegetation-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Martin Brandt, Kjeld Rasmussen, Josep Peñuelas, Feng Tian, Guy Schurgers, Aleixandre Verger, Ole Mertz, John R B Palmer, Rasmus Fensholt
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km(2)) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km(2)), mostly in humid zones...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812549/changing-the-agriculture-and-environment-conversation
#7
Elena M Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812297/neomycin-biosynthesis-is-regulated-positively-by-afsa-g-and-neor-in-streptomyces-fradiae-cgmcc-4-7387
#8
Xiangxi Meng, Wenzhao Wang, Zhoujie Xie, Pengwei Li, Yue Li, Zhengyan Guo, Yingjian Lu, Jie Yang, Kaile Guan, Zhaoxin Lu, Huarong Tan, Yihua Chen
Neomycins are a group of aminoglycoside antibiotics with both clinical and agricultural applications. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of neomycin biosynthesis, we completed draft genome sequencing of a neomycin producer Streptomyces fradiae CGMCC 4.7387 from marine sediments, and the neomycin biosynthesis gene cluster was identified. Inactivation of the afsA-g gene encoding a γ-butyrolactone (GBL) synthase in S. fradiae CGMCC 4.7387 resulted in a significant decrease of neomycin production. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcriptional level of neoR and the aphA-neoGH operon were reduced in the afsA-g::aac(3)IV mutant...
August 14, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812018/effects-of-fungicides-on-rat-s-neurosteroid-synthetic-enzymes
#9
Xiuwei Shen, Fan Chen, Lanlan Chen, Ying Su, Ping Huang, Ren-Shan Ge
Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors may interfere with nervous system's activity. Fungicides such as tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin have antifungal activities and are used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. In the present study, we studied effects of tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin on rat's neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (5α-Red1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2). Rat's 5α-Red1, 3α-HSD, and RDH2 were cloned and expressed in COS-1 cells, and effects of these fungicides on them were measured...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811584/nanopriming-technology-for-enhancing-germination-and-starch-metabolism-of-aged-rice-seeds-using-phytosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#10
Wuttipong Mahakham, Ajit K Sarmah, Santi Maensiri, Piyada Theerakulpisut
Application of nanomaterials for agriculture is relatively new as compared to their use in biomedical and industrial sectors. In order to promote sustainable nanoagriculture, biocompatible silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized through green route using kaffir lime leaf extract for use as nanopriming agent for enhancing seed germination of rice aged seeds. Results of various characterization techniques showed the successful formation of AgNPs which were capped with phytochemicals present in the plant extract...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811504/complementarity-among-natural-enemies-enhances-pest-suppression
#11
Matteo Dainese, Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Natural enemies have been shown to be effective agents for controlling insect pests in crops. However, it remains unclear how different natural enemy guilds contribute to the regulation of pests and how this might be modulated by landscape context. In a field exclusion experiment in oilseed rape (OSR), we found that parasitoids and ground-dwelling predators acted in a complementary way to suppress pollen beetles, suggesting that pest control by multiple enemies attacking a pest during different periods of its occurrence in the field improves biological control efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811477/deep-carbon-storage-potential-of-buried-floodplain-soils
#12
Amanda H D'Elia, Garrett C Liles, Joshua H Viers, David R Smart
Soils account for the largest terrestrial pool of carbon and have the potential for even greater quantities of carbon sequestration. Typical soil carbon (C) stocks used in global carbon models only account for the upper 1 meter of soil. Previously unaccounted for deep carbon pools (>1 m) were generally considered to provide a negligible input to total C contents and represent less dynamic C pools. Here we assess deep soil C pools associated with an alluvial floodplain ecosystem transitioning from agricultural production to restoration of native vegetation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811341/the-u-s-culture-collection-network-responding-to-the-requirements-of-the-nagoya-protocol-on-access-and-benefit-sharing
#13
REVIEW
Kevin McCluskey, Katharine B Barker, Hazel A Barton, Kyria Boundy-Mills, Daniel R Brown, Jonathan A Coddington, Kevin Cook, Philippe Desmeth, David Geiser, Jessie A Glaeser, Stephanie Greene, Seogchan Kang, Michael W Lomas, Ulrich Melcher, Scott E Miller, David R Nobles, Kristina J Owens, Jerome H Reichman, Manuela da Silva, John Wertz, Cale Whitworth, David Smith
The U.S. Culture Collection Network held a meeting to share information about how culture collections are responding to the requirements of the recently enacted Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The meeting included representatives of many culture collections and other biological collections, the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretariat of the CBD, interested scientific societies, and collection groups, including Scientific Collections International and the Global Genome Biodiversity Network...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#14
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811028/advanced-nanotechnologies-in-avian-influenza-current-status-and-future-trends-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Amitava Moulick, Lukas Richtera, Vedran Milosavljevic, Natalia Cernei, Yazan Haddad, Ondrej Zitka, Pavel Kopel, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
In the last decade, the control of avian influenza virus has experienced many difficulties, which have caused major global agricultural problems that have also led to public health consequences. Conventional biochemical methods are not sufficient to detect and control agricultural pathogens in the field due to the growing demand for food and subsidiary products; thus, studies aiming to develop potent alternatives to conventional biochemical methods are urgently needed. In this review, emerging detection systems, their applicability to diagnostics, and their therapeutic possibilities in view of nanotechnology are discussed...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810845/a-bioinformatics-approach-for-identifying-transgene-insertion-sites-using-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#16
Doori Park, Su-Hyun Park, Yong Wook Ban, Youn Shic Kim, Kyoung-Cheul Park, Nam-Soo Kim, Ju-Kon Kim, Ik-Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have been developed to improve the agricultural traits of modern crop cultivars. Safety assessments of GM crops are of paramount importance in research at developmental stages and before releasing transgenic plants into the marketplace. Sequencing technology is developing rapidly, with higher output and labor efficiencies, and will eventually replace existing methods for the molecular characterization of genetically modified organisms...
August 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810533/deltamethrin-induced-oxidative-stress-in-kidney-and-brain-of-rats-protective-effect-of-artemisia-campestris-essential-oil
#17
Mongi Saoudi, Riadh Badraoui, Houda Bouhajja, Marwa Ncir, Fatma Rahmouni, Malek Grati, Kamel Jamoussi, Abdelfattah El Feki
Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine in Southern Tunisia as a decoction for its antivenom, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, and antimicrobial activities. A. campestris essential oil (ACEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts, since it has beneficial and therapeutic effects. Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to deltamethrin leads to nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species including birds and fish...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810521/cropping-systems-affect-paddy-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-stocks-in-rice-garlic-and-rice-fava-systems-in-temperate-region-of-southern-china
#18
Tao Zhang, Anqiang Chen, Jian Liu, Hongbin Liu, Baokun Lei, Limei Zhai, Dan Zhang, Hongyuan Wang
The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#19
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810509/spatiotemporal-assessment-and-trade-offs-of-multiple-ecosystem-services-based-on-land-use-changes-in-zengcheng-china
#20
Xiao Sun, Feng Li
Driven by rapid urbanization, land use change has become a significant factor influencing ecosystem services (ESs). To support the decision-making process of city planners and policy makers, assessing the spatiotemporal changes associated with multiple ESs is vital. In this study, we developed a general structure to assess the changes of multiple ESs in Zengcheng, China. A new index also was developed to measure the comprehensive ecosystem service (CES). Trade-offs of various ESs were analyzed by using correlation analysis...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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