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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150282/artesunate-quercetin-luteolin-dual-drug-nanofacilitated-synergistic-treatment-for-malaria-a-plausible-approach-to-overcome-artemisinin-combination-therapy-resistance
#1
Nethravathi Puttappa, Raman Suresh Kumar, Karthik Yamjala
Malaria is one of the major global health challenge with 300 million new cases annually. The best regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum induced malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives which were prescribed as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). These are highly effective drugs resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum induced malaria patients. However, from the past few years parasites resistant to ACT's have begun to emerge in various parts of the world such as Cambodia and Greater Mekong Subregion...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150238/a-t-cell-receptor-locus-harbors-a-malaria-specific-immune-response-gene
#2
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, Stephanie Gras, Kristin Ladell, Tracy M Josephs, Lecia Pewe, Stina L Urban, Kelly L Miners, Carine Farenc, David A Price, Jamie Rossjohn, John T Harty
Immune response (Ir) genes, originally proposed by Baruj Benacerraf to explain differential antigen-specific responses in animal models, have become synonymous with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We discovered a non-MHC-linked Ir gene in a T cell receptor (TCR) locus that was required for CD8(+) T cell responses to the Plasmodium berghei GAP5040-48 epitope in mice expressing the MHC class I allele H-2D(b). GAP5040-48-specific CD8(+) T cell responses emerged from a very large pool of naive Vβ8...
November 10, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#3
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149403/structure-function-relationship-of-tctp
#4
Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a small, multifunctional protein found in most, if not all, eukaryotic lineages, involved in a myriad of key regulatory processes. Among these, the control of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, as well as differentiation, are the most important, and it is probable that other responses are derived from the ability of TCTP to influence them in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In the latter, an additional function for TCTP stems from its capacity to be secreted via a nonclassical pathway and function in a non-cell autonomous (paracrine) manner, thus affecting the responses of neighboring or distant cells to developmental or environmental stimuli (as in the case of serum TCTP/histamine-releasing factor in mammals and phloem TCTP in Arabidopsis)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148157/novel-ws9326a-derivatives-and-one-novel-annimycin-derivative-with-antimalarial-activity-are-produced-by-streptomyces-asterosporus-dsm-41452-and-its-mutant
#5
Andreas Bechthold, Songya Zhang, Jing Zhu, David Zechel, Claudia Jessen-Trefzer, Richard T Eastman, Thomas Paululat
In this study we report that Streptomyces asterosporus DSM 41452 is a producer of new molecules related to the non-ribosomal cyclodepsipeptide WS9326A and the polyketide Annimycin. S. asterosporus DSM 41452 is shown to produce six cyclodepsipeptides and peptides, WS9326A to G. Notably, the compounds WS9326F and WS9326G have not been de-scribed before. The genome of S. asterosporus DSM 41452 was sequenced and a putative WS9326A gene cluster was iden-tified. Gene deletion experiments confirmed that this cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of WS9326A to G...
November 17, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147042/insecticide-treated-nets-and-malaria-prevalence-papua-new-guinea-2008-2014
#6
Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Yangta Ura, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Anthony Tandrapah, Nandao Tarongka, Lina Lorry, Leanne J Robinson, Ken Lilley, Leo Makita, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller
Objective: To investigate changes in malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea after the distribution of long-lasting Insecticide-treated nets, starting in 2004, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2011. Methods: Two malaria surveys were conducted in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. They included 77 and 92 randomly selected villages, respectively. In each village, all members of 30 randomly selected households gave blood samples and were assessed for malaria infection by light microscopy...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146974/human-cyclophilin-b-forms-part-of-a-multi-protein-complex-during-erythrocyte-invasion-by-plasmodium-falciparum
#7
Prem Prakash, Mohammad Zeeshan, Ekta Saini, Azhar Muneer, Sachin Khurana, Bishwanath Kumar Chourasia, Arunaditya Deshmukh, Inderjeet Kaur, Surabhi Dabral, Niharika Singh, Zille Anam, Ayushi Chaurasiya, Shikha Kaushik, Pradeep Dahiya, Md Kalamuddin, Jitendra Kumar Thakur, Asif Mohmmed, Anand Ranganathan, Pawan Malhotra
Invasion of human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites involves multiple interactions between host receptors and their merozoite ligands. Here we report human Cyclophilin B as a receptor for PfRhopH3 during merozoite invasion. Localization and binding studies show that Cyclophilin B is present on the erythrocytes and binds strongly to merozoites. We demonstrate that PfRhopH3 binds to the RBCs and their treatment with Cyclosporin A prevents merozoite invasion. We also show a multi-protein complex involving Cyclophilin B and Basigin, as well as PfRhopH3 and PfRh5 that aids the invasion...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146922/molecular-definition-of-multiple-sites-of-antibody-inhibition-of-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-antigen-pfs25
#8
Stephen W Scally, Brandon McLeod, Alexandre Bosch, Kazutoyo Miura, Qi Liang, Sean Carroll, Sini Reponen, Ngan Nguyen, Eldar Giladi, Sebastian Rämisch, Vidadi Yusibov, Allan Bradley, Franck Lemiale, William R Schief, Daniel Emerling, Paul Kellam, C Richter King, Jean-Philippe Julien
The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 protein (Pfs25) is a leading malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen. Pfs25 vaccination is intended to elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite development when ingested by Anopheles mosquitoes during blood meals. The Pfs25 three-dimensional structure has remained elusive, hampering a molecular understanding of its function and limiting immunogen design. We report six crystal structures of Pfs25 in complex with antibodies elicited by immunization via Pfs25 virus-like particles in human immunoglobulin loci transgenic mice...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146584/microrna-tissue-atlas-of-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#9
Lena Lampe, Elena A Levashina
Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes transmit the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the majority of fatal malaria cases worldwide. The hematophagous life style defines the mosquito reproductive biology and is exploited by P. falciparum for its own sexual reproduction and transmission. The two main phases of the mosquito reproductive cycle, pre-vitellogenic (PV) and post-blood meal (PBM) shape its capacity to transmit malaria. Transition between these phases is tightly coordinated to ensure homeostasis between mosquito tissues and successful reproduction...
November 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145859/singapore-s-anopheles-sinensis-form-a-is-susceptible-to-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-from-the-western-thailand-myanmar-border
#10
Sook-Cheng Pang, Chiara Andolina, Benoit Malleret, Peter R Christensen, Sai-Gek Lam-Phua, Muhammad Aliff Bin Abdul Razak, Chee-Seng Chong, Daiqin Li, Cindy S Chu, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia, Lee-Ching Ng, Francois Nosten
BACKGROUND: Singapore has been certified malaria-free by the World Health Organization since November 1982. However, sporadic autochthonous malaria outbreaks do occur. In one of the most recent outbreaks of vivax malaria, an entomological investigation identified Anopheles sinensis as the most probable vector. As metaphase karyotype studies divided An. sinensis into two forms, A and B, with different vector competence: the investigation of vector competence of An. sinensis found in Singapore was thus pursued using Plasmodium vivax field isolates from the Thailand-Myanmar border...
November 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145842/age-specific-plasmodium-parasite-profile-in-pre-and-post-itn-intervention-period-at-a-highland-site-in-western-kenya
#11
Ednah N Ototo, Guofa Zhou, Lucy Kamau, Jenard P Mbugi, Christine L Wanjala, Maxwell Machani, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and evaluation of entomological, parasitological and clinical data is an important component of malaria control as it is a measure of the success of the interventions. In many studies, clinical data has been used to monitor trends in malaria morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to demonstrate age dependent prevalence of malaria in the pre- and post-interventions period. METHODS: A series of cross-sectional malaria parasitological surveys were conducted in Iguhu, western Kenya...
November 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#12
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144211/plasmodium-knowlesi-experimental-model-zoonotic-pathogen-and-golden-opportunity
#13
Janet Cox-Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#14
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141762/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil-2016
#15
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141760/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-genetic-variants-in-malaria-patients-in-southwestern-ethiopia
#16
Tamar E Carter, Seleshi Kebede Mekonnen, Karen Lopez, Victoria Bonnell, Lambodhar Damodaran, Abraham Aseffa, Daniel A Janies
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141758/in-vitro-sensitivity-of-pyronaridine-in-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#17
Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Thunyapit Thita, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Naruemon Sittichot, Nantana Suwandittakul, Mathirut Mungthin
Pyronaridine, a Mannich base antimalarial agent with a high activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, has been combined with artesunate as a new artemisinin derivative-based combination therapy (ACT). Pyronaridine-artesunate combination could be one of the choices for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in multidrug-resistant areas including Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro sensitivity and cross-resistance pattern of pyronaridine in Thai isolates of P...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141757/protein-specific-features-associated-with-variability-in-human-antibody-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-antigens
#18
Eugene W Liu, Jeff Skinner, Tuan M Tran, Krishan Kumar, David L Narum, Aarti Jain, Aissata Ongoiba, Boubacar Traore, Philip L Felgner, Peter D Crompton
The magnitude of antibody responses varies across the individual proteins that constitute any given microorganism, both in the context of natural infection and vaccination with attenuated or inactivated pathogens. The protein-specific factors underlying this variability are poorly understood. In 267 individuals exposed to intense seasonal malaria, we examined the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 861 Plasmodium falciparum proteins and specific features of these proteins, including their subcellular location, relative abundance, degree of polymorphism, and whether they are predicted to have human orthologs...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141739/advancing-global-health-through-development-and-clinical-trials-partnerships-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-assessment-of-safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-vaccine-for-malaria-in-healthy-equatoguinean
#19
Ally Olotu, Vicente Urbano, Ali Hamad, Martin Eka, Mwajuma Chemba, Elizabeth Nyakarungu, Jose Raso, Esther Eburi, Dolores O Mandumbi, Dianna Hergott, Carl D Maas, Mitoha O Ayekaba, Diosdado N Milang, Matilde R Rivas, Tobias Schindler, Oscar M Embon, Adam J Ruben, Elizabeth Saverino, Yonas Abebe, Natasha Kc, Eric R James, Tooba Murshedkar, Anita Manoj, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Matthew Adams, Chris Schwabe, Luis Segura, Claudia Daubenberger, Marcel Tanner, Thomas L Richie, Peter F Billingsley, B Kim Lee Sim, Salim Abdulla, Stephen L Hoffman
Equatorial Guinea (EG) has implemented a successful malaria control program on Bioko Island. A highly effective vaccine would be an ideal complement to this effort and could lead to halting transmission and eliminating malaria. Sanaria(®)Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) Vaccine is being developed for this purpose. To begin the process of establishing the efficacy of and implementing a PfSPZ Vaccine mass vaccination program in EG, we decided to conduct a series of clinical trials of PfSPZ Vaccine on Bioko Island...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#20
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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