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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922459/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-case-report
#1
Tsong-Yih Ou, Cheng-Yen Chuang, Chun-Da Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng
Severe falciparum malaria is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and a high rate of fatal outcome. Malaria is a world-wide disease in tropical areas through the bites of vector mosquitoes. Parasitic protozoans introduced by the mosquito's saliva to the blood travel to the liver then mature and reproduce. In humans, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi, and P. falciparum causes most deaths. Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922424/deletion-of-the-rodent-malaria-ortholog-for-falcipain-1-highlights-differences-between-hepatic-and-blood-stage-merozoites
#2
Christine S Hopp, Brandy L Bennett, Satish Mishra, Christine Lehmann, Kirsten K Hanson, Jing-Wen Lin, Kimberly Rousseau, Filomena A Carvalho, Wouter A van der Linden, Nuno C Santos, Matthew Bogyo, Shahid M Khan, Volker Heussler, Photini Sinnis
Proteases have been implicated in a variety of developmental processes during the malaria parasite lifecycle. In particular, invasion and egress of the parasite from the infected hepatocyte and erythrocyte, critically depend on protease activity. Although falcipain-1 was the first cysteine protease to be characterized in P. falciparum, its role in the lifecycle of the parasite has been the subject of some controversy. While an inhibitor of falcipain-1 blocked erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, two independent studies showed that falcipain-1 disruption did not affect growth of blood stage parasites...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922357/analysis-of-nuclear-and-organellar-genomes-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-humans-reveals-ancient-population-structure-and-recent-recombination-among-host-specific-subpopulations
#3
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917086/kostchyienones-a-and-b-new-antiplasmodial-and-cytotoxicity-of-limonoids-from-the-roots-of-pseudocedrela-kotschyi-schweinf-harms
#4
Lazare S Sidjui, Yves O D Nganso, Rufin M K Toghueo, Brussine N K Wakeu, Joel T Dameue, Pierre Mkounga, Achyut Adhikari, Mehreen Lateef, Gabriel N Folefoc, Muhammad S Ali
Two new limonoids, kostchyienones A (1) and B (2), along with 12 known compounds 3-14 were isolated from the roots of Pseudocedrela kostchyi. Compound (7) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Compounds 1-6 and 13-14 gave IC50 values ranging from 0.75 to 5.62 μg/mL for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (PfINDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 5 showed moderate potential cytotoxicity against the HEK239T cell line with an IC50 value of 22...
September 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916755/protein-o-fucosylation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-ensures-efficient-infection-of-mosquito-and-vertebrate-hosts
#5
Sash Lopaticki, Annie S P Yang, Alan John, Nichollas E Scott, James P Lingford, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Nicole C McKenzie, Charlie Jennison, Lachlan W Whitehead, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Justin A Boddey
O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#6
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915896/placental-malaria-and-its-effect-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-sudanese-women-from-blue-nile-state
#7
Samia A Omer, Hagir E Idress, Ishag Adam, Mutasim Abdelrahim, Ali N Noureldein, Abdelrahim M Abdelrazig, Mohammed O Elhassan, Suad M Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy can result in placental malaria and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes particularly among primigravidae. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for placental malaria and its effect on pregnancy outcomes in Blue Nile state, Sudan. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted consecutively during January 2012-December 2015 in three main hospitals in Blue Nile State, Sudan...
September 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#8
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913784/managing-wastes-as-green-resources-cigarette-butt-synthesized-pesticides-are-highly-toxic-to-malaria-vectors-with-little-impact-on-predatory-copepods
#9
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913164/haemoprotozoa-making-biological-sense-of-molecular-phylogenies
#10
REVIEW
Peter O'Donoghue
A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids) and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms). Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910810/concurrent-infection-with-plasmodium-vivax-and-the-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-a-paediatric-patient-from-new-delhi-india-in-2016
#11
Ayesha Tazeen, Mohd Abdullah, Malik Hisamuddin, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Dengue and chikungunya fevers are transmitted by the common mosquito vector Aedes and malaria by Anopheles. Concurrent infections are reported due to co-circulation of these pathogens, especially in endemic regions. We report a rare case of triple infection with 3 arthropod-borne pathogens (Plasmodium vivax and the dengue and chikungunya viruses) in a 3-year-old child from New Delhi, India, in August 2016. The viruses were identified by RT-PCR and the parasite by microscopy and antigen detection. The dengue virus serotype 3 sequence was clustered in the genotype III by the phylogenetic analysis...
September 15, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910476/no-ordinary-sleeper-cell-managing-the-varied-problems-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#12
Jason Jarvis
Plasmodium vivax malaria is an essential yet elusive target of tropical disease eradication efforts, and is the focus of this literature review. This review will reacquaint Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics with the basic principles of malaria as context for understanding the several confounding issues particular to P. vivax infections. The review concludes with current malaria guidelines and malaria mitigation strategies.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903755/prevalence-of-k13-mutation-and-day-3-positive-parasitaemia-in-artemisinin-resistant-malaria-endemic-area-of-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Soy Ty Kheang, Siv Sovannaroth, Sovann Ek, Say Chy, Phally Chhun, Sokkieng Mao, Sokomar Nguon, Dy Soley Lek, Didier Menard, Neeraj Kak
BACKGROUND: The presence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites was confirmed in western Cambodia in 2009. In 2013, mutations in the propeller domain of the kelch protein K13 was found to be associated with artemisinin resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Day-3 parasitaemia, estimate the frequency of k13 molecular marker and assess their relationship in the context of operational research. METHODS: Blood smears and filter paper blood spots were collected from febrile patients in Kravanh District, Pursat Province...
September 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903726/a-novel-diagnostic-method-for-malaria-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-and-minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencer
#15
Kazuo Imai, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuhisa Misawa, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Jun Sakai, Kyoko Hayashida, Yuki Eshita, Ryuichiro Maeda, Josef Tuda, Takashi Murakami, Shigefumi Maesaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Junya Yamagishi, Takuya Maeda
BACKGROUND: A simple and accurate molecular diagnostic method for malaria is urgently needed due to the limitations of conventional microscopic examination. In this study, we demonstrate a new diagnostic procedure for human malaria using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the MinION™ nanopore sequencer. METHODS: We generated specific LAMP primers targeting the 18S-rRNA gene of all five human Plasmodium species including two P. ovale subspecies (P...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902970/a-genetic-screen-in-rodent-malaria-parasites-identifies-five-new-apicoplast-putative-membrane-transporters-one-of-which-is-essential-in-human-malaria-parasites
#16
Claire P Sayers, Vanessa Mollard, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden, Christopher D Goodman
The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. We selected 27 candidate apicoplast membrane proteins, 20 of which are annotated as putative membrane transporters, and performed a genetic screen in P. berghei to determine blood stage essentiality and subcellular localisation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902879/chronic-plasmodium-brasilianum-infections-in-wild-peruvian-tamarins
#17
Gideon A Erkenswick, Mrinalini Watsa, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Patricia G Parker
There is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902417/genetic-variants-related-to-disease-susceptibility-and-immunotolerance-in-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-fy-gene-in-the-black-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysopygus-primates
#18
Ashley Ansel, James D Lewis, Don J Melnick, Cristiana Martins, Claudio Valladares-Padua, Beatriz Perez-Sweeney
The DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes the DARC protein, which serves multiple roles in the immune system, as a binding site for the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a blood group antigen. Variation in DARC may play particularly significant roles in innate immunity, immunotolerance and pathogen entry in callitrichines, such as the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). We compared amino acid sequences of DARC in the black lion tamarin (BLT) to non-human Haplorhine primates and Homo sapiens...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901366/graphene-oxide-inhibits-malaria-parasite-invasion-and-delays-parasitic-growth-in-vitro
#19
Kenry, Ying Bena Lim, Mui Hoon Nai, Jianshu Cao, Kian Ping Loh, Chwee Teck Lim
The interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and various biological entities have been actively investigated in recent years, resulting in numerous potential bioapplications of these nanomaterials. Despite this, the biological interactions between GO and disease-causing protozoan parasites have not been well elucidated and remain relatively unexplored. Here, we investigate the in vitro interactions between GO nanosheets and a particular species of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). We hypothesize that GO nanosheets may exhibit antimalarial characteristic via action mechanisms of physical obstruction of P...
September 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901329/wakodecalines-a-and-b-new-decaline-metabolites-isolated-from-a-fungus-pyrenochaetopsis-sp-rk10-f058
#20
Toshihiko Nogawa, Naoki Kato, Takeshi Shimizu, Akiko Okano, Yushi Futamura, Shunji Takahashi, Hiroyuki Osada
Two new decaline metabolites, wakodecalines A and B, were isolated from a fungus, Pyrenochaetopsis sp. RK10-F058, by screening for structurally unique metabolites using LC/MS analysis. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectrometric measurements. The absolute structures were confirmed by a combination of chemical methods including chemical degradation, a modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method, and comparison of the experimental electronic CD (ECD) spectrum with calculated one...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
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