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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087668/the-threshold-of-protection-from-liver-stage-malaria-relies-on-a-fine-balance-between-the-number-of-infected-hepatocytes-and-effector-cd8-t-cells-present-in-the-liver
#1
Alexandra J Spencer, Rhea J Longley, Anita Gola, Marta Ulaszewska, Teresa Lambe, Adrian V S Hill
Since the demonstration of sterile protection afforded by injection of irradiated sporozoites, CD8(+) T cells have been shown to play a significant role in protection from liver-stage malaria. This is, however, dependent on the presence of an extremely high number of circulating effector cells, thought to be necessary to scan, locate, and kill infected hepatocytes in the short time that parasites are present in the liver. We used an adoptive transfer model to elucidate the kinetics of the effector CD8(+) T cell response in the liver following Plasmodium berghei sporozoite challenge...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086864/direct-detection-of-falciparum-and-non-falciparum-malaria-dna-from-a-drop-of-blood-with-high-sensitivity-by-the-dried-lamp-system
#2
Kyoko Hayashida, Kiichi Kajino, Humphrey Simukoko, Martin Simuunza, Joseph Ndebe, Amos Chota, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system (CZC-LAMP) was applied to the diagnosis of malaria as simple, rapid and highly sensitive method as an alternative for conventional RDTs in malaria endemic areas where laboratory resources are limited...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086789/detection-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-in-a-co-endemic-area-in-malaysia
#3
Kim A Piera, Ammar Aziz, Timothy William, David Bell, Iveth J González, Bridget E Barber, Nicholas M Anstey, Matthew J Grigg
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. However, microscopic diagnosis is inaccurate and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are insufficiently sensitive. PCR is sensitive and specific but not feasible at a district level. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows potential with only basic requirements. A commercially available LAMP assay, the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit, is sensitive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but has not previously been evaluated for P...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086782/in-vivo-antiplasmodial-activity-and-toxicological-assessment-of-hydroethanolic-crude-extract-of-ajuga-remota
#4
Aschalew Nardos, Eyasu Makonnen
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most life-threatening health problems worldwide and treatment has been compromised by drug resistance. Identifying lead molecules from natural products might help to find better anti-malarial drugs, since those obtained from natural sources are still effective against malarial parasites. This study aimed at investigating the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of crude extract of the leaves of Ajuga remota together with its safety in mice models. METHODS: In vivo parasite growth inhibitory effect of crude extract was assessed in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain)...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086777/profile-of-molecular-mutations-in-pfdhfr-pfdhps-pfmdr1-and-pfcrt-genes-of-plasmodium-falciparum-related-to-resistance-to-different-anti-malarial-drugs-in-the-bata-district-equatorial-guinea
#5
Pedro Berzosa, Andrés Esteban-Cantos, Luz García, Vicenta González, Marisa Navarro, Taiomara Fernández, María Romay-Barja, Zaida Herrador, José Miguel Rubio, Policarpo Ncogo, María Santana-Morales, Basilio Valladares, Matilde Riloha, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been a major contributor to the global burden of malaria. Drug resistance complicates treatment, and it is one of the most important problems in malaria control. This study assessed the level of mutations in P. falciparum genes, pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr1, and pfcrt, related to resistance to different anti-malarial drugs, in the Continental Region of Equatorial Guinea, after 8 years of implementing artesunate combination therapies as the first-line treatment...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086775/rapid-decline-in-the-susceptibility-of-plasmodium-falciparum-to-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-the-south-of-vietnam
#6
Ngo Viet Thanh, Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Thanh Tong, Nguyen Thuy Nha-Ca, Le Thanh Dong, Huynh Hong Quang, Jeremy Farrar, Guy Thwaites, Nicholas J White, Marcel Wolbers, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the countries of the Greater Mekong sub-region posing a serious threat to global malaria elimination efforts. The relationship of artemisinin resistance to treatment failure has been unclear. METHODS: In annual studies conducted in three malaria endemic provinces in the south of Vietnam (Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan and Gia Lai) between 2011 and 2015, 489 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled in detailed clinical, parasitological and molecular therapeutic response assessments with 42 days follow up...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081440/a-knockout-screen-of-apiap2-genes-reveals-networks-of-interacting-transcriptional-regulators-controlling-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#7
Katarzyna Modrzynska, Claudia Pfander, Lia Chappell, Lu Yu, Catherine Suarez, Kirsten Dundas, Ana Rita Gomes, David Goulding, Julian C Rayner, Jyoti Choudhary, Oliver Billker
A family of apicomplexa-specific proteins containing AP2 DNA-binding domains (ApiAP2s) was identified in malaria parasites. This family includes sequence-specific transcription factors that are key regulators of development. However, functions for the majority of ApiAP2 genes remain unknown. Here, a systematic knockout screen in Plasmodium berghei identified ten ApiAP2 genes that were essential for mosquito transmission: four were critical for the formation of infectious ookinetes, and three were required for sporogony...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081149/rationale-for-further-development-of-a-vaccine-based-on-the-circumsporozoite-protein-of-plasmodium-vivax
#8
Anjali Yadava, Norman C Waters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078947/monitoring-of-plasmodium-infection-in-humans-and-potential-vectors-of-malaria-in-a-newly-emerged-focus-in-southern-iran
#9
Mohsen Kalantari, Zahra Soltani, Mostafa Ebrahimi, Masoud Yousefi, Masoumeh Amin, Ayda Shafiei, Kourosh Azizi
Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078755/modulation-of-host-cell-sumoylation-facilitates-efficient-development-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Mulaka Maruthi, Dipti Singh, Segireddy Rameswara Reddy, Babu S Mastan, Satish Mishra, Kota Arun Kumar
SUMOylation is a reversible post translational modification of proteins that regulates protein stabilization, nucleocytoplasmic transport and protein-protein interactions. Several viruses and bacteria modulate host SUMOylation machinery for efficient infection. Plasmodium sporozoites are infective forms of malaria parasite that infect hepatocytes and transforms into exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs). Here we show that, during EEF development, the distribution of SUMOylated proteins in host cell nuclei was significantly reduced and expression of the SUMOylation enzymes was downregulated...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077745/congenital-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-washington-dc
#11
Melissa Del Castillo, Ann Marie Szymanski, Ariella Slovin, Edward C C Wong, Roberta L DeBiasi
Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery.
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077462/bromodomains-in-protozoan-parasites-evolution-function-and-opportunities-for-drug-development
#12
REVIEW
Victoria Jeffers, Chunlin Yang, Sherri Huang, William J Sullivan
Parasitic infections remain one of the most pressing global health concerns of our day, affecting billions of people and producing unsustainable economic burdens. The rise of drug-resistant parasites has created an urgent need to study their biology in hopes of uncovering new potential drug targets. It has been established that disrupting gene expression by interfering with lysine acetylation is detrimental to survival of apicomplexan (Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.) and kinetoplastid (Leishmania spp...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077251/theoretical-implications-of-a-pre-erythrocytic-plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-for-preventing-relapses
#13
Michael White, Rogerio Amino, Ivo Mueller
Preventing malaria infection through vaccination requires preventing every sporozoite inoculated by mosquito bite: a major challenge for Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax sporozoites consist of tachysporozoites causing primary infection and bradysporozoites leading to relapses. We hypothesise that a candidate P. vivax vaccine with low efficacy against primary infection may substantially reduce transmission by preventing relapses.
January 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077167/role-of-anopheles-cellia-rufipes-gough-1910-and-other-local-anophelines-in-human-malaria-transmission-in-the-northern-savannah-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Raymond N Tabue, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Jean Atangana, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Jean C Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Rose G F Leke, Etienne Fondjo, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Alexis Tougordi, Martin J Donnelly, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. METHODS: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077149/plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-co-infection-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-dakar
#15
Mamadou A Diallo, Baidy S Kane, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Mouhamed Dieng, Khadim Diongue, Aida S Badiane, Mame Cheikh Seck, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) due to Borrelia crocidurae and malaria are co-endemics in Senegal. Although expected to be high, co-infections are rarely reported. A case of falciparum malaria and B. crocidurae co-infection in a patient from Velingara (South of Senegal) is discussed. CASE: A 28 year-old-male patient presented to Aristide Le Dantec Hospital for recurrent fever. He initially presented to a local post health of Pikine (sub-urban of Dakar) and was diagnosed for malaria on the basis of positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) specific to Plamodium falciparum...
January 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073384/do-blood-parasites-infect-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus-in-the-wild-prospective-investigation-and-climatogeographic-considerations
#16
Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels, Marcela Uhart, Virginia Rago, Renata Hurtado, Sabrina Epiphanio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072872/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-piperaquine-in-falciparum-malaria-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#17
Richard M Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Khin Maung Lwin, Rose McGready, Nicholas P J Day, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Karen I Barnes, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children (<5 y) with malaria are under-dosed. This study utilised a population-based pharmacokinetic approach to optimise the antimalarial treatment regimen for piperaquine...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070005/higher-complexity-of-infection-and-genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-vivax-than-plasmodium-falciparum-across-all-malaria-transmission-zones-of-papua-new-guinea
#18
Abebe A Fola, G L Abby Harrison, Mita Hapsari Hazairin, Céline Barnadas, Manuel W Hetzel, Jonah Iga, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have varying transmission dynamics that are informed by molecular epidemiology. This study aimed to determine the complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum throughout Papua New Guinea (PNG) to evaluate transmission dynamics across the country. In 2008-2009, a nationwide malaria indicator survey collected 8,936 samples from all 16 endemic provinces of PNG. Of these, 892 positive P. vivax samples were genotyped at PvMS16 and PvmspF3, and 758 positive P...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069653/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-pf-k13-mutations-in-senegal-using-targeted-amplicon-deep-sequencing
#19
Eldin Talundzic, Yaye D Ndiaye, Awa B Deme, Christian Olsen, Dhruviben S Patel, Shweta Biliya, Rachel Daniels, Fredrik O Vannberg, Sarah K Volkman, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Daouda Ndiaye
The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) resistance to artemisinin in Southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. Multiple polymorphisms in the Pf kelch gene found in chromosome 13 (Pfk13) have been associated with artemisinin resistance. Surveillance of potential drug resistance loci within a population that may emerge under increasing drug pressure is an important public health activity. In this context, P. falciparum infections from an observational surveillance study in Senegal were genotyped using targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) for Pfk13 polymorphisms...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068997/absence-of-in-vivo-selection-for-k13-mutations-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-in-uganda
#20
Betty Balikagala, Toshihiro Mita, Mie Ikeda, Miki Sakurai, Shouki Yatsushiro, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro Tachibana, Mary Auma, Edward H Ntege, Daisuke Ito, Eizo Takashima, Nirianne Marie Q Palacpac, Thomas G Egwang, Joseph Okello Onen, Masatoshi Kataoka, Eisaku Kimura, Toshihiro Horii, Takafumi Tsuboi
BACKGROUND: Individual drug treatment may select resistant parasites in the human body, a process termed in vivo selection. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) genes have been reportedly selected after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding in vivo selection of P. falciparum Kelch propeller domain (pfkelch13) polymorphisms, responsible for artemisinin-resistance in Asia, and six putative background mutations for artemisinin resistance; D193Y in ferredoxin, T484I in multiple resistance protein 2, V127M in apicoplast ribosomal protein S10, I356T in pfcrt, V1157L in protein phosphatase and C1484F in phosphoinositide-binding protein...
January 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
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