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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214533/the-effect-and-mechanism-of-inhibiting-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-on-the-proliferation-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#1
Zhiqiang Zhang, Xiaodan Chen, Chengrui Jiang, Zishui Fang, Yi Feng, Weiying Jiang
We screened >40,000 patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and found that the G6PD Kaiping allele was under the most positive selection for fighting against malaria in the Chinese population. However, the mechanism is unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-malarial effect and mechanism of G6PD deficiency. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was utilised for inhibiting the G6PD activity of erythrocytes. Giemsa staining of blood smears and quantitative real-time PCR were used for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum infection...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#2
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213436/host-cell-tropism-and-adaptation-of-blood-stage-malaria-parasites-challenges-for-malaria-elimination
#3
Caeul Lim, Selasi Dankwa, Aditya S Paul, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for most of the mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in humans. Research and control efforts have focused on infections caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, but have neglected other malaria parasite species that infect humans. Additionally, many related malaria parasite species infect nonhuman primates (NHPs), and have the potential for transmission to humans. For malaria elimination, the varied and specific challenges of all of these Plasmodium species will need to be considered...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#4
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#5
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212631/anti-malarial-effect-of-novel-chloroquine-derivatives-as-agents-for-the-treatment-of-malaria
#6
Seon-Ju Yeo, Dong-Xu Liu, Hak Sung Kim, Hyun Park
BACKGROUND: The widespread emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance has necessitated the discovery of novel anti-malarial drug candidates. In this study, chloroquine derivatives were evaluated for the improved anti-malarial activity. RESULTS: Novel two derivatives (SKM13 and SKM14) were synthesized based on the chloroquine (CQ) template containing modified side chains such as α,β-unsaturated amides and phenylmethyl group. The selective index indicated that SKM13 was 1...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#7
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211535/arylmethylamino-steroids-as-antiparasitic-agents
#8
Reimar Krieg, Esther Jortzik, Alice-Anne Goetz, Stéphanie Blandin, Sergio Wittlin, Mourad Elhabiri, Mahsa Rahbari, Selbi Nuryyeva, Kerstin Voigt, Hans-Martin Dahse, Axel Brakhage, Svenja Beckmann, Thomas Quack, Christoph G Grevelding, Anthony B Pinkerton, Bruno Schönecker, Jeremy Burrows, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
In search of antiparasitic agents, we here identify arylmethylamino steroids as potent compounds and characterize more than 60 derivatives. The lead compound 1o is fast acting and highly active against intraerythrocytic stages of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites (IC50 1-5 nM) as well as against gametocytes. In P. berghei-infected mice, oral administration of 1o drastically reduces parasitaemia and cures the animals. Furthermore, 1o efficiently blocks parasite transmission from mice to mosquitoes...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211104/dat-positive-plasmodium-ovale-malaria-presenting-in-a-child-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#9
Nicholas S Whipple, Jason R Schwartz, Kerri A Nottage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209211/comparative-expression-profile-of-micrornas-in-anopheles-anthropophagus-midgut-after-blood-feeding-and-plasmodium-infection
#10
Wenquan Liu, Zhenhua Hao, Liyang Huang, Lingzi Chen, Qimei Wei, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An...
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209188/erratum-to-characterization-of-a-plasmodium-berghei-sexual-stage-antigen-pbph-as-a-new-candidate-for-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine
#11
Xu Kou, Wenqi Zheng, Feng Du, Fei Liu, Meilian Wang, Qi Fan, Liwang Cui, Enjie Luo, Yaming Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205520/cationic-amino-acid-transporters-play-key-roles-in-the-survival-and-transmission-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#12
Esther Rajendran, Sanduni V Hapuarachchi, Catherine M Miller, Stephen J Fairweather, Yeping Cai, Nicholas C Smith, Ian A Cockburn, Stefan Bröer, Kiaran Kirk, Giel G van Dooren
Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that scavenge essential nutrients from their hosts via transporter proteins on their plasma membrane. The identities of the transporters that mediate amino acid uptake into apicomplexans are unknown. Here we demonstrate that members of an apicomplexan-specific protein family-the Novel Putative Transporters (NPTs)-play key roles in the uptake of cationic amino acids. We show that an NPT from Toxoplasma gondii (TgNPT1) is a selective arginine transporter that is essential for parasite survival and virulence...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205319/the-plasmodium-rhoptry-associated-protein-complex-is-important-for-parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane-structure-and-intraerythrocytic-parasite-growth
#13
Sreejoyee Ghosh, Kit Kennedy, Paul Sanders, Kathryn Matthews, Stuart A Ralph, Natalie A Counihan, Tania F de Koning-Ward
Plasmodium parasites must invade erythrocytes in order to cause the disease malaria. The invasion process involves the coordinated secretion of parasite proteins from apical organelles that include the rhoptries. The rhoptry is comprised of two compartments, the neck and the bulb. Rhoptry neck proteins are involved in host cell adhesion and formation of the tight junction that forms between the invading parasite and erythrocyte, whereas the role of rhoptry bulb proteins remains ill-defined due to the lack of functional studies...
February 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203236/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-cylindromatosis-dampens-cd8-t-cell-responses-and-is-a-critical-factor-for-experimental-cerebral-malaria-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage
#14
Ursula Schmid, Werner Stenzel, Josephin Koschel, Maria Raptaki, Xu Wang, Michael Naumann, Kai Matuschewski, Dirk Schlüter, Gopala Nishanth
Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of human malaria and may lead to death of Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals. Cerebral malaria is associated with sequestration of parasitized red blood cells within the cerebral microvasculature resulting in damage of the blood-brain barrier and brain pathology. Although CD8(+) T cells have been implicated in the development of murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), several other studies have shown that CD8(+) T cells confer protection against blood-stage infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203097/cerebral-malaria-insight-into-pathogenesis-complications-and-molecular-biomarkers
#15
Farah Hafiz Yusuf, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed
Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency. All patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with neurologic manifestations of any degree should be urgently treated as cases of cerebral malaria. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is due to damaged vascular endothelium by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production and vascular leakage, which result in brain hypoxia, as indicated by increased lactate and alanine concentrations. The levels of the biomarkers' histidine-rich protein II, angiopoietin-Tie-2 system and plasma osteoprotegrin serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202065/alternative-transmission-routes-in-the-malaria-elimination-era-an-overview-of-transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-the-americas
#16
Regina M Alho, Kim Vinícius Amaral Machado, Fernando F A Val, Nelson A Fraiji, Marcia A A Alexandre, Gisely C Melo, Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted (TT) malaria is an alternative infection route that has gained little attention from authorities, despite representing a life-threatening condition. There has been no systematic review of this health problem in American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TT malaria in the Americas and identify factors associated with lethality based on the studies published in the literature. METHODS: Potentially relevant papers in all languages were retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS...
February 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202027/a-novel-pfs38-protein-complex-on-the-surface-of-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stage-merozoites
#17
Gourab Paul, Arunaditya Deshmukh, Inderjeet Kaur, Sumit Rathore, Surbhi Dabral, Ashutosh Panda, Susheel Kumar Singh, Asif Mohmmed, Michael Theisen, Pawan Malhotra
BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium genome encodes for a number of 6-Cys proteins that contain a module of six cysteine residues forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds. These proteins have been well characterized at transmission as well as hepatic stages of the parasite life cycle. In the present study, a large complex of 6-Cys proteins: Pfs41, Pfs38 and Pfs12 and three other merozoite surface proteins: Glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), SERA5 and MSP-1 were identified on the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface...
February 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201964/plasmodium-falciparum-heat-shock-protein-70-lacks-immune-modulatory-activity
#18
AOfentse Jacob Pooe, Gabriele Köllisch, Holger Heine, Addmore Shonhai
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family are conserved molecules that constitute a major part of the cell's protein folding machinery. The role of Hsp70s of parasitic origin in host cell immune modulation has remained contentious. This is largely due to the fact that several studies implicating Hsp70 in immune modulation rely on the use of recombinant protein derived from bacteria which is often fraught contamination. Thus, in the current study, we expressed recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) using in three bacterial expression hosts: E...
February 14, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201638/contribution-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-to-multi-species-human-malaria-infections-in-north-sumatera-indonesia
#19
Inke Nd Lubis, Hendri Wijaya, Munar Lubis, Chairuddin P Lubis, Paul Cs Divis, Khalid B Beshir, Colin J Sutherland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#20
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
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