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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531222/monitoring-the-elimination-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis-update-to-2014
#1
José R Franco, Giuliano Cecchi, Gerardo Priotto, Massimo Paone, Abdoulaye Diarra, Lise Grout, Raffaele C Mattioli, Daniel Argaw
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT. RESULTS: With 3,797 reported cases in 2014, the corresponding milestone (5,000 cases) was surpassed, and the 2020 global target of 'fewer than 2,000 reported cases per year' seems within reach...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522152/anti-trypanosomal-activity-of-cationic-n-heterocyclic-carbene-gold-i-complexes
#2
Isabel Winter, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Gertrud Lallinger-Kube, Rainer Schobert, Klaus Ersfeld, Bernhard Biersack
Two gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes 1a and 1b were tested for their anti-trypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei parasites. Both gold compounds exhibited excellent anti-trypanosomal activity (IC50=0.9-3.0nM). The effects of the gold complexes 1a and 1b on the T. b. brucei cytoskeleton were evaluated. Rapid detachment of the flagellum from the cell body occurred after treatment with the gold complexes. In addition, a quick and complete degeneration of the parasitic cytoskeleton was induced by the gold complexes, only the microtubules of the detached flagellum remained intact...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513328/trypanosoma-cruzi-in-free-ranging-mammalian-populations-in-south-texas
#3
Mathew M Kramm, Maria R Gutierrez, Troy D Luepke, Cynthia Soria, Roel R Lopez, Susan M Cooper, Donald S Davis, Israel D Parker
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is a significant health concern in South and Central America, where millions of people are infected or at risk of infection, and is an emerging health concern in the United States. The occurrence of Chagas disease in natural environments is supported by mammal host species, but those primary species may vary based on geographic location. In South Texas, the primary host species for the disease is poorly understood, and required a field study to determine the spatial distribution of T...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504437/seasonal-variation-of-tsetse-fly-species-abundance-and-prevalence-of-trypanosomes-in-the-maasai-steppe-tanzania
#4
Happiness J Nnko, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Linda Salekwa, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson, Paul S Gwakisa, Isabella M Cattadori
Tsetse flies, the vectors of trypanosomiasis, represent a threat to public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite these concerns, information on temporal and spatial dynamics of tsetse and trypanosomes remain limited and may be a reason that control strategies are less effective. The current study assessed the temporal variation of the relative abundance of tsetse fly species and trypanosome prevalence in relation to climate in the Maasai Steppe of Tanzania in 2014-2015. Tsetse flies were captured using odor-baited Epsilon traps deployed in ten sites selected through random subsampling of the major vegetation types in the area...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504430/variation-of-tsetse-fly-abundance-in-relation-to-habitat-and-host-presence-in-the-maasai-steppe-tanzania
#5
Anibariki Ngonyoka, Paul S Gwakisa, Anna B Estes, Happiness J Nnko, Peter J Hudson, Isabella M Cattadori
Human activities modify ecosystem structure and function and can also alter the vital rates of vectors and thus the risk of infection with vector-borne diseases. In the Maasai Steppe ecosystem of northern Tanzania, local communities depend on livestock and suitable pasture that is shared with wildlife, which can increase tsetse abundance and the risk of trypanosomiasis. We monitored the monthly tsetse fly abundance adjacent to Tarangire National Park in 2014-2015 using geo-referenced, baited epsilon traps. We examined the effect of habitat types and vegetation greenness (NDVI) on the relative abundance of tsetse fly species...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502864/chagas-disease-in-europe-a-review-for-the-internist-in-the-globalized-world
#6
REVIEW
Spinello Antinori, Laura Galimberti, Roberto Bianco, Romualdo Grande, Massimo Galli, Mario Corbellino
Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis identified in 1909 by Carlos Chagas, has become over the last 40years a global health concern due to the huge migration flows from Latin America to Europe, United States, Canada and Japan. In Europe, most migrants from CD-endemic areas are concentrated in Spain, Italy, France, United Kingdom and Switzerland. Pooled seroprevalence studies conducted in Europe show an overall 4.2% prevalence, with the highest infection rates observed among individuals from Bolivia (18...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499406/cattle-genome-wide-analysis-reveals-genetic-signatures-in-trypanotolerant-n-dama
#7
Soo-Jin Kim, Sojeong Ka, Jung-Woo Ha, Jaemin Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Kwondo Kim, Hak-Kyo Lee, Dajeong Lim, Seoae Cho, Olivier Hanotte, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Tadelle Dessie, Stephen Kemp, Sung Jong Oh, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Indigenous cattle in Africa have adapted to various local environments to acquire superior phenotypes that enhance their survival under harsh conditions. While many studies investigated the adaptation of overall African cattle, genetic characteristics of each breed have been poorly studied. RESULTS: We performed the comparative genome-wide analysis to assess evidence for subspeciation within species at the genetic level in trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle...
May 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470520/an-atp-based-luciferase-viability-assay-for-animal-african-trypanosomes-using-a-96-well-plate
#8
Keisuke Suganuma, Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe, Noboru Inoue
Cell viability assays using multi-well cell culture plates are frequently used for in vitro drug screening. We herein describe an ATP-based luciferase viability assay for animal African trypanosomes using a 96-well plate. This assay could be further applied to the screening of novel compounds for the treatment of animal African trypanosomiasis.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467409/a-pilot-study-to-delimit-tsetse-target-populations-in-zimbabwe
#9
Gerald Chikowore, Ahmadou H Dicko, Peter Chinwada, Moses Zimba, William Shereni, François Roger, Jérémy Bouyer, Laure Guerrini
BACKGROUND: Tsetse (Glossina sensu stricto) are cyclical vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses, that are presently targeted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) coordinated by the African Union. In order to achieve effective control of tsetse, there is need to produce elaborate plans to guide intervention programmes. A model intended to aid in the planning of intervention programmes and assist a fuller understanding of tsetse distribution was applied, in a pilot study in the Masoka area, Mid-Zambezi valley in Zimbabwe, and targeting two savannah species, Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina pallidipes...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453513/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-diptera-glossinidae-in-northern-uganda-implications-for-vector-control
#10
Robert Opiro, Norah P Saarman, Richard Echodu, Elizabeth A Opiyo, Kirstin Dion, Alexis Halyard, Augustine W Dunn, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of Lake Kyoga. In Uganda, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the Trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT), or Nagana. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker to provide fine scale spatial resolution of genetic structure of G...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435310/tropical-diseases-of-the-myocardium-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Zoe C Groom, Aristotle D Protopapas, Vasileios Zochios
Cardiovascular diseases are widely distributed throughout the world. Human parasitic infections are ubiquitous. Tropical parasites are increasingly recognized as causes of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we address the most frequently reported parasites that directly infect the myocardium, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoal causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), and Taenia solium, the cestode causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis. We also discuss tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, trichinellosis and schistosomiasis...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428134/use-of-physiological-biomarkers-in-diagnosis-along-with-field-trials-of-different-trypanisidal-drugs-in-camels-of-cholistan-desert
#13
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Avais, Haroon Akbar, Waqas Ahmad, Muhammad Azeem
The point prevalence of trypanosomiasis with different physiological biomarkers along with evaluation of the most responsive trypanosidal drug against trypanosomiasis under field conditions was studied. For this purpose a total of 300 free range camels were selected at different grazing and watering point in Cholistan desert. The study population of camels included 150 clinically suspected camels for trypanosomiasis and 150 healthy camels with normal temperature, pulse and respiration. For therapeutic trials 36 positively diagnosed animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups for therapeutic trials...
April 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#14
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428042/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-selective-tubulin-inhibitors-as-anti-trypanosomal-agents
#15
Viharika Bobba, Vishal Nanavaty, Nethrie D Idippily, Anran Zhao, Bibo Li, Bin Su
African trypanosomiasis is still a threat to human health due to the severe side-effects of current drugs. We identified selective tubulin inhibitors that showed the promise to the treatment of this disease, which was based on the tubulin protein structural difference between mammalian and trypanosome cells. Further lead optimization was performed in the current study to improve the efficiency of the drug candidates. We used Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells as the parasite model, and human normal kidney cells and mouse macrophage cells as the host model to evaluate the compounds...
April 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426685/human-african-trypanosomiasis-control-achievements-and-challenges
#16
Serap Aksoy, Phillipe Buscher, Mike Lehane, Philippe Solano, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a neglected disease that impacts 70 million people living in 1.55 million km2 in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been multiple HAT epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, with the most recent epidemic in the 1990s resulting in about half a million HAT cases reported between 1990 and 2015. Here we review the status of HAT disease at the current time and the toolbox available for its control. We also highlight future opportunities under development towards novel or improved interventions...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397756/anti-trypanosomatid-elemanolide-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-vernonia-lasiopus-o-hoffm
#17
Njogu M Kimani, Josphat C Matasyoh, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Thomas J Schmidt
Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. The few available drugs for treatment of this disease are highly toxic, difficult to administer, costly and unavailable to poor rural communities bearing the major burden of this infection...
April 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366667/characterization-and-role-of-the-3-methylglutaconyl-coenzyme-a-hidratase-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#18
Mariana Leão de Lima Stein, Marcelo Yudi Icimoto, Erica Valadares de Castro Levatti, Vitor Oliveira, Anita Hilda Straus, Sergio Schenkman
Trypanosoma brucei, the agent of African Trypanosomiasis, is a flagellated protozoan parasite that develops in tsetse flies and in the blood of various mammals. The parasite acquires nutrients such as sugars, lipids and amino acids from their hosts. Amino acids are used to generate energy and for protein and lipid synthesis. However, it is still unknown how T. brucei catabolizes most of the acquired amino acids. Here we explored the role of an enzyme of the leucine catabolism, the 3-methylglutaconyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (3-MGCoA-H)...
March 31, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362799/organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-is-involved-in-pentamidine-transport-at-the-human-and-mouse-blood-brain-barrier-bbb
#19
Gayathri N Sekhar, Ana R Georgian, Lisa Sanderson, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Rachel C Brown, Paula Muresan, Roland A Fleck, Sarah A Thomas
Pentamidine is an effective trypanocidal drug used against stage 1 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it accumulates inside the endothelial cells but has limited entry into the brain. This study examined transporters involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse BBB using hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cell lines, respectively. Results revealed that both cell lines expressed the organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3), however, P-gp was only expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360328/inhibitors-of-pex14-disrupt-protein-import-into-glycosomes-and-kill-trypanosoma-parasites
#20
M Dawidowski, L Emmanouilidis, V C Kalel, K Tripsianes, K Schorpp, K Hadian, M Kaiser, P Mäser, M Kolonko, S Tanghe, A Rodriguez, W Schliebs, R Erdmann, M Sattler, G M Popowicz
The parasitic protists of the Trypanosoma genus infect humans and domestic mammals, causing severe mortality and huge economic losses. The most threatening trypanosomiasis is Chagas disease, affecting up to 12 million people in the Americas. We report a way to selectively kill Trypanosoma by blocking glycosomal/peroxisomal import that depends on the PEX14-PEX5 protein-protein interaction. We developed small molecules that efficiently disrupt the PEX14-PEX5 interaction. This results in mislocalization of glycosomal enzymes, causing metabolic catastrophe, and it kills the parasite...
March 31, 2017: Science
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